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GREAT BRITAIN, with 14 Maps and 24 Plans. 1887. lOmarks. 

LONDON and its ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps and 15 Plans. 
Seventh Edition. 1889. 6 marks. 

BELGIUM and HOLLAND , with 12 Maps and 20 Plans. 

Ninth Edition. 1888. 6 marks. 

THE RHINE from Rotterdam to Constance (the Seven 

Mountains, Moselle, Volcanic Eifel, Vosqes Mts., Black Forest, 
etc.), with 36 Maps and 22 Plans. Eleventh Edition. 1889. 6 marks. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 32 Maps and 42 Plans. 

Ninth Edition. 1886. ' 7 marks. 

gary and Transylvania, with 14 Maps and 30 Plans. 

Sixth Edition. 1887. 7 marks. 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarian High- 
lands, Tyrol, Salzkammergut, etc. with 34 Maps, 

12 Plans, a 





LAND, etc., 


a Panoram 

Lipari I: 
Corfu, * 


Edition. 1 

to Paris. 



8. marks. 

anorama of Athens. 

10 marks*. 
sough France, Switzer- 
Edition. 1889. 6 marks, 
laps, 31 Plans, and 

6 marks. 

".cursion8 to the 
rdinia, Malta, and 

dition. 1887. 6 marks, 
nd 13 Plans. Fourth 

9 marks. 

ites from London 

Idition. 1888. 6 marks, 
nd 25 Plans. 1889. 

7 marks. 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent Parts of Italy, 

SAVOY, and the TYROL, with 38 Maps, 11 Plans, and 11 Panoramas. 
Thirteenth Edition. 1889. 8 marks. 

LOWER EGYPT, with the Fayum and the Peninsula of 

SlNAI , with 16 Maps, 30 Plans, 7 Views, and 76 Vignettes. Second 
Edition. 1885. ** 16 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans, aPano- 
rama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks. 

CONVERSATION DICTIONARY in four languages: Eng-' 

lish, French, German, Italian. 3 marks. 


English, Gekuan, French, and Italian. marks. 

November 1889. 


(Coinp. p. xi.J 

Approximate Equivalents. 








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mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.G5 kilometre or 1 M. 44 yds.; the 
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With 19 Maps ano 33 Plans. 



All rights reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will Tead or hear, 
Where thou art -wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 


lhe objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists of 
three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the trav- 
eller with some information regarding the culture and art of 
the people he is about to visit, as well as regarding the nat- 
ural features of the country, to render him as independent as 
possible of the services of guides and valets-de-place, to pro- 
tect him against extortion, and in every way to aid him in 
deriving enjoyment and instruction from his tour in one of 
the most fascinating countries in the world. The Handbook 
will also , it is hoped , be the means of saving the traveller 
many a trial of temper ; for there is probably no country in 
Europe where the patience is more severely taxed than in 
some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is founded on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place , he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from numerous correspondents , which he 
gratefully acknowledges, has in many cases proved most 

The present volume, corresponding to the twelfth German 
edition, has, like its predecessor, been thoroughly revised and 
considerably augmented. Its contents have been divided into 
groups of routes arranged historically and geographically 
(Piedmont , Liguria , Lombardy, Venetia, The Emilia, Tus- 
cany, and Corsica) , each group being provided with a prefatory 
outline of the history of the district. Each section is also 
prefaced with a list of the routes it contains, and may be 
removed from the volume and used separately if desired. 

The Editor is indebted to Professor A. Springer for the in- 
troductory article on Art, which has special reference to Nor- 


thern Italy and Florence, and for the art-historical notices pre- 
fixed to the descriptions of the larger towns and principal pic- 
ture-galleries. The works of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
have also been laid extensively under contribution, but Prof. 
Springer is not responsible for the selection of quotations 
either from these or from the works of Ruskin and others. 

The Maps and Plans , upon which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre) , and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii) . The 
Populations are given from the most recent official sources. 

Hotels (comp. p. xviii). Besides the modern palatial and 
expensive establishments, the Handbook also mentions a se- 
lection of modest, old-fashioned inns, which not unfrequently 
afford good accommodation at moderate charges. The asterisks 
indicate those hotels which the Editor has reason to believe 
from his own experience, as well as from information supplied 
by numerous travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reason- 
able. The value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, 
varies according to circumstances, those prefixed to town 
hotels and village inns signifying respectively that the 
establishments are good of their kind. At the same time the 
Editor does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasion- 
ally be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or 
even mentioned. The average charges are stated in accord- 
ance with the Editor's own experience , or from the bills 
furnished to him by travellers. Although changes frequently 
take place , and prices generally have an upward tendency, 
the approximate statement of these items which is thus 
supplied will at least enable the traveller to form an estimate 
of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commend- 
ation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly ex- 
cluded from his Handbooks. 


Introduction. D 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period and Plan of Tour xii 

III. Language xiv 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage xiv 

V. Beggars xv 

VI. Prices and Gratuities xv 

VII. Railways xvi 

VIII. Hotels xviii 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, Osterie xix 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc xxi 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxii 

XII. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health xxii 

History of Art, by Prof. A. Springer xxvii 

Eoute L EouteS t0 Ital y- Page 

1 . From Paris to Nice via Lyons and Marseilles 1 

2. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis 23 

3. From Martigny over the Simplon to Novara or to Lago 
Maggiore 26 

4. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como (Milan). 

St. Gotthard Railway 29 

5. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen 41 

6. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 45 

7. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 50 

II. Piedmont 55 

8. Turin 57 

9. From Turin to Aosta 70 

10. From Turin to Milan via Novara 73 

11. From Bellinzona to Genoa 76 

12. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria 78 

13. From Turin to Genoa 79 

III. Liguria 83 

14. Genoa 84 

15. From Genoa to Ventimiglia 98 

16. The French Coast from Ventimiglia to Nice 105 

17. From Nice to Cuneo (Turin) by the Col di Tenda . . .115 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 117 

IV. Lombardy 123 

19. Milan 125 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco 146 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 150 


Route Page 

22. Lake of Como 152 

23. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via, Lugano to Luino 

on the Lago Maggiore 160 

24. From Milan to Laveno and Aroua 162 

25. Lago Maggiore 165 

26. From Stresa to Orta and Varallo 172 

27. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) via Pavia. CertosadiPavia 175 

28. From Milan to Mantua via, Cremona 180 

29. From Milan to Bergamo 182 

30. From Milan to Verona 185 

31. Brescia 186 

32. The Lago di Garda 192 

33. From Brescia to Tirano. Lago d'Iseo 196 

V. Venetia 199 

34. Verona 201 

35. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 212 

36. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 217 

37. Padua 222 

38. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 229 

39. Venice 231 

40. From Venice to Trieste 283 

VI. The Emilia 289 

41. From Milan to Bologna. Piacenza. Reggio 291 

42. Parma 296 

43. Modena 302 

44. From Padua to Bologna 305 

45. Ferrara 308 

46. Bologna 313 

47. From Bologna to Ravenna 331 

48. From Bologna to Florence 341 

VII. Tuscany 343 

49. From (Genoa) Leghorn to Florence via Pisa and Empoli 346 

50. Pisa 350 

51. From Pisa to Florence via Lucca and Pistoja 360 

52. Florence 374 

53. Environs of Florence 453 

VIII. Corsica 466 

Ajaccio 468 

From Ajaccio to S. Bonifacio 470 

From Ajaccio to Bastia 471 

From Bastia to S. Bonifacio 473 

From Bastia to Rogliano, Capo Corso, S. Fiorenzo, and Calvi 473 

List of Artists 475 

Index 482 

MAPS. ix 


1. General Map of North Italy (1 : 1,350,000), Western Half: 
before the title. 

2. General Map of North Italy, Eastern Half: after the Index. 

3. The 8. French Railways from Lyons to Nice (1 : 300,000) : p. 8. 

4. The Eastern Environs of Turin (1 : 66,200) : p. 57. 

5. The Environs of Genoa (1 : 100,000) : p. 98. 

6. 7. The Riviera di Ponente from Genoa to Mentone (1 : 500,000) : 

pp. 97, 100. 

8. The Environs of Nice (1 : 114,000): p. 114. 

9. The Rivieradi Levantefrom Genoa to Spezia(l:b00, 000): p. 117. 

10. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (1 : 250,000) : p. 150. 

11. Lago Maggiore and Lago d'Orta (1 : 250,000) : p. 165. 

12. The Environs of Pavia (1 : 86,400) : p. 176. 

13. Lago di Garda (1 : 500,000) : p. 192. 

14. The Environs of Bologna (1 : 86,400): p. 330. 

15. The Environs of Ravenna (1 : 86,400): p. 331. 

16. The Environs of Florence (1 : 55,000) : p. 452. 

17. Environs of Vallombrosa, Camaldoli, and La Verna, with the 
Casentino (1 : 280,000): p. 462. 

18. The Island of Corsica (1 : 1,350,000): p. 466. 

19. Key Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000) : at the end of the Handbook. 

Flans of Towns. 

1. Avignon(i : 10,000). — 2. Bergamo (1 : 25,000). — B.Bologna 
(1 : 13,350). — 4. Brescia (1 : 18,300). — 5. Cremona (1 : 15,000). 

— 6. Ferrara (1 : 20,000). — 7. Florence (1 : 10,000). — 8. Genoa 
(1 : 10,000). — 9. Leghorn (1 : 36,800). — 10. Lucca (1 : 27,000). 

— 11. Lugano (1 : 16,600). — 12. Lyons (1 : 17,500). — 13. Man- 
tua (1 : 18,000). — 14. Marseilles (1 : 14,000). — 15. Milan 
(1 : 17,500). — 16. Modena (1 : 12,000). — 17. Nice (1 : 19,000). 

— 18. Nlmes (1 : 12,000). — 19. Novara{i : 12,500). —20. Padua 
(1 : 22,500). — 21. Parma (1 : 13,000). — 22. Pavia (1 : 20,000). 

— 23. Piacenza (1 : 20,000). — 24. Pisa (1 : 8500). — 25. Pistoja 
(1 : 15,600). —26. Ravenna (1 : 11,150). —27. Reggio (1 : 14,000), 
with Environs. — 28. -Sun Remo (1 : 17,100). — 29. Trent 
(1 : 12,500). — 30. Timn(l : 23,500). — 31. Venice (1 : 12,500), 
with Environs. — 32. Verona (1 : 11,500). — 33. Vicenza 

Abbr ovations. 

M. = Engl. mile. 

hr. = hour. 

min. = minute. 

Alb. = Albergo (hotel). 

Omn. = omnibus. 

N. = north, northwards, northern. 

S. = south, etc. 

E. = east, etc. 
W. = west, etc. 
R. = room. 
B. = breakfast. 
D. = dinner. 
A. = attendance. 
h. = light. 


Distances. The number prefixed to the name of a place on a railway 
or high-road indicates its distance in English miles from the starting- 
point of the route or sub-route. 

Asterisks. Objects of special interest, and hotels which arc believed 
worthy of special commendation, are denoted by asterisks. 

Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. — March 22. Charles Albert enters 
Milan. Republic proclaimed at Venice. — May 15. Insurrection at 
Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('ReBomba'). — May 29. Radetzky's 
victory at Curtatone. — May 30. Radetzky defeated at Goito; capit- 
ulation of Peschiera. — July 25. Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

— Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milan. — Aug. 9. Armistice. — 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. — Nov. 25. Flight of the 
Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Feb. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. — Feb. 17. Republic pro- 
claimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. — March 16. Charles Albert 
terminates the armistice (tendays' campaign). — March 23. Radetzky's 
victory at Novara. — Mar. 24. Charles Albert abdicates ; accession of 
Victor Emmanuel II. — Mar. 26. Armistice-, Alessandria occupied 
by the Austrians. — Mar. 31. Haynau conquers Brescia. — April 5. 
Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. — Apr. 11. Reaction 
at Florence. — Apr. 30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 

— May 15. Subjugation of Sicily. — July 4. Rome capitulates. — 
Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. — Aug. 22- 
Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. — June 4. Battle of Magenta. — 
June 24. Battle of Solferino. — July 11. Meeting of the emperors 
at Villafranca. — Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, Romagna). — 
Mar. 22. Annexation of Tuscany. — Mar. 24. Cession of Savoy and 
Nice. — May 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. — May 27. Taking of 
Palermo. — July 20. Battle of Melazzo. — Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters 
Naples. — Sept. 18. Battle of Castelfidardo. — Sept. 29. Ancona ca- 
pitulates. — Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. — Oct. 21. Plebiscite 
at Naples. — Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities, Umbria, and 
the two Sicilies. 

1861. Feb. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. — March 17. 
Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of king of Italy. — June 6. 
Death of Cavour. » 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. — July 5. Cession of Venetia. — July 20. 
Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Montana. 

1870. Sept. 20. Occupation of Rome by Italian troops. — Oct. 9. Rome 

declared the capital of Italy. 
1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II.; accession uf Humbert I. — 

Feb. 7. Death of Pins IX. — Feb. 20. Election of Leo XIII. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' 1 fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin, graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits, but, as a rule, it need not exceed 
that incurred in other much frequented parts of the continent. The 
average expenditure of a single traveller, when in Italy, may be 
estimated at 25-30 francs per day, or at 12-15 francs when a pro- 
longed stay is made at one place ; but persons acquainted with the 
language and habits of the country may easily restrict their ex- 
penses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as members of a 
party effect a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, 
carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark (comp. p. ii). In copper (bronzo 
or rame) there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. A piece of 
5 c. is called a soldo, or sou, and as the lower classes often keep 
their accounts in soldi, the traveller will find it useful to accustom 
himself to this mode of reckoning. The gold and silver coins of 
France, Switzerland, Greece, and Belgium circulate freely in Italy, 
but the traveller should be on his guard against old coins from the 
papal mint, which cannot be parted with except at a loss, and 
should also refuse Greek copper coins. The recognized paper cur- 
rency in N. Italy consists of the Biglietti di Stato and the bank- 
notes of the Banca Nazionale, to which may be added those of the 
Banca di Toscana in Tuscany ; other notes should be refused. The 
smallest bank-notes now issued are those of 5 fr. 

Best Money for the Touk. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, 
obtainable at the principal English or American banks, form the 
proper medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the most 
favourable exchange. English and German banknotes also realise 
their nominal value. A moderate supply of French Gold will also 
be found desirable. Sovereigns are received at the full value (about 
25-26 fr.) by the principal hotel-keepers, but not in out-of-the-way 


Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in 
the larger towns, either at one of the English bankers or at a re- 
spectable money-changer's ['cambiavaluta'y As a rule, those money- 
changers are the most satisfactory who publicly exhibit a list of the 
current rates of exchange. The traveller should always be provided 
with an abundant supply of small notes (1, 2, and 5 fr.), as it is 
often difficult to change those of large amount. When a railway- 
fare has to be paid it is a wise precaution to be provided with the 
exact sum beforehand in order that mistakes or imposition may be 
prevented. Besides the small notes, 1-1 i l%ix. in copper should also 
be carried in a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 101., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : up to 21., Gd. ; 
51., Is.; 71., Is. Gd.; 101., 2s. These are paid in gold. The identity of 
the receiver must sometimes be guaranteed by two well-known residents, 
or by a Libretto di Ricognizione Postale (1 fr. ; with 10 coupons), obtained 
at any head post-office , but an exhibition of the passport often suffices. 
The charge for money-orders granted in Italy and payable in England is 
40c. per ll. sterling. 

A convenient and safe method of carrying money for a journey in 
Italy is afforded by the Titoli di Credito, which may be procured at 
the post-offices of the principal Italian towns for any sum not exceeding 
10,000 fr. (400i.). The holder of one of these small books may then 
draw what sum he requires (from 200 fr. upwards) at any post-office in 
the kingdom, until the amount for which the book is issued has been 
exhausted. In case of loss the traveller should immediately inform the 
postal authorities, giving his name and the number of the book, when 
measures will at once be taken to stop payment. 

II. Period and Flan of Tour. 

Season. As a general rule the spring and autumn months are 
the best season for a tour in N. Italy, especially September and 
October, after the heat of summer has attained its climax. Winter 
in Lombardy and Piedmont is generally a much colder season 
than it is in England , but Nice and the whole of the Riviera, 
Pisa , and Venice afford pleasant and sheltered quarters. The 
height of summer can hardly be recommended for travelling. The 
scenery, indeed, is then in perfection, and the long days are 
hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising traveller ; but the 
fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom fail to impair the physical and 
mental energies. This result is not occasioned so much by the 
intensity as by the protracted duration of the heat, the sky being 
frequently cloudless and not a drop of rain falling for many weeks 
in succession. The heat generally moderates about the end of 
August, when the first showers of autumn begin to refresh the 
parched atmosphere. 

Flan. The traveller's movements must of course be regulated 
in accordance with the objects he has in view, and with the time 
and money at his command. The chief centres of attraction in 
N. Italy are Milan , Venice , Genoa , and Florence. The following 


short itinerary, beginning and ending at Milan, though very far from 
exhausting the beauties of N. Italy , includes most of the places 
usually visited, with the time required for a glimpse at each. 

Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, R. 27) . . . 2'/ 2 
To the Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, and Lago Maggiore (RR. 22, 

23, 25) and on to Turin 2'/2 

Turin (R. 8) 1 

From Turin to Genoa (R. 13a or 13b) '/ 2 

Genoa (R. 14), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 92) . 2 

Via Spezia to Pisa, see R. 18 ; Pisa (R. 50) l'/2 

Via Lucca and Pistoja to Florence, see R. 51 1 

Florence (R. 52) 6 

From Florence to Bologna (R. 48) i/a 

Bologna (R. 46) l'/ 2 

Excursion to Ravenna (R. 47) 1 

From Bologna via Ferrara (R. 45) to Padua, see R. 44 .... 1 

[Or to Modena (R. 43) and Parma (R. 42), see R. 41 l'/ 2 

From Modena via Mantua to Verona (see R. 35) and via Vicenza 

to Padua (see R. 36)] iy 2 ] 

Padua (R. 37), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 39) 4 

From Venice (via Vicenza) to Verona (R. 34), see R. 36 .... 2 
[Excursion to Mantua (p. 212), when the way from Modena to Verona 

via Mantua is not adopted '/ 2 ] 

Lago di Garda (R. 32) I 1 /- 

From Peschiera via Brescia (R. 31) and Bergamo to Milan (RR. 30, 29) 1 
To those who wish to visit only a part of North Italy (whether 
the eastern or western), the following itineraries may be recom- 
mended : — 

a. Eastern Part, starting from the Brenner Railway. Days 

From Trent or Mori to Riva (p. 194), Lago di Garda (R. 32). . . l'fe 

Verona (R. 34) 1 

Excursion to Mantua (p. 212) y 2 

From Verona via Vicenza (p. 218) to Padua 1 

Padua (R. 37), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 39) 4 

From Venice via Ferrara (R. 45) to Bologna 1 

Bologna (R. 46) I 1 /-.. 

Excursion to Ravenna (R. 47) 1 

From Bologna to Modena (R. 43) and Parma (R. 42), see R. 41 . . IV2 

From Parma via Piacenza (p. 291) to Milan '/i 

Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, R. 27) . . . 2 ] / 2 
Lago Maggiore, Lago di Lugano, Lago di Como (RR. 22, 23, 25) and 

from Lecco via Bergamo and Brescia (R. 31) to Verona . . . 3'/ 2 

b. Western Part, starting from the St. Gotthard, Spliigen, or Simplon. 

Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, Lago Maggiore (RR. 22, 23, 25) . 2 

Milan (R. 19) 2 

From Milan to Turin (R. 10) 1 

Turin (R. 8), and thence to Genoa (R. 13a or 13b) 1 

Genoa (R. 14), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 92) . 1 

Excursion to Nice (RR. 16, 16) 3 

From Genoa via Novi, Voghera, and Pavia (Certosa, R. 27) to Milan l'/a 

The traveller entering Italy for the first time should do so, if 
the season be favourable, not by rail, but by one of the Alpine passes 
(Spliigen, Simplon, etc.), as only thus will he obtain an adequate 


idea of the full ethnographical significance of the Alps, which 
conceal so new and so strange a world from northern Europe. The 
luxurious character of the Italian climate, vegetation, and scenery, 
the soft richness of the language, and the courtly manners of the 
upper classes all present a striking contrast to the harsher and 
rougher characteristics of German Switzerland or the Tyrol. On no 
account, however, should he traverse these passes at night, and he 
should always inform himself beforehand of the condition of the 
diligence, and raise an energetic protest against broken windows 
and. similar inconveniences. In spring it is advisable to wear co- 
loured spectacles as a precaution against the dazzling reflection 
from the extensive snow-fields (p. xxvi). 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds on his 
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian 
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such 
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay l alla Inglese 1 by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes ; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, and who dislike being im- 
posed upon, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country 
is indispensable. + 

IY. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers, 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. The count- 
enance and help of the English and American consuls can, of course, 
be extended to those persons only who can prove their nationality. 
In the remote neighbourhoods , too , where the public safety de- 
mands a more rigorous supervision, the traveller is sometimes asked 
for his credentials, but this remark is scarcely necessary in regard to 
the districts embraced in this volume of the Handbook. The Italian 
police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

+ A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons un- 
acquainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, a, ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the 3rd pers. pi). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc. 'tu' 
by those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usnal mode 
of address among the Neapolitans, but elsewhere is generally regarded as 
inelegant or discourteous. 


Foreign Office passports may be obtained through Lee and Carter, 
440 West Strand, E. Stanford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, or W. J. 
Adams, 59 Fleet Street (charge 2s. ; agent's fee 1*. 6<Z.). 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is generally lenient. Tohacco and cigars are the ar- 
ticles chiefly sought for. At the gates of most of the Italian towns 
a tax (dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles , but travellers' 
luggage is passed at the barriers (limite daziario) on a simple 
declaration that it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible , luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods-train , as it is liable to damage , pilferage , and undue 
custom-house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in 
this way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and 
send him the keys. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end 
less expensive , never to part from one's luggage , and to super- 
intend the custom-house examination in person. 

V. Beggars. 
Begging) which was countenanced and encouraged under the 
old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those na- 
tional nuisances to which the traveller must accustom himself. The 
present government has adopted energetic measures for its suppres- 
sion, but hitherto with only partial success. The average Italian 
beggar is a mere speculator, and not a deserving object of charity. 
The traveller should therefore decline to give anything, with the 
words, 'non e'e niente', or a gesture of refusal. If a donation be 
bestowed, it should consist of the smallest possible copper coin. 
A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with 2c. and thanked 
the donor with the usual benedictions, was on another presented 
with 50 c. , but this act of liberality, instead of being gratefully 
accepted , only called forth the remark in a half-offended tone : 
'Ma, Signore, e molto poco 1 ' 

YI. Prices and Gratuities. 

Italian sellers are very apt to demand a much higher price than 
they will ultimately accept ; but a knowledge of the custom, which 
is based upon the presumed ignorance of one of the contracting par- 
ties, practically neutralises its effect. "Where tariffs and fixed charges 
exist, they should be carefully consulted ; and when a certain aver- 
age price is established by custom, the traveller should make a pre- 
cise bargain with respect to the article to be bought or the service 
to be rendered , and never rely on the equity of the other party. 
In cases of dispute the traveller who is not thoroughly acquainted 
with the language should be careful not to engage in a war of words 
in which he is necessarily at a great disadvantage. 

Many shops now profess to have fixed prices, but even in these 
cases it is usual to offer two-thirds or three-quarters only of the 
price demanded. The same rule applies to artizans, drivers, and 


others. 'Non volete?' (then you will not?) is a remark which gener- 
ally has the effect of bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. 
Purchases should never be made by the traveller when accompanied 
by a valet-de-place. These individuals, by tacit agreement, receive 
from the seller at least 10 per cent of the purchase-money, a bonus 
which of course comes out of the pocket of the purchaser. 

In Northern Italy the traveller will now find comparatively few causes 
for complaint, as the system of fixed charges is gradually being introduced 
at the hotels and the shops. He will generally find the people with whom 
he comes in contact civil and obliging, and if he has some acquaintance 
with the language he will rarely meet with attempts at extortion. 

The traveller should always be abundantly supplied with copper coin 
in a country where trifling donations are in constant demand. Drivers, 
guides, and other persons of the same class invariably expect, and often 
demand as their right, a gratuity (buona mano, mancia, da bere, bolliglia, 
caffi, fumata) in addition to the hire agreed on, varying according to 
circumstances from 2-3 sous to a franc or more. The traveller need have 
no scruple in limiting his donations to the smallest possible sums, as 
liberality frequently becomes a source of annoyance and embarrassment. 
Thus, if half-a-franc is bestowed where two sous would have sufficed, 
the fact speedily becomes known, and the donor is sure to be besieged 
by numerous other applicants whose demands it is impossible to satisfy. 

VII. Railways. 

Northern Italy is now overspread with so complete a network of 
railways that the traveller will seldom use any other conveyance, 
except on the Alpine routes and on the lakes. The rate of travel- 
ling is very moderate, rarely reaching 30 M. per hour. The first- 
class carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second are inferior 
to those of the German railways, and resemble the English and 
French, while the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower 
orders. Among the expressions with which the railway-traveller will 
soon become familiar are — 'profit? (ready), 'partenza 1 (departure), 
'si cambia convoglio 1 (change carriages), and 'uscita 1 (egress). The 
station-master is called 'capostazione\ Smoking compartments are 
labelled 'pei fumatorV, those for non-smokers 'e vietato difumare\ 
Separate first and second-class compartments are reserved for ladies. 
Sleeping-carriages (coupe a letti) are provided on all the main lines 
at a small extra charge. Railway time is that of the meridian of 
Rome, 52 min. ahead of that of Greenwich and 40 min. before Paris. 

When about to start from a crowded station , the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets. In addition to the fare, a tax of 5 c. is payable 
on each ticket, and the express fares are 10 per cent higher 
than the ordinary. It is also very important to be at the station 
early. The ticket-office at large stations is open 1 hr., at small 
stations V4-Y2 hr. before the departure of the train. Holders of 
tickets alone have the right of admission to the waiting-rooms. At 
the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscfla, except 
in the case of the very large stations, where they are collected be- 
fore the passengers alight. 


The traveller should, if possible, know the weight of his lug- 
gage approximately , in order to guard against imposition (1 kilo- 
gramme = ahout 2'/5 lbs.). No luggage is allowed free, except 
small articles (which must not exceed 20 X 10 X 12 inches) taken 
by the passenger into his carriage. Porters who convey luggage to 
and from the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous, where 
there is no fixed tariff. Those who intend to make only a short 
stay at a place, especially when the town or village lies at a con- 
siderable distance from the railway, had better leave their heavier 
luggage at the station till their return {dare in deposito , or de- 
positare; 10 c. per day per cwt. or fraction of a cwt.). 

In crossing the frontier travellers should travel with the same train as 
their luggage and superintend the custom-house examination in person. 
During the last few years an extraordinary number of robberies of pass- 
engers' luggage have been perpetrated in Italy without detection, and ar- 
ticles of great value should not be entrusted to the safe-keeping of any 
trunk or portmanteau, however strong and secure it may seem. 

The enormous weight of the large trunks used by some travellers not 
infrequently causes serious injury to the porters who have to handle them. 
Heavy articles should therefore always be placed in the smaller packages. 

The best collections of time-tables are the 'Indicatore Ufftciale 
delle Strade Ferrate', etc. (published monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo 
at Turin; price 1 fr.) and the Orario del Movimento Treni e Piro- 
scafi (published by Arnaboldi at Florence; lfr.). Smaller editions, 
confined to the railways of N. Italy (Ferrovie dell'Alta Italia), are 
also issued. 

Through Tickets to various parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal stations of the southern railways; by Messrs. Cook 
& Son, Ludgate Circus; etc.), in Paris, and at the chief towns of 
Germany and Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, 
and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of luggage free. 

Those with whom economy is an object may save a good deal by tak- 
ing return -tickets to the Swiss frontier, travelling third-class through 
Switzerland, and then taking circular tour tickets in Italy. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy, the Italian lakes, etc., available for 20-60 days, may be 
purchased in London , in France , and in Germany, as well as in 
Italy, at a reduction of 45 per cent (but without a free allowance of 
luggage). For Northern Italy there are upwards of twelve different 
circular tours, for which 10-30 days are allowed, and which are de- 
scribed in detail in the railway guides mentioned above. These tickets 
require to be stamped at each fresh starting-point with the name ol 
the next station at which the traveller intends to halt. If, therefore, 
the traveller leaves the train before the station for which his ticket 
has been stamped he must at once apply to the capostazione for re- 
cognition of the break in the journey ('accertare il cambiamento di 
destinazione' 1 ). When the traveller quits the prescribed route, in- 
tending to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to procure 
an 'annotazione 1 at the station where he alights, enabling him to 
resume his circular tour after his digression {'rale per riprendere 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. \, 

xviii HOTELS. 

alia stazione . . . il viaggio interrotto a . . .'). If this ceremony be 
neglected the holder of the ticket is required to pay treble fare for 
the omitted portion of the route for which the ticket is issued. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti d'andata e ritomo) may often be 
advantageously used for short excursions , but they aTe generally 
available for one day only, except those issued on Saturdays and 
the eves of festivals. It should also be observed that if the traveller 
alights at a station short of his destination he forfeits the rest of 
his ticket for the direction in which he is proceeding. In returning 
the ticket is not available unless he starts from the end-station for 
which the ticket was issued. 

Within the last few years a system of Steam Tramways (Tramvia a 
Vapore) has been developed in North Italy, which entirely throws into the 
shade anything of the kind hitherto attempted in Great Britain or America. 
The principal centres of this system are Milan and Turin (see pp. 126, 57). 
These tramways are on the whole of little importance for the touriat, but 
facilitate a visit to several interesting little towns at some distance from 
the great railway-routes. The rate of speed attained on them is about half 
that of the ordinary railways. Comp. the Indicators Ufficiale. 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
all the principal resorts of travellers in Northern Italy, mostofthem 
having fixed charges: room 2y 2 -5 fr. , bougie 75 c. to 1 fr., atten- 
dance (exclusive of the 'facchino' and porter) lfr., table d'hote 
4-6 fr. The charge for dinner does not include wine, which is 
usually poor and dear. For a prolonged stay an agreement may 
generally be made with the landlord for pension at a more moder- 
ate rate. Visitors are expected to dine at the table d'h6te ; other- 
wise the charge for rooms is apt to be raised. The cuisine is a 
mixture of French and Italian. The charge for the use of the hotel- 
omnibus from the station to the hotel is so high (l-l 1 /^ fr.), that 
it is often cheaper to take a cab. It is also easier for those who use 
a cab to proceed to another hotel, should they not like the rooms 
offered them. Rooms on the ground-floor should be avoided. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements, and are rarely very clean or comfortable. The charges 
are little more than one -half of the above. They have no table 
d'hote, but there is generally a trattoria connected with the house, 
where refreshments a la carte, or a dinner a prezzo fisso may be 
procured at any hour. These inns will often be found convenient 
and economical by the voyageur en gargon, and the better houses 
of this class may even be visited by ladies ; but the new-comer 
should, perhaps, frequent hotels of the first class only. As a 
rule , it is advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. 
A dinner, for example, at 2-3 fr. may be stipulated for, and in ar- 
ranging as to the charge for a room the servizio e candela should 
not be forgotten. Exorbitant demands may generally be reduced 
without difficulty to reasonable limits, and even when no previous 


agreement has been made an extortionate bill may sometimes be 
successfully disputed, though not without lively discussion. At the 
smaller inns a fee of 1 fr. per day is usually divided between the 
waiter and the facchino, or less for a prolonged stay. Copper coins 
are never despised by such recipients. 

Hotels Garnis and Private Apartments are recommended for 
a prolonged stay. A distinct agreement as to rent should be made 
beforehand. "When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written 
contract on stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid of some 
one acquainted with the language and customs of the place (e.g. 
a banker), in order that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. 
For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, 
linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, and other 
details will generally suffice. Comp, p. xxvi. 

Money and other valuables should either be carried on the per- 
son or entrusted to the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, dirt being 
perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the brilliancy of 
their climate. The traveller in N. Italy will rarely suffer from this short- 
coming even in hotels of the second class; but those who quit the beaten 
track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be 
selected, as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect- 
powder (polvere di Persia, or Keating's.) or camphor somewhat repels their 
advances. The zanzare, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and 
often of suffering, during the autumn months. Windows should always 
be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light 
muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face , and 
gloves are employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious in- 
truders. The burning of insect powder over a spirit lamp is also recom- 
mended, and pastilles may be purchased at the principal chemists' for the 
same purpose (see p. 232). A weak dilution of carbolic acid in water is 
efficacious in allaying the discomforts occasioned by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la Mancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, 
il solino, il colletto; cuff, il polsino; drawers, le mulande; woollen under- 
shirt, una flanella or giubetta di flanella ; petticoat, la sotlana ; stocking, 
la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), il fazoUtto (di seta). To give 
out to wash, dare a bucato (di bucato, newly washed); washing list, la nota; 
washer-woman, laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaja ; buttons, i bottom. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 
Restaurants (trattorie) are chiefly frequented by Italians and 
gentlemen travelling alone, but those of the better class maybe 
visited by ladies also. They are generally open from 12 to 8, but are 
frequented chiefly between 5 and 7. Breakfast or a light luncheon 
may be more conveniently obtained at a cafe (p. xx). Dinner may 
be obtained a la carte for 1V2-3 fr. , and sometimes a prezzo fisso 
for 2-5 fr. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. The diner 
who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable limits should 
refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill of fare. Be- 
sides the old-fashioned trattorie a number of 'restaurants 1 of a better 
class have recently been opened in some of the larger towns, in 



which the cookery is generally French. The waiter is called ca- (or bottega), but the approved way of attracting his attention 
is by knocking on the table. If too importunate in his recommen- 
dations or suggestions he may be checked with the words 'non 

A late hour for the chief repast of the day should be chosen in 
winter, in order that the daylight may be profitably employed , hut 
an early dinner is preferable in summer when the midday heat pre- 
cludes exertion. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants. 

Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Gnocchi, small puddings. 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Uaccaroni al burro, with butter; al 

pomidoro, with tomatoes. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Friiio, una Frittura, fried meat. 
Friltata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Coscietto, loin. 
Testa di vitello, calf's head. 
Figato di vitello, calf's liver. 
Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Costoletta alia minuta, veal -cutlet 

with calves' ears and truffles. 
Fsgaloppe , veal-cutlet with bread- 
Patate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Principi alia tavola , or piattini, hot 

Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 

Presciutto, ham. 

Salami, sausage. 

Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 

Potaggio di polio, chicken-fricassee. 

Gallinaccio, turkey. 

Vmido, meat with sauce. 

Stufalino, ragout. 

Erie, vegetables. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Fave, beans. 

Fagiuolini, Corneti, French beans. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Senape, hot mustard. 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Frutta, fruit-desert. 
Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia , a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Pomi, Mele, apples. 
Pirsici, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or portogallo, orange. 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian is made without). 
Formaggio, cacio, cheese. 

Wine (nero, red; bianco, white; dolce, sweet; asciutto, dry; del paese, 
wine of the country) is usually supplied in bottles one-half or one-fifth 
'if a litre (un mezzo litre; un quinto or bicchiere). Wines of a better quality 
ave sold in ordinary quarts and pints. Comp. p. 376. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the evening 
by numerous consumers of ices. 

Caffe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (20-25 c. per 
cup). Caffe latle is coffee mixed with milk before served (30-50 c.)- or 
ruffe e latte, i. e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred. 'Mis- 
chio, a mixture of coffee and chocolate (20-25 c), is considered wholesome 
and nutritious. Cakes or biscuits 10-15 c. 

The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks and 
eggs (nova da bere, soft; toste, hard; uova al piallo, fried). ' 

Ices (sorbetto or gelato) of every possible variety are snp plied at the 
cafes at 30-90 c. per portion; or half a portion (»«":«) may be ordered. 


Granita, or half-frozen ice (limoitata, of lemons; aranciata, of oranges), is 
much in vogue in the forenoon. The waiters, who expect a sou or more, 
according to the amount of the payment, are apt to be inaccurate in chang- 
ing money. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the larger 
cafes, English less often. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government , and bad. The 
prices of the home-made cigars (Scelti Romani, Virginias, Vevays, 
Pressati, Cavours, Napoletani, Toscani, Minghetti, etc.) vary from 
7'/ 2 to 18 c. Good imported cigars may be bought at the best shops 
in the large towns for 25-60 c. each, and also foreign cigarettes. 
■ — Passers-by are at liberty to avail themselves of the light burn- 
ing in every tobacconist's, without making any purchase. 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12. 30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p. m. Visitors may inspect the works of art 
even during divine service, provided they move about noiselessly, 
and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On 
the occasion of festivals and for a week or two before Easter the 
works of art are often entirely concealed by the temporary decora- 
tions. Those which are always kept covered are shown by the verger 
(sagrestano, or nonzolo), who expects a fee of 30-50 c. from a single 
traveller, more from a party 

Museums , picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 4 o'clock. By a law passed in 1875 all the col- 
lections which belong to government are open on week-days at a 
charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays (and sometimes on Thursdays also) 
gratis. Artists are admitted without charge. The attendants are 
forbidden to accept gratuities. 

The collections are closed on the following public holidays : New 
Year's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the Monday and Tuesday during the 
Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Fete 
de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa dello Statute (first Sunday in June), 
Assumption of the Virgin (15th Aug.), Nativity of the Virgin "(8th Sept.), 
Festival of the Annunciation (25th Mar.), All Saints' Day (1st Nov.), and 
on Christmas Day. A good many other days are also sometimes observed 
as holidays , such as the Thursday before the Carnival (Giovedi grasso), 
the day sacred to the local patron-saint, and the birthdays of the king 
(14th Mar.) and queen (20th Nov.). 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5-6 fr. per 
day. They are generally respectable and trustworthy, but, as they 
are seldom good judges of what is really worth seeing, the traveller 
should specify to them the places he desires to visit. Their services 
may generally well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed 
for time. Purchases should never be made, nor contracts with vet- 
turini or other persons drawn up , in presence or with the aid of a 
commissionnaire, as any such intervention tends considerably to in- 
crease the prices. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8 or 8.30, 
and terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being exclu- 


sively performed. The first act of an opera is usually succeeded 
by a ballet of three acts or more. The pit (platea), to which the 
'biylietto d'ingresso 1 gives access, is the usual resort of the men, 
while the boxes and sometimes the stalls (scanni chiusi, sedie chiuse, 
poltrone, or posti distinti) are frequented by ladies. A box (palco) 
must always be secured in advance. — A visit to some of the 
smaller theatres, where dramas and comedies are acted, is recom- 
mended for the sake of accustoming the ear to the language. Per- 
formances in summer take place in the open air, in which case 
smoking is allowed. — The theatre is the usual evening-resort of 
the Italians, who seldom observe strict silence during the perfor- 
mance of the orchestra. The instrumental music is rarely good. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

Letters (whether 'poste restante 1 , Italian 'ferma in posta 1 , or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting-card instead of giving his name 
orally. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. — Letters of 15 grammes (}/% oz., 
about the weight of three sous) to any of the states included in the 
postal union(now comprising the whole of Europe) 25 c. ; post-card 
(cartolina postale ; for foreign countries, per I'estero) 10 c. ; book- 
packets (stampe sotto fascia) 5 c. per 50 gr. ; registration-fee (rac- 
comandazione) 25 c. — Post Office Orders, see p. xii. 

Letters by town-post 5 c. ; throughout the kingdom of Italy 20 c. 
prepaid, or 30c. unpaid. Post-card 10c, with card for answer 
attached 15 c. Book-packets, 2 c. per 40 grammes (l 1 /^ oz.). 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily from 9 a.m. to 
10 p.m. (also on Sundays and holidays); in smaller places it is 
generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
GreatBritain 39c, France 14, Germanyl8, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 
6-14, Belgium 19, Denmark 23, Russia 49, Sweden 38, Norway 
36 c To America from 3 3 / 4 fr. per word upwards, according to the 
state. ■ — Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words 1 fr., each addi- 
tional word 50 c ; telegrams with special haste (telegrammi urgenti), 
which take precedence of all others, may be sent at thrice the 
above rates. 

XII. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health, 
by Dr. Hermann Reimer. 

It is a common error on the part of those who visit Italy for the 
first time to believe that beyond the Alps the skies are always blue 
and the breezes always balmy. It is true that the traveller who 

CLIMATE. xxiii 

has crossed the Spliigen, the Brenner, or the St. Gotthard in winter, 
and rinds himself in the district of the N. Italian lakes, cannot fail 
to remark what an admirable barrier against the wind is afforded 
by the central chain of the Alps. The average winter-temperature 
here is 37-40° Fahr. as compared with 28-32° on the N. side of the 
mountains. Places nestling close to the S. base of the Alps, such 
as Arco, Gardone-Riviera, Lugano, and Pallanza, thus form an ex- 
cellent intermediate stage between the bleak winter of N. Europe and 
the semi-tropical climate of the Riviera or S. Italy. A peculiarity of 
the climate here is afforded by the torrents of rain which may be 
expected about the equinoctial period. The masses of warm and 
moisture - laden clouds driven northwards by the S. wind break 
against the Alpine chain , and discharge themselves in heavy 
showers, which fill the rivers and occasion the inundations from 
which Lombardy not unfrequently suffers. If , however, the trav- 
eller continues his journey towards the S. through the plain of Lom- 
bardy he again enters a colder and windy region. The whole plain 
of the Po, enclosed by snow-capped mountains, exhibits a climate 
of a thoroughly continental character ; the summer is as hot as that 
of Sicily, while the winter is extremely cold, the mean temperature 
being below 35° Fahr. or about equal to that of the lower Rhine. 
Changes of weather, dependent upon the direction of the wind, arc 
frequent ; and the humidity of the atmosphere, occasioned in part 
by the numerous canals and rice-marshes, is also very considerable. 
A prolonged residence in Turin or Milan should therefore be avoided 
by invalids, while even robust travellers should be on their guard 
against the trying climate. As we approach the Adriatic Sea the 
climate of the Lombard plain loses its continental character and 
approximates more closely to that of the rest of the peninsula. The 
climatic peculiarities of Venice are described at p. 234. 

As soon as we cross the mountains which bound the S. margin 
of the Lombard plain and reach the Mediterranean coast, we find a 
remarkable change in the climatic conditions. Here an almost un- 
interrupted series of winter-resorts extends along the coast from 
Hyeres to Genoa and thence to Leghorn, and these are rapidly in- 
creasing both in number and popularity. The cause of the mild 
and pleasant climate at these places is not far to seek. The Maritime 
Alps and the Ligurian Apennines form such an admirable screen 
on the N., that the cold N. winds which pass these mountains do 
not touch the district immediately at their feet, but are first per- 
ceptible on the sea 6-10 M. from the coast. It is of no unfrequent 
occurrence in the Riviera that the harbours are perfectly smooth 
while the open sea is agitated by a brisk tempest. Most of the towns 
and villages on the coast lie in crescent - shaped bays , opening 
towards the S., while on the landward side they are protected by 
an amphitheatre of hills. These hills are exposed to the full force 
of the sun's rays, and the limestone of which they arc composed 

xxiv CLIMATE. 

absorbs an immense amount of heat. It is therefore not to be 
wondered at that these hothouses of theKiviera show a higher tem- 
perature in winter than many places much farther to the S. Thus, 
while the moan temperature of Rome in the three coldest months is 
46° Fahr., that of the Riviera is 48-50°. 

It would , however, be a mistake to suppose that this strip of 
coast is entirely free from wind. The rapid heating and cooling of 
the strand produces numerous light breezes, while the rarefaction 
of the masses of air by the strength of the sun gives rise to strong 
currents rushing in from the E. and W. to supply the vacuum. The 
most notorious of these coast-winds is the Mistral, which is at its 
worst at Avignon (p. 10) and other places in the Rhone Valley, 
where it may be said without exaggeration to blow on one of every 
two days. As a rule this wind lasts for a period of 3-17 days at a 
time, rising at about 10 a.m. and subsiding at sunset ; and each 
such period is generally followed by an interval of calm and fine 
weather. As the Mistral sweeps the coast from W. to E. it gradu- 
ally loses its strength, so that at San Remo, for instance, it is much 
less violent than at Cannes or Hyeres. The N.E. wind on the con- 
trary is much stronger in Alassio and San Remo than on the coast 
of Provence. The Scirocco as known on the Ligurian coast is by no 
means the dry and parching wind experienced in Sicily and even 
at Rome ; passing as it does over immense tracts of sea it is gener- 
ally charged with moisture and is often followed by rain. 

The prevalent belief that the Riviera has a moist climate, on 
account of its proximity to the sea, is natural but erroneous. The 
atmosphere, on the contrary, is rather dry, especially in the W. 
half of it, while the humidity rapidly increases as we approach 
the Riviera di Levante. The same holds good of the rainfall. 
While Nice has 36 rainy days between November and April, Men- 
tone has 44, Nervi 54, and Pisa 63. The average number of rainy 
days during the three winter months in the Riviera is 16. Snow 
is rarely seen ; it falls perhaps once or twice in the course of the 
winter, but generally lies only for a few hours , while many years 
pass without the appearance of a single snow-flake. Fogs are very 
rare on the Ligurian coast; but a heavy dew-fall in the evening is 
the rule. In comparison with the Cisalpine districts, the Riviera 
enjoys a very high proportion of bright, sunny weather. 

The mildness of the climate of the Riviera requires, perhaps, no 
better proof than its rich southern vegetation. The Olive, which is 
already found in the neighbourhood of the N. Italian lakes, here 
attains great luxuriance , while the Eucalyptus globulus (which 
grows rapidly and to an astonishing height), the Orange, the 
Lemon, and several varieties of Palms also flourish. 

The geological character of the Riviera is also of sanitary signi- 
ficance. The prevailing formation is limestone, which absorbs the 
sun's rays with remarkable rapidity and radiates it with equal speed 


thus forming an important factor in making the most of the winter- 
sunshine. On account of its softness it is also extensively used 
for road-making, and causes the notorious dust of the Riviera, which 
forms the chief objection to a region frequented by so many per- 
sons with weak lungs. The authorities of the various health-resorts, 
however, take great pains to mitigate this evil as far as practicable. 
After heavy rain the roads are apt to be very muddy. 

The advantages that a winter-residence in the Riviera, in contra- 
distinction to the climate of northern Europe, offers to invalids and 
delicate persons, are a considerably warmer and generally dry at- 
mosphere, seldom disturbed by storms, yet fresh and pure, a more 
cheerful sky, and comparative immunity from rain. The 'invalid's 
day', or the time during which invalids may remain in the open 
air with impunity, lasts here from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. The general 
effect of a prolonged course of open-air life in the Riviera may be 
described as a gentle stimulation of the entire physical organism. 
It is found particularly beneficial for convalescents, the debilitated, 
and the aged ; for children of scrofulous tendency ; and for the mar- 
tyrs of gout and rheumatism. The climatic cure of the Riviera is 
also often prescribed to patients with weak chests, to assist in the 
removal of the after-effects of inflammation of the lungs or pleurisy, 
or to obviate the danger of the formation of a chronic pulmonary 
discharge. The dry and frequently-agitated air of the Riviera is, 
however, by no means suitable for every patient of this kind, and 
the immediate vicinity of the sea is particularly unfavourable to 
cases of a feverish or nervous character. The stimulating effects of 
the climate are then often too powerful , producing sleeplessness 
and unwholesome irritation. The dry air of the Riviera di Ponente 
is also prejudicial to many forms of inflammation of the wind-pipe 
and bronchial tubes, which derive benefit from the air of Nervi, 
Pisa, or Ajaccio. Cases of protracted nephritis or diabetes, on the 
contrary, often obtain considerable relief from a residence here. 

The season on the Ligurian coast lasts from about the beginn- 
ing of October to the middle of May. In September it is still too 
hot, and in March it is so windy that many patients are obliged to 
retire farther inland, e.g. from Nice to Cirniez. Many invalids make 
the mistake of leaving the Riviera too soon, and thus lose all the 
progress they have made during the winter, through reaching home 
in the unfavourable transition period between winter and spring. 
It is better to spend April and May at some intermediate station, 
such as Pallanza or Lugano. 

The average temperature of the three winter-months (Decem- 
ber, January, and February) at the following winter-resorts is as 
here given: Lugano 36.5° Fahr., Pallanza 38.5°, Venice 38.75°, 
Arco 38.75°, Gardone-Riviera 40°, Pisa 42°, Nervi 48°, Nice 49°, 
Cannes 49.5°, Mentone (E. bay) 49.75°, San Remo 51°, Ajaccio 52°. 

The above considerations will show that it is often necessary to 

sxvi HEALTH. 

discount tlie unpropitious opinions of those who happen to have 
visited the Riviera under peculiarly unfavourable climatic con- 
ditions. Not only do the ordinary four seasons differ from each other 
ou the Riviera, hut the different parts of winter are also sharply 
discriminated. An uninterrupted series of warm and sunshiny days 
may be counted on with almost complete certainty in October and 
the first half of November. Then follows a rainy season, lasting till 
the end of the year, which restricts, but by no means abolishes, 
open-air exercise. January and February are generally fine and 
cloudless, but invalids have often to be on their guard against 
wind. March here, as elsewhere in the south, is the windiest month 
of all, but is much less boisterous in the E. part of the Riviera 
(from Mentone to Nervi) than at Hyeres, Cannes, and Nice. April 
and May are delightful months for those who require out-door life 
in a warm climate. Places such as Nice, Cannes, Mentone, San Remo, 
and Nervi naturally offer many comforts and resources in unfavour- 
able weather which are lacking at smaller and newer health-resorts. 

Good opportunities for sea-bathing are offered at many points on the 
Mediterranean coast of N. Italy, such as Cannes, Nice, Alassio, Savona, 
Pegli, fipezia, Viareggio, Leghorn, and Venice. The Mediterranean is almost 
tideless ; it contains about 41 per cent of common salt, a considerably 
higher proportion than the Atlantic ; its average temperature during the 
bathing-season is 71 ° Fahr. The bathing-season on the Ligurian coast be- 
gins in April, or at latest in May, and lasts till November, being thus much 
longer than the season at any English seaside-resort. 

Most travellers must in some degree alter their mode of living whilst 
in Italy, without however implicitly adopting the Italian style. Inhabi- 
tants of more northern countries generally become unusually susceptible 
to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be well supplied with 
warm clothing for the winter. Woollen underclothing is especially to be 
recommended. A plaid should be carried to neutralise the often consider- 
able difference of temperature between the sunshine and the shade. In 
visiting picture-galleries or churches on warm days it is advisable to drive 
thither and walk back, as otherwise the visitor enters the cool building 
in a heated state and has afterwards no opportunity of regaining the de- 
sirable temperature through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should 
be avoided as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and 
foreigners (Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas, or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to protect the 
whole eye are best), may be used with advantage. Blue veils are recom- 
mended to ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is advisable, and a 
moderate siesta is often refreshing. 

Great care should also be taken in the selection of an apartment. Car- 
pets and stoves are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect in winter 
is an absolute essential for delicate persons, and highly desirable for the 
robust. The visitor should see that all the doors and windows close sa- 
tisfactorily. Windows should be closed at night. 

Health. English and German medical men are to be met with in the 
larger cities, and in most of Ihe wintering-stations of the Riviera. English 
and German chemists, where available, are recommended in preference to 
the Italian, whose drugs are at once dearer and of poorer quality. Foreigners 
frequently suffer from diarrhrea in Italy, which is generally occasioned bv 
the unwonted heat. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor may be men- 
tioned as a remedy, but regulated diet and thorough repose are the chief 
desiderata. A small portable medicine-case, such as those prepared and 
stocked with tabloid drugs by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome, <fr Co. Holborn 
Viaduct, London, will often be found useful. ' 

Italian Art. 

A Historical Sketch by Professor A. Springer. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in Italy 
is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of art. 
Even those whose usual avocations are of the most prosaic „,„™"" 
nature unconsciously become admirers of poetry and art in 
Italy. The traveller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of 
everyday life, that he encounters their influence at every step, and 
involuntarily becomes susceptible to their power. A single visit 
can hardly suffice to enable any one justly to appreciate the 
numerous works of art he meets with in the course of his tour, nor 
can a guide-book teach him to fathom the mysterious depths of 
Italian creative genius, the past history of which is particularly at- 
tractive ; but the perusal of a few remarks on this subject will be 
found materially to enhance the pleasure and facilitate the researches 
of even the most unpretending lover of art. Works of the highest class, 
the most perfect creations of genius, lose nothing of their charm by 
being pointed out as specimens of the best period of art; while 
those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest when 
they are shown to be necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, will hardly be deemed out of place in a work designed to 
aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible amount of enjoy- 
ment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two great epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of Classic Antiquity, and of the Classic ani 
16th century, the culminating period of the so-called Renais- Renais- 
sance. The intervening space of more than a thousand years sance 
is usually, with much unfairness , almost entirely ignored ; EKI0DS - 
for this interval not only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first 
epoch, but gradually paves the way for the second. It is a common 
error to suppose that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can 
be thoroughly appreciated. This idea dates from the period when no 
precise distinction was made between Greek and Roman art, when 
the connection of the former with a particular land and nation, 
and the tendency of the latter to pursue an independent course 
were alike overlooked. Now , however , that we are acquainted 
with more numerous Greek originals , and have acquired a 

xxviii ITALIAN ART. 

deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art , an indis- 
criminate confusion of Greek and Roman styles is no longer to be 
r, „ apprehended. We are now well aware that the highest per- 

LrRbEK AND rr , . , 1 . , TT 

Roman fection of ancient architecture is realised in the Hellenic 
Styles dis- temple alone. The Doric order, in which majestic gravity is 
iinguished. ex p resse a by massive proportions and symmetrical decoration, 
and the Ionic structure , with its lighter and more graceful char- 
acter, exhibit a creative spirit entirely different from that mani- 
fested in the sumptuous Roman edifices. Again, the most valuable 
collection of ancient sculptures in Italy is incapable of affording so 
admirable an insight into the development of Greek art as the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon and other fragments of Greek temple - archi- 
tecture preserved in the British Museum. But, while instruction is 
afforded more abundantly by other than Italian sources, ancient art 
is perhaps thoroughly admired in Italy alone , where works of art 
encountertheeyewith more appropriate adjuncts, and where climate, 
scenery, and people materially contribute to intensify their impres- 
siveness. As long as a visit to Greece and Asia Minor is within the 
reach of comparatively few travellers, a sojourn in Italy may be recom- 
mended as best calculated to afford instruction with respect to the 
growth of ancient art. An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by 
the circumstance , that in accordance with an admirable custom of 
classic antiquity the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not 
again arbitrarily abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually 
reproduced. Thus in numerous cases, where the more ancient 
Greek original had been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies ; 
and even in the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative 
talent is still reflected. 

This supremacy of Greek intellect in Italy was established in a 
Greece twofold manner. In the first place Greek colonists intro- 
supreme in duced their ancient native style into their new homes. This 
Akt - is proved by the existence of several Doric temples in Si- 
cily, such as those of Selinunto (but not all dating from the same 
period), and the ruined temples at Syracuse, Oirgenti, and Segesta. 
On the mainland the so-called Temple of Neptune at Pastum, 
as well as the ruins at Metapontum, are striking examples of the 
fully developed elegance and grandeur of the Doric order. But, in 
the second place, the art of the Greeks did not attain its universal 
supremacy in Italy till a later period, when Hellas, nationally ruined, 
had learned to obey the dictates of her mighty conqueror , and the 
Romans had begun to combine with their political superiority the re- 
finements of more advanced culture. The ancient scenes of artistic 
activity in Greece (Athens for example) became re-peopled at 
the cost of Rome ; Greek works of art and Greek artists were in- 
troduced into Italy ; and ostentatious pride in the magnificence of 
booty acquired by victory led by an easy transition to a taste for 
such objects. To surround themselves with artistic decoration thus 


gradually became the universal custom of the Romans , and the 
foundation of public monuments came to be regarded as an in- 
dispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 
deficient in originality compared with the Greek , yet their Roman 
authors never degenerate into mere copyists, or entirely re- Architec 
nounce independent effort. This remark applies especially to tube. 
their Architecture. Independently of the Greeks, the ancientltalian 
nations, and with them the Romans, had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting, and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. "With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms , the column supporting 
the entablature. The sphere of architecture was then gradually ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct edifices 
with spacious interiors , and several stories in height. No precise 
model was afforded by Greek architecture , and yet the current 
Greek forms appeared too beautiful to be lightly disregarded. The 
Romans therefore preferred to combine them with the arch-prin- 
ciple, and apply this combination to their new architectural designs. 
The individuality of the Greek orders , and their originally un- 
alterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, and divested of much 
of their importance ; that which once possessed a definite organic 
significance frequently assumed a superficial and decorative charac- 
ter ; but the aggregate effect is always imposing, the skill in blend- 
ing contrasts, and the directing taste admirable. The lofty gravity 
of the Doric Stylei must not be sought for at Rome. The Doric 

t Those unacquainted with architecture will easily learn to distinguish 
the different Greek styles. In the Doric the shafts of the columns 
(without hases) rest immediately on the common pavement, in the Ionic 
they are separated from it by bases. The flutings of the Doric column 
immediately adjoin each other, being separated by a sharp ridge, while 
those of the Ionic are disposed in pairs, separated by broad unfluted 
intervening spaces. The Doric capital, expanding towards the summit, 
somewhat resembles a crown of leaves, and was in fact originally adorned 
with painted representations of wreaths ; the Ionic capital is distinguished 
by the volutes (or scrolls) projecting on either side, which may be re- 
garded rather as an appropriate covering of the capital than as the cap- 
ital itself. The entablature over the columns begins in the Doric style 
with the simple, in the Ionic with the threefold architrave; above which 
in the Doric order are the metopes (originally openings , subsequently 
receding panels) and triglyphs (tablets with two angular grooves in front, 
and a half groove at each end, resembling extremities of beams), and in 
the Ionic the frieze with its sculptured enrichments. In the temples of 
both orders the front culminates in a pediment. The so-called Tuscan, 
or early Italian column, approaching most nearly to the Doric, exhibits 
no decided distinctive marks ; the Corinthian , with the rich capital 
formed of acanthus-leaves , is essentially of a decorative character only. 
The following technical terms should also be observed. Temples in 
which the columns are on both sides enclosed by the projecting walls 
are termed 'in antis' (antse = end-pilasters); those which have one ex- 
tremity only adorned by columns , prostyle ; those with an additional 
pediment at the back, supported by columns, amphiprostyle; those entirely 
surrounded by columns, peripteral. In some temples it was imperative 


column in the hands of Roman architects lost the finest features 
of its original character, and was at length entirely disused. The 
Ionic column also, and corresponding entablature, were regarded 
with less favour than those of the Corinthian order, the sumptuous- 
ness of which was more congenial to the artistic taste of the 
Romans. As the column in Roman architecture was no longer 
destined exclusively to support a superstructure, hut formed a 
projecting portion of the wall, or was of a purely ornamental 
character , the most ornate forms were the most sought after. The 
graceful Corinthian capital, consisting of slightly drooping 
acanthus-leaves, was at length regarded as insufficiently enriched, 
and was superseded by the so-called Roman capital (first used 
in the arch of Titus) , a union of the Corinthian and Ionic. An 
impartial judgment respecting Roman architecture cannot, however, 
be formed from a minute inspection of the individual columns, 
nor is the highest rank in importance to be assigned to the Roman 
temples, which, owing to the different (projecting) construction of 
their roofs, are excluded from comparison with the Greek. Atten- 
tion must be directed to the several - storied structures , in which 
the tasteful ascending gradation of the component parts , from 
the more massive (Doric) to the lighter (Corinthian), chiefly 
arrests the eye ; and the vast and artistically vaulted interiors, as 
well as the structures of a merely decorative description , must 
also be examined , in order that the chief merits of Roman art 
may be understood. In the use of columns in front of closed 
walls (e.g. as members of a facade) , in the construction of domes 
above circular interiors, and of cylindrical and groined vaulting 
over oblong spaces, the Roman edifices have served as models to 
posterity, and the imitations have often fallen short of the originals. 
It is true that in the districts to which this volume of the Hand- 
book is devoted, the splendour and beauty of ancient art is not so 
prominently illustrated as in Rome or S. Italy. Nevertheless N. 
Italy also contains many interesting relics of Roman architecture 
(such as the Amphitheatre at Verona, the Triumphal Arches at Aosta 
and Susa, etc.), and though the smaller local collections of Lom- 
bardy and Tuscany may not detain the traveller long, he will un- 
doubtedly find ample food for his admiration in the magnificent 
antique sculptures at Florence (the Niobe Group, the Apollino, the 
formerly over-rated Medicean Venus, etc.). — Upper Italy and Tus- 

that the image of the god erected in the cella should be exposed to the 
rays of the sun. In this case an aperture was left in the ceiling and 
roof, and such temples were termed hypsethral. Temples are also named 
tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle, etc. according to the number of columns 
at each end. — A most attractive study is that of architectural mouldings 
and enrichments, and of those constituent members which respectively in- 
dicate superincumbent weight, or a free and independent existence. 
Research in these matters will enable the traveller more fully to appreciate 
the strict harmony of ancient architecture. 


cany stand, on the other hand, in the very forefront of the artistic 
life of the middle ages and early Renaissance , and Venice may 
proudly boast of having brilliantly unfolded the glories of Italian 
painting at a time when that art had sunk at Rome to the lowest 
depths. In order, however, to place the reader at a proper point 
of view for appreciating the development of art in N. Italy, it is 
necessary to give a short sketch of the progress of Italian art in 
general from the early part of the middle ages onwards. 

In the 4th century the heathen world, which had long been in 
a tottering condition, at length became Christianised, and a christian 
new period of art began. This is sometimes erroneously re- Period 
garded as the result of a forcible rupture from ancient 0F Art ' 
Roman art, and a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. 
But the eye and the hand adhere to custom more tenaciously than 
the mind. While new ideas, and altered views of the character of 
the Deity and the destination of man were entertained, the wonted 
forms were still necessarily employed in the expression of these 
thoughts. Moreover the heathen sovereigns had by no means been 
unremittingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions 
did not take place till the 3rd century), and the new doctrines were 
permitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise themselves in 
the midst of heathen society. The consequence was, that the trans- 
ition from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a gradual one, and 
that in point of form early Christian art continued to follow up the 
lessons of the ancient. The best proof of this is afforded by the 
paintings of the Roman Catacombs. These were by no means ori- 
ginally the secret, anxiously-concealed places of refuge of the prim- 
itive Christians, but constituted their legally-recognised, publicly- 
accessible burial-places. Reared in the midst of the customs of 
heathen Rome, the Christian community perceived no necessity to 
deviate from the artistic principles of antiquity. In the embellish- 
ment of the catacombs they adhered to the decorative forms handed 
down by their ancestors; and in design, choice of colour, grouping 
of figures, and treatment of subject, they were entirely guided by 
the customary rules. Even the sarcophagus-sculptures of the 4th 
and 5th centuries differ in purport only, and not in technical treat- 
ment, from the type exhibited in the tomb-reliefs of heathen Rome. 
Five centuries elapsed before a new artistic style sprang up in the 
pictorial , and the greatly neglected plastic arts. Meanwhile archi- 
tecture had developed itself commensurately with the requirements 
of Christian worship, and, in connection with the new modes of 
building, painting acquired a different character. 

The term Basilica Style is often employed to designate early 
Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The name church 
is of great antiquity, but it is a mistake to suppose that the Architkc- 
early Christian basilicas possessed anything beyond the mere ture. 
name in common with those of the Roman fora. The latter struc- 


tures, which are proved to have existed in most of the towns of the 
Roman empire, and served as courts of judicature and public as- 
sembly-halls , differ essentially in their origin and form from the 
churches of the Christians. The forensic basilicas were neither fit- 
ted up for the purposes of Christian worship, nor did they, or the 
heathen temples, serve as models for the construction of Christian 
churches. The latter are rather to be regarded as extensions of the 
private dwelling-houses of the Romans, where the first assemblies 
of the community were held , and the component parts of which 
were reproduced in ecclesiastical edifices. The church, however, 
was by no means a servile imitation of the house, but a free devel- 
opment from it, of which the following became the established 
type. A small portico borne by columns leads to the anterior court 
(atrium), surrounded by colonnades and provided with a fountain 
(cantharus) in the centre; the eastern colonnade is the approach to 
the interior of the church, which usually consisted of a nave and 
two aisles, the latter lower than the former, and separated from it 
by two rows of columns, the whole terminating in a semicircle (ap- 
sis). In front of the apse there was sometimes a transverse space 
(transept) ; the altar, surmounted by a columnar structure, occupied 
a detached position in the apse ; the space in front of it , bounded 
by cancelli or railings , was destined for the choir of officiating 
priests, and contained the two pulpits (ambones) where the gospel 
and epistles were read. Unlike the ancient temples , the early 
Christian basilicas exhibit a neglect of external architecture, the 
chief importance being attached to the interior, the decorations of 
which, however, especially in early mediaeval times, were often pro- 
cured by plundering the ancient Roman edifices, and transferring 
the spoil to the churches with little regard to harmony of style and 
material. The most appropriate ornaments of the churches were the 
metallic objects, such as crosses and lustres, and the tapestry be- 
stowed on them by papal piety ; while the chief decoration of the 
walls consisted of mosaics, especially those covering the back- 
ground of the apse and the 'triumphal' arch which separates the 
apse from the nave. The mosaics, as far at least as the material 
was concerned, were of a sterling monumental character, and con- 
tributed to give rise to a new style of pictorial art ; in them an- 
cient tradition was for the first time abandoned, and the harsh and 
austere style erroneously termed Byzantine gradually introduced. 
Christian art originated at Rome , but its development was 
actively promoted in other Italian districts, especially at Ravenna, 

where during the Ostrogothic supremacy (493-552), as well 
"stTle. NL as under the succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture 

was zealously cultivated. The basilica-type was there more 
highly matured, the external architecture enlivened by low arches 
and projecting buttresses, and the capitals of the columns in the 
interior appropriately moulded with reference to the superincum- 

ITALIAN ART. xxxiii 

bent arches. There, too, the art of mosaic painting was sedu- 
lously cultivated, exhibiting in its earlier specimens fin S. Gio- 
vanni in Fonte and S. Nazario e Ctlso) greater technical excellence 
and better drawing than the contemporaneous Roman works. At 
Ravenna the Western style also appears in combination with the 
Eastern, and the church of S. Vitale (dating from 547) may be 
regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. 

The term 'Byzantine' is often misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages, everything in archi- 
tecture that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth , ill-proportioned 
forms, is apt to be termed Byzantine ; and it is commonly supposed 
that the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal 
and unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style , as well as the 
idea that it is invariably of a clumsy and lifeless character, is 
entirely unfounded. The forms of Byzantine architecture are 
at least strongly and clearly defined. While the basilica is a 
long - extended hall , over which the eye is compelled to range 
until it finds a natural resting-place in the recess of the apse, 
every Byzantine structure may be circumscribed with a curved 
line. The aisles , which in the basilica run parallel with the 
nave , degenerate in the Byzantine style to narrow and in- 
significant passages ; the apse loses its intimate connection with 
the nave, being separated from it; the most conspicuous feature 
in the building consists of the central square space, bounded 
by four massive pillars which support the dome. These are the 
essential characteristics of the Byzantine style, which culminates 
in the magnificent church of S. Sophia , and prevails throughout 
Oriental Christendom , but in the West , including Italy , only 
occurs sporadically. With the exception of the churches of S. Vi- 
tale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the edifices of Lower 
Italy alone show a frequent application of this style. 

The Byzantine imagination does not appear to have exercised a 
greater influence on the growth of other branches of Italian growth 
art than on architecture. A brisk traffic in works of art of Art in 
was carried on by Venice, Amalfl, and other Italian towns, Italy. 
with the Levant; the position of Constantinople resembled that of 
the modern Lyons ; silk wares , tapestry , and jewellery were most 
highly valued when imported from the Eastern metropolis. By- 
zantine artists were always welcome visitors to Italy , Italian con- 
noisseurs ordered works to be executed at Constantinople, chiefly 
those in metal, and the superiority of Byzantine workmanship 
was universally acknowledged. All this, however, does not justify 
the inference that Italian art was quite subordinate to Byzantine. 
On the contrary , notwithstanding various external influences, it 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8tb Edit. 


underwent an independent and unbiassed development, and never 
entirely abandoned its ancient principles. A considerable interval 
indeed elapsed before the fusion of the original inhabitants with 
the early mediaeval immigrants was complete, before the aggregate 
of different tribes , languages , customs, and ideas became blended 
into a single nationality, and before the people attained sufficient 
concentration and independence of spirit to devote themselves 
successfully to the cultivation of art. Unproductive in the pro- 
vince of art as this early period is , yet an entire departure from 
native tradition, or a serious conflict of the latter with extraneous 
innovation never took place. It may be admitted , that in the 
massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the churches of Upper 
Italy , and in the art of vaulting which was developed here at an 
early period , symptoms of the Germanic character of the inhabi- 
tants are manifested, and that in the Lower Italian and especially 
Sicilian structures , traces of Arabian and Norman influence are 
unmistakable. In the essentials, however, the foreigners continue 
to be the recipients ; the might of ancient tradition, and the natio- 
nal idea of form could not be repressed or superseded. 

About the middle of the 11th century a zealous and promis- 
Roman- i n g artistic movement took place in Italy , and the seeds 
esque were sown which three or four centuries later yielded so 
Style. i UXUI i an t a growth. As yet nothing was matured, nothing 
completed, the aim was obscure, the resources insufficient; mean- 
while architecture alone satisfied artistic requirements, the at- 
tempts at painting and sculpture being barbarous in the ex- 
treme ; these, however, were the germs of the subsequent devel- 
opment of art observable as early as the 11th and 12th centuries. 
This has been aptly designated the Romanesque period (11th- 
13th cent.), and the then prevalent forms of art the Eo- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages , notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their filial rela- 
tion to the language of the Romans, so Romanesque art, in 
spite of its rude and barbarous aspect, reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of mediaeval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party- 
conflicts, loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, and education entered a broader and more enlight- 
ened track; and thus a taste for art also was awakened, and 
.esthetic perception developed itself. When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the latter the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 
are unquestionably the more organically conceived, the individual 


parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 
the subordination of all other aims to that of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness not being here the chief object ; on the 
other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rhythm and symmetry more pronounced. The cathe- 
dral of Pisa, founded as early as the 11th century, or the church 
of S. Miniato near Florence, dating from the 12th, may be taken 
as an example of this. The interior with its rows of columns, the 
mouldings throughout, and the flat ceiling recall the basilica-type ; 
while the exterior, especially the facade destitute of tower, with 
the small arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours 
of the courses of stone , presents a fine decorative effect. At the 
same time the construction and decoration of the walls already 
evince a taste for the elegant proportions which we admire in later 
Italian structures ; the formation of the capitals, and the design of 
the outlines prove that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely 
forgotten. In the Baptistery of Florence (S. Giovanni) a definite 
Roman structure (the Pantheon) has even been imitated. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit pervades the mediaeval architecture of 
Italy; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote object; 
the ideal which they have in view, although perhaps instinctive- 
ly only, lies in the past; to conjure up this, and bring about 
a Renaissance of the antique , appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of details. 
What architecture as a whole loses in historical attraction is 
compensated for by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the North possesses structures of greater importance in the history 
of the development of art, Italy boasts of a far greater number of 
pleasing works. 

There is hardly a district in Italy which does not boast of 
interesting examples of Romanesque architecture. At Verona we 
may mention the famous church of St. Zeno with its sculp- r man- 
tured portals. In the same style are the cathedrals of Fer- esque 
rara, Modena, Parma, and Piacenza, the church of S. Am- Chukohes. 
brogio at Milan, with its characteristic fore-court and facade, and 
that of S. Michele at Pavia, erroneously attributed to the Lombardi. 
Tuscany abounds with Romanesque edifices. Among these the palm 
is due to the cathedral of Pisa, a church of spacious dimensions in 
the interior, superbly embellished with its marble of two colours 
and the rows of columns on its facade. To the same period also 
belong the neighbouring Leaning Tower and the Baptistery. The 


churches of Lucca are copies of those at Pisa. Those of Florence, 
however, such as the octagonal, dome-covered baptistery and the 
church of S. Miniato al Monte, exhibit an independent style. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely 
Gothic jg ]10re ^ s influence, although incapable of according an un- 
conditional reception to this, the highest development of 
vault-architecture. Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature 
and perfected condition. It did not of necessity, as in France, 
develop itself from the earlier (Romanesque) style , its progress 
cannot be traced step by step; it was imported by foreign archi- 
tects (practised at Assisi by the German master Jacob) , and 
adopted as being in consonance with the tendency of the age; it 
found numerous admirers among the mendicant orders of monks 
and the humbler classes of citizens, but could never quite dis- 
engage itself from Italianising influences. It was so far transformed 
that the constructive constituents of Gothic are degraded to a de- 
corative office, and the national taste thus became reconciled to it. 
The cathedral of Milan cannot he regarded as a fair specimen of 
Italian Gothic, but this style must rather be sought for in the 
mediaeval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, in the church of 
S. Petronio at Bologna, and in numerous secular edifices, such as 
the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence , the communal palaces of me- 
diaeval Italian towns, and the palaces of Venice. An acquaintance 
with true Gothic construction, so contracted notwithstanding all its 
apparent richness, so exclusively adapted to practical requirements, 
can certainly not be acquired from these cathedrals. The spacious 
interior, inviting, as it were, to calm enjoyment, while the cathe- 
drals of the north seem to produce a sense of oppression, the pre- 
dominance of horizontal lines, the playful application of pointed 
arches and gables , of finials and canopies, prove that an organic 
coherence of the different architectural distinguishing members was 
here but little considered. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, 
the towers immediately connected with the facade, and the promi- 
nent flying buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edi- 
fices, • — whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not 
so much the sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the 
spectator to pronounce a lenient judgment, as a feeling that Italian 
architects pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could 
be reconciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and nat- 
ural features of Italy. Gothic lost much of its peculiar character 
in Italy, but by these deviations from the customary type it there 
became capable of being nationalised, especially as at the same 
period the other branches of art also aimed at a greater decree of 
nationality, and entered into a new combination with the funda- 
mental trait of the Italian character, that of retrospective adherence 
to the antique. 

ITALIAN ART. xxxvii 

The apparently sudden and unprepared-for revival of ancient 
ideals in the 13th century is one of the most interesting phenomena 
in the history of art. The Italians themselves could only revival 
account for this by attributing it to chance. The popular of Ancient 
story was that the sculptor Niccolo Pisano was induced by AKT lDEALS - 
an inspection of ancient sarcophagi to exchange the prevailing style 
for the ancient, and indeed in one case we can trace back a work of 
his to its antique prototype. We refer to a relief on the pulpit in 
the Baptistery at Pisa, several figures in which are borrowed from 
a Bacchus vase still preserved in the Campo Santo of that city 
(pp. 354, 356). Whether Niccolo Pisano was a member of a local 
school or was trained under foreign influences we are as yet unable 
to determine. His sculptures on the pulpits in the Baptistery of 
Pisa and the Cathedral of Siena introduce us at once into a new 
world. It is not merely their obvious resemblance to the works 
of antiquity that arrests the eye ; a still higher interest is awakened 
by their peculiarly fresh and lifelike tone, indicating the enthu- 
siastic concentration with which the master devoted himself to his 
task. During the succeeding period (Pisan School) ancient character- 
istics were placed in the background, and importance was attached 
solely to life and expression (e.g. reliefs on the facade of the 
Cathedral at Orvieto). Artists now began to impart to their com- 
positions the impress of their own peculiar views, and the public 
taste for poetry, which had already strongly manifested itself, was 
now succeeded by a love of art also. 

From this period (14th century) therefore the Italians date the 
origin of their modern art. Contemporaneous writers who ob- j; ISE OF 
served the change of views, the revolution in sense of form, Modekn 
and the superiority of the more recent works in life and ex- Aet - 
pression, warmly extolled their authors, and zealously proclaimed 
how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding genera- 
tions began to lose sight of this connection between ancient and 
modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to connect 
Giotto di Bondone (1276-1336), the father of modern Italian art, 
with Giovanni Gimahub (d. after 1302), the most celebrated re- 
presentative of the earlier style. (Cimabue is said to have watched 
Giotto , when, as a shepherd-boy, relieving the monotony of his 
office by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand, and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence.) But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Rome and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimabue 
and his pupil Giotto had numerous professional brethren , and 
that the composition of mosaics , as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors, pointed out the Roman and Tuscan 
mosaics as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sienese 
master Duccio, who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 

xxxviii ITALIAN ART. 

ful and the expressiveness of his figures, to his merited rank. 
Giotto, however, is fully entitled to rank in the highest class. The 
amateur, who before entering Italy has become acquainted with 
Giotto from insignificant easel-pictures only, often arbitrarily 
attributed to this master, and even in Italy itself encounters 
little else than obliquely drawn eyes , clumsy features , and 
cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his style, will 
regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be at a loss 
to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugurator of a 
new era of art , and why the name of the old Florentine master 
is only second in popularity to that of Raphael. The fact is that 
Giotto's Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect work of 
Influence, art. His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, the 
enthusiasm which he kindled in every direction, and the develop- 
ment for which he paved the way, must be taken into consideration, 
in order that his place in history may be understood. Even when, 
in consonance with the poetical sentiments of his age, he embodies 
allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, or displays 
to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, he shows a 
masterly acquaintance with the art of converting what is perhaps 
in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking, life-like scene. 
Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful reality to 
his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures may fail 
to satisfy the expectations, and even earlier masters , such as 
Duccio, may have surpassed him in execution, but intelligibility 
of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised in art by 
Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous colouring 
employed by him instead of the dark and heavy tones of his 
predecessors , enabling him to impart the proper expression to 
his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century, and succeeding 
generations founded a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can be formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture, of which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of broad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
boasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, and almost ev- 
ery town in Central Italy in the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works of this style 
are preserved in the churches of 8. Croce (especially the choir- 
chapels) and 8. Maria Novella at Florence. Beyond the precincts of 
the Tuscan capital the finest works of Giotto are to be found at Assist 


and in the Madonna dell' Arena at Padua, where in 1306 he exe- 
cuted a representation of scenes from the lives of the Virgin and 
the Saviour. The Campo Santo of Pisa affords specimens of the 
handiwork of his pupils and contemporaries. In the works on the 
walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot fail to 
be struck by their finely-conceived, poetical character {e.g. the 
Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials of Job), 
ot their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Rainerus, and of 
the Martyrs Ephesus and Potitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence continued 
to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of art. 
Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atmo- Florence 
sphere, which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence a Cradle 
and refinement. The fact, however, is, that Florence did 0F Art - 
not itself produce a greater number of eminent artists than other 
places. During a long period Siena successfully vied with her in 
artistic fertility, and Upper Italy in the 14th century gave birth to 
the two painters d'Avanzo and Altichiebi (paintings in the Chapel 
of 8. Giorgio in Padua), who far surpass Giotto's ordinary style. On 
the other hand, no Italian city afforded in its political institutions 
and public life so many favourable stimulants to artistic imagina- 
tion, or promoted intellectual activity in so marked a degree, or 
combined ease and dignity so harmoniously as Florence. What 
therefore was but obscurely experienced in the rest of Italy, and 
manifested at irregular intervals only, was generally first realised 
here with tangible distinctness. Florence became the birthplace 
of the revolution in art effected by Giotto , and Florence was the 
home of the art of the Renaissance, which began to prevail soon 
after the beginning of the 15th century and superseded the style 
of Giotto. 

The word Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a 
revival of the antique ; but while ancient art now began to kenais- 
influence artistic taste more powerfully, and its study to be sauce 
more zealously prosecuted , the essential character of the Cdltdkk 
Renaissance consists by no means exclusively, or even principally, 
in the imitation of the antique ; nor must the term be confined 
merely to art , as it truly embraces the whole progress of civili- 
sation in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. How the 
Renaissance manifested itself in political life , and the different 
phases it assumes in the scientific and the social world , cannot 
here be discussed. It may, however, be observed that the Re- 
naissance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'humanists', 
who preferred general culture to great professional attainments, 
who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the golden 
age of great men , and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work , and 


the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. The education and 
taste of the individual leave a more marked impress on the work of 
the author than was ever before the case ; his creations are pre-emi- 
nently the reflection of his intellect ; his alone is the responsibility, 
his the reward of success or the mortification of failure. Artists 
now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their works to be examined 
and judged as testimonials of their personal endowments. Mere 
technical skill by no means satisfies them, although they are far 
from despising the drudgery of a handicraft (many of the most emi- 
nent quattrocentists having received the rudiments of their education 
in the workshop of a goldsmith), the exclusive pursuit of a single 
sphere of art is regarded by them as an indication of intellectual 
poverty, and they aim at mastering the principles of each different 
branch. They work simultaneously as painters and sculptors , and 
when they devote themselves to architecture, it is deemed nothing 
unwonted or anomalous. A comprehensive and versatile education, 
united with refined personal sentiments, forms their loftiest aim. 
This they attain in but few instances, but that they eagerly aspired 
to it is proved by the biography of the illustrious Leon Battista 
Albeeti, who is entitled to the same rank in the 15th century, as 
Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and 
morally healthy , keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, and 
possessing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the Renaissance 
artists necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodiment 
with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and joyous love 
of nature seems to pervade the whole of this period. She not only 
afforded an unbounded field to the scientific, but artists also strove 
to approach her at first by a careful study of her various pheno- 
mena. Anatomy , geometry , perspective , and the study 
of the Re- °f ara P er y and colour are zealously pursued and practically 
naissance applied. External truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct 
A N TI tuk T ° re,lderill S of real life in its minutest details are among the 
necessary qualities in a perfect work. The realism of the re- 
presentation is, however, only the basis for the expression of life- 
like character and present enjoyment. The earlier artists of the 
Renaissance rarely exhibit partiality for pathetic scenes, or events 
which awaken painful emotions and turbulent passions, and when 
such incidents are represented, they are apt to be somewhat exagger- 
ated. The preference of these masters obviously inclines to cheerful 
and joyous subjects. In the works of the 15th century strict faith- 
fulness, in an objective sense, must not be looked for. Whether the 
topic be derived from the Old or the New Testament, from history or 
fable, it is always transplanted to the immediate present, and adorn- 
ed with the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine 
national type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs visiting 
Elizabeth after the birth of her son, or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. This transference of remote events to the present bears a 


striking resemblance to the naive and not unpleasing tone of the 
chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, by no means 
terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise displayed 
by the contemporaneous art of the North. A superficial glance at 
the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one to recognise the 
higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected groups of digni- 
fied men , beautiful women , and pleasing children , occasionally 
without internal necessity placed in the foreground , prove that at- 
tractiveness was pre-eminently aimed at. This is also evidenced by 
the early-awakened enthusiasm for the nude, by the skill in dispo- 
sition of drapery, and the care devoted to boldness of outline and 
accuracy of form. This aim is still more obvious from the keen 
sense of symmetry observable in all the better artists. The indi- 
vidual figures are not coldly and accurately drawn in conformity 
with systematic rules. They are executed with refined taste and 
feeling ; harshness of expression and unpleasing characteristics are 
sedulously avoided , while in the art of the North physiognomic 
fidelity is usually accompanied by extreme rigidity. A taste for 
symmetry does not prevail in the formation of the individual figure 
only ; obedience to rhythmical precepts is perceptible in the dispo- 
sition of the groups also, and in the composition of the entire work. 
The intimate connection between Italian painting (fresco) and 
architecture naturally leads to the transference of architectural rules 
to the province of pictorial art , whereby not only the invasion of a 
mere luxuriant naturalism was obviated , but the fullest scope was 
afforded to the artist for the execution of his task. For, to discover 
the most effective proportions , to inspire life into a scene by the 
very rhythm of the lineaments , are not accomplishments to be 
acquired by extraneous aid ; precise measurement and calcu- 
lation are here of no avail ; a discriminating eye , refined taste, 
and a creative imagination , which instinctively divines the appro- 
priate forms for its design , can alone excel in this sphere of art. 
This enthusiasm for external beauty and just and harmonious pro- 
portions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
Its veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious thirst for fame caused the Italians of the 15th and 16th 
centuries to look back to classical antiquity as the era of illus- Study 
trious men, and ardently to desire its return. Subsequently, of the 
however, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appro- Antique 
priate resource, when the study of actual life did not suffice, and an 
admirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and symmetry. 
They by no means viewed the art of the ancients as a perfect whole, 
or as the product of a definite historical epoch, which developed 
itself under peculiar conditions ; but their attention was arrested by 
the individual works of antiquity and their special beauties. Thus 
ancient ideas were re-admitted into the sphere of Renaissance art. 
A return to the religious spirit of the Romans and Greeks is not of 


course to be inferred from the veneration for the ancient gods shown 
during the humanistic period ; belief in the Olympian gods -was ex- 
tinct; but just because no devotional feeling was intermingled, 
because the forms could only receive life from creative imagination, 
did they exercise so powerful an influence on the Italian masters. 
The importance of mythological characters being wholly due to the 
perfect beauty of their forms , they could not fail on this account 
pre-eminently to recommend themselves to Renaissance artists. 
These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
Character- idea of the character of the Renaissance. Those who ex- 
istics of amine the architectural works of the 15th or 16th century 
R = E .1^ should refrain from marring their enjoyment by the not al- 

5ANOE , __^ t 

Archi- together justifiable reflection, that in the Renaissance style 
tectore. no new system was invented, as the architects merely em- 
ployed the ancient elements, and adhered principally to tradition 
in their constructive principles and selection of component parts. 
Notwithstanding the apparent want of organisation, however, great 
beauty of form, the outcome of the most exuberant imagination, 
will be observed in all these structures. 

Throughout the diversified stages of development of the suc- 
ceeding styles of Renaissance architecture, felicity of proportion is 
invariably the aim of all the great masters. To appreciate their 
success in this aim should also be regarded as the principal task of 
the spectator, who with this object in view will do well to compare 
a Gothic with a Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove 
to him that harmony of proportion is not the only effective element 
in architecture ; for, especially in the cathedrals of Germany, the 
exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form without regard 
to measure , the violation of precepts of rhythm , and a disregard 
of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to the closed cannot 
fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled amateur will thus be 
convinced of the abrupt contrast between the mediaeval and the 
Renaissance styles. Thus prepared, he may, for example, proceed 
to inspect the Pitti Palace at Florence , which , undecorated and 
unorganised as it is, would scarcely be distinguishable from a rude 
pile of stones, if a judgment were formed from the mere descrip- 
tion. The artistic charm consists in the simplicity of the mass, 
the justness of proportion in the elevation of the stories, and the 
tasteful adjustment of the windows in the vast surface of the fa- 
cade. That the architects thoroughly understood the aesthetical 
effect of symmetrical proportions is proved by the mode of con- 
struction adopted in the somewhat more recent Florentine palaces, 
in which the roughly hewn blocks (rustica) in the successive stories 
recede in gradations, and by their careful experiments as to whether 
the cornice surmounting the structure should bear reference to the 
highest story , or to the entire facade. The same bias manifests 
itself in Bramante's imagination. The Cancelleria is justly 


considered a beautifully organised structure ; and when, after the 
example of Palladio in church-facades, a single series of columns 
was substituted for those resting above one another, symmetry of 
proportion was also the object in view. 

From the works of Brunelleschi (p. xliv), the greatest master of 
the Early Renaissance, down to those of Andrea Palladio of Vi- 
cenza (p. xlv), the last great architect of the Renaissance, the works 
of all the architects of that period will be found to possess many 
features in common! The style of the 15th century may, however, 
easily be distinguished from that of the 16th. The Flor- Early Re- 
entine Pitti, Riccardi, and Strozzi palaces are still based on naissance. 
the type of the mediaeval castle , but other contemporary creations 
show a closer affinity to the forms and articulation of antique art. 
A taste for beauty of detail , coeval with the realistic tendency of 
painting, produces in the architecture of the 15th century an exten- 
sive application of graceful and attractive ornaments, which entirely 
cover the surfaces, and throw the real organisation of the edifice into 
the background. For a time the true aim of Renaissance art appears 
to have been departed from ; anxious care is devoted to detail instead 
of to general effect ; the re-application of columns did not at first 
admit of spacious structures; the dome rose but timidly above the 
level of the roof. But this attention to minutiae, this disregard of 
effect on the part of these architects, was only, as it were, a re- 
straining of their power, in order the more completely to master, 
the more grandly to develop the art. 

There is no doubt that the Renaissance palaces (among which 
that of Urbino, mentioned in vol. ii. of this Handbook, has always 
been regarded as pre-eminently typical) are more attractive than the 
churches. These last, however , though destitute of the venerable 
associations connected with the mediaeval cathedrals, bear ample 
testimony to the ability of their builders. The churches of Northern 
Italy in particular are worthy of examination. The first early Re- 
naissance work constructed in this part of the country was the facade 
of the Certosa ofPavia, a superb example of decorative architecture. 
Besides the marble edifices of this period we also observe structures 
in brick, in which the vaulting and pillars form prominent features. 
The favourite form was either circular or that of the Greek cross 
(with equal arms), the edifice being usually crowned with a dome, 
and displaying in its interior an exuberant taste for lavish enrich- 
ment. Of this type are the church of the Madonna della Croce near 
Crema and several others at Piacenza and Parma (Madonna della 
Steccata). It was in this region thatBRAMANTB prosecuted the studies 
of which Rome afterwards reaped the benefit. Among the secular 
buildings of N. Italy we may mention the Ospedale Maggiore at 
Milan, which shows the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The 
best survey of the palatial edifices built of brick will be obtained 
by walking through the streets of Bologna (p. 313). 


The visitor to Venice will have an opportunity of tracing within 
a very limited space the progress of Renaissance architecture. The 
church of S. Zuccaria is an example of early Renaissance still in 
conflict with Gothic, while the richly coloured church of S. Maria 
dei Miracoli and the Scuola di S. Marco exhibit the style in its 
perfection. Foremost among the architects of Venice must he 
mentioned the Lombardi, to whom most of the Venetian buildings 
of the 15th cent, are attributed ; but we shall afterwards advert to 
the farther progress of Venetian architecture (p. xlv). One of the 
most famous architects of N. Italy was Fra Giocondo of Verona, a 
monk, philologist (the discoverer of the letters of the younger Pliny'), 
a botanist, an engineer, and a thoroughly well trained architect, who 
at a very advanced age, after the death of Bramante, was summoned 
to Rome to superintend the building of St. Peter's. 

Examples of early Renaissance architecture abound in the towns 
of Tuscany. At Florence, the scene of Filippo Brunelleschi's 
labours (1379-1446), the attention is chiefly arrested by the church 
of S. Lorenzo (1425), with its two sacristies (the earlier by Brunel- 
leschi , the later by Michael Angelo , which it is interesting to 
compare), while the small Cappella dei Pazzi near S. Croce is also 
noticeable. The Palazzo Rucellai is also important as showing the 
combination of pilasters with 'rustica', the greatest advance achieved 
by the early Renaissance. Siena, with its numerous palaces, Pienza, 
the model of a Renaissance town , and Vrbino also afford excellent 
examples of the art of the Quattrocentists, but are beyond the limits 
of the present volume. While all these different edifices possess 
many features in common , they may be classed in a number of 
groups, differing in material and various other characteristics, and 
entirely relieving them from any reproach of monotony. 

The early Renaissance is succeeded by Bramante's epoch (1444- 
1514), with which began the golden age of symmetrical construc- 
Zenith tion. "With a wise economy the mere decorative portions 
or the Re- were circumscribed , while greater significance and more 
naissance. m arked expression were imparted to the true constituents 
of the structure , the real exponents of the architectural design. 
The works of the Bramantine era are less graceful and attractive 
than those of their predecessors, but superior in their well defined, 
lofty simplicity and finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter 
been completed in the form originally designed by Bramante , we 
could have pronounced a more decided opinion as to the ideal of the 
church-architecture of the Renaissance. The circumstance that the 
grandest work of this style has been subjected to the most varied 
alterations (and vastness of dimensions was the principal aim of the 
architects) teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which 
so commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form of a Greek cross with 
rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, possesses concentrated 


unity, and that the pillaT-construction relieved by niches presents 
a most majestic appearance; nor can it he disputed that in the 
churches of the Renaissance the same artistic principles are applied 
as in the universally admired palaces and secular edifices. If the 
former therefore excite less interest , this is not due to the in- 
feriority of the architects, hut to causes beyond their control. The 
great masters of this culminating period of the Renaissance were 
Raphael, Baldassare Peruzzi, the younger Antonio da Sangallo 
of Rome, Michele Sammicheli of Verona (p. 202), Jacopo Sanso- 
vino of Venice, and lastly Michael Angelo. The succeeding gene- 
ration of the 16th ceiitury did not adhere to the style introduced by 
Bramante, though not reduced by him to a finished system. They 
aim more sedulously at general effect, so that harmony among the 
individual members begins to be neglected ; they endeavour to arrest 
the eye by boldness of construction and striking contrasts; or they 
borrow new modes of expression from antiquity, the precepts of 
which had hitherto been applied in an unsystematic manner only. 

The traveller will become acquainted with the works of Bramante 
and his contemporaries at Rome (see vol. ii. of this Hand- famous Re- 
book), but there are other places also which possess important naissance 
examples of the 'High Renaissance' style. At Florence, for Buildings. 
example, are the Palazzo Pandolftni and the Palazzo Uguccioni, 
both of which are said to have been designed by Raphael ; the 
Court of the Pitti Palace by Bart. Ammanati ; the Palazzo Serristori 
and the Palazzo Bartolini by Baccio d'Agnolo. We must also 
mention Mantua as the scene of the architectural labours of Giulio 
Romano (p. 213), Verona with its numerous buildings by Sam- 
michbli (e.g. the Palazzo Bevilacqua) , and Padua, where Gio- 
vanni Maria Falconbtto (1458-1534) and Andrea Riccio , or 
properly Briosco (S. Giustina) flourished. At Venice the Renais- 
sance culminated in the first half of the 16th cent, in the works of 
the Florentine Jacopo Sansovino (properly Tatti , 1477-1570), 
and at Genoa in those of Galeazzo Alessi (1500-72) of Perugia 
(e.g. S. Maria in Oarignano). 

In the middle and latter half of the 16th cent, Venice, Genoa, 
and Vicenza were zealous patrons of art. To this period Archi- 
belongs Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518-80; p. 218), tectubb at 
the last of the great Renaissance architects, whose Venetian Venice. 
churches (S. Giorgio Maggiore and Eedentore) and Vicentine palaces 
are equally celebrated. The fundamental type of domestic archi- 
tecture at Venice recurs with little variation. The nature of the 
ground afforded little scope for the caprice of the architect, 
while the conservative spirit of the inhabitants inclined them to 
adhere to the style established by custom. Nice distinctions of style 
are therefore the more observable, and that which emanated from 
a pure sense of form the more appreciable. Those who have been 
convinced by careful comparison of the great superiority of the 


Biblioteca of Sansovino (in the Piazzetta ; p. 244) over the new 
Procurazie of Scamozzi (p. 240), although the two edifices exactly 
correspond in many respects, have made great progress towards an 
accurate insight into the architecture of the Renaissance. 

Much, however, would be lost by the traveller who devoted his 
Minok attention exclusively to the master-works which have been 

Works of extolled from time immemorial, or solely to the great mon- 
Abt - umental structures. As even the insignificant vases (ma- 

jolicas , manufactured at Pesaro , Urbino , Gubbio , and Castel- 
Durante) testify to the taste of the Italians, their partiality 
for classical models, and their enthusiasm for purity of form, so 
also in inferior works, some of which fall within the province of a 
mere handicraft, the peculiar beauties of the Renaissance style are 
often detected , and charming specimens of architecture are some- 
times discovered in remote corners of Italian towns. Nor must the 
vast domain of decorative sculpture be disregarded, as such works, 
whether in metal, stone, or stucco, inlaid or carved wood (intarsia), 
often verge on the sphere of architecture in their designs, drawing, 
and style of enrichment. 

On the whole it may be asserted that the architecture of the Re- 
naissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern life 

Sculpture manifests its greatest excellence in secular structures, cannot 

of the Re- fail to gratify the taste of the most superficial observer. 

naissance. "With t)j e sculpture of the same period, however, the case is 
different. The Italian architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries 
still possesses a practical value and is frequently imitated at the 
present day ; and painting undoubtedly attained its highest con- 
summation at the same period ; but the sculpture of the Renais- 
sance does not appear to us worthy of revival, and indeed cannot 
compete with that of antiquity. Yet the plastic art, far from 
enjoying a lower degree of favour, was rather viewed by the ar- 
tists of that age as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. 
Sculpture was the first art in Italy which was launched into the 
stream of the Renaissance, in its development it was ever a step 
in advance of the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed 
the advantage of most clearly embodying the current ideas of the 
age, and of affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened 
love of art. Owing probably to the closeness of the connection be- 
tween the plastic art of the Renaissance and the peculiar national 
culture, the former lost much of its value after the decline of the 
latter, and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural 
works, in which adventitious historical origin is obviously less im- 
portant than general effect. In tracing the progress of the sculpture 
of the Renaissance, the enquirer at once encounters serious devia- 
tions from strict precepts, and numerous infringements of sestheti- 
cal rules. The execution of reiiefs constitutes by far the widest 
sphere of action of the Italian sculptors of the 15th century. 


These , however , contrary to immemorial usage , are executed 
in a pictorial style. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), for ex- 
ample , in his celebrated (eastern) door of the Baptistery of Flo- 
rence , is not satisfied with grouping the figures as in a painting, 
and placing them in a rich landscape copied from nature. He 
treats the background in accordance with the rules of perspective ; 
the figures at a distance are smaller and less raised than those in 
the foreground. He oversteps the limits of the plastic art, and 
above all violates the laws of the relief-style, according to which 
the figures are always represented in an imaginary space, and the 
usual system of a mere design in profile seldom departed from. 
In like manner the painted reliefs in terracotta by Luca della 
Robbia (1400-82) are somewhat inconsistent with purity of plastic 
form. But if it be borne in mind that the sculptors of the Renais- 
sance did not derive their ideas from a previously defined system, 
or adhere to abstract rules, the fresh and life-like vigour of their 
works (especially those of the 15th century) will not be disputed, 
and prejudice will be dispelled by the great attractions of the 
reliefs themselves. The sculpture of the Renaissance adheres as 
strictly as the other arts to the fundamental principle of repre- 
sentation ; scrupulous care is bestowed on the faithful and at- 
tractive rendering of the individual objects ; the taste is gratified 
by expressive heads, graceful female figures , and joyous children ; 
the sculptors have a keen appreciation of the beauty of the nude, 
and the importance of a calm and dignified flow of drapery. In 
their anxiety for fidelity of representation , however , they do not 
shrink from harshness of expression or rigidity of form. Their 
predilection for bronze-casting, an art which was less in vogue in 
the 16th cent. , accords with their love of individualising their 
characters. In this material , decision and pregnancy of form are 
expressed without restraint, and almost, as it were, spontaneously. 
Works in marble also occur, but these generally trench on the pro- 
vince of decoration , and seldom display the bold and unfettered 
aspirations which are apparent in the works in bronze. 

The churches have always afforded the most important field for 
the labours of the Italian sculptors, some of them, such as S. Croce 
at Florence , Frari and S. Oiovanni e Paolo at Venice , and the 
Santo at Padua, forming very museums of Renaissance sculpture. 
At the same time many of the wealthier families (the Medici and 
others) embellished their mansions with statuary , and the art of 
the sculptor was frequently invoked with a view to erect a fitting 
tribute to the memory of some public benefactor (such as the 
equestrian statues at Venice and Padua~). 

At Florence , the cradle of Renaissance sculpture , we become 
acquainted with Ghiberti and Delia Robbia, who have been s CDLPT oes 
already mentioned , and with the famous Donatello (pro- of the Ru 
perly Donato di Niccolo di Betti Barm, 1386-1466), who naissance 

xlviii TTXLIXH ART. 

introduced a naturalistic style, which , though often harsh, is full 
of life and character. The Judith Group in the Loggia de' Lanzi 
is an exaggerated and unpleasing example of this style, the master 
having aimed at the utmost possible expressiveness, while the lines 
and contours are entirely destitute of ease. Among Donatello's 
most successful works on the other hand are his statue of St. George 
(in Or S. Michele, which also contains his Peter and Mark; p. 403) 
and his Victorious David in bronze in the MuseoNazionale (p. 414), 
a collection invaluable to the student of the early Renaissance. The 
reliefs on the two pulpits in S. Lorenzo and the sculptures in the 
sacristy of that church (p. 431) should also be inspected. Dona- 
tello's finest works out of Florence are his numerous sculptures in 
>S. Antonio at Padua. 

The next sculptor of note was Andrea Verrocchio (1435-88). 
Most of the other masters of this period (Antonio Rossellino, 
Mino da Fiesole, Desiderio da Settignano) were chiefly oc- 
cupied in the execution of tombstones , and do not occupy a 
position of much importance; but the life and sense of beauty which 
characterise the early Renaissance are admirably exemplified in the 
works of the comparatively unknown Matteo Civitali of Lucca 
(1435-1501; Altar of St. Regulus in the Cathedral, p. 362). 
Important Florentine masters of the first half of the 16th cent. 
wereGiov. Franc. Rustici (1474- 1550?), who was perhaps inspir- 
ed by Leonardo, and particularly Andrea Sansovino (1460-1529), 
the author of the exquisite group of Christ and the Baptist in the 
Baptistery at Florence, of superb monuments at Rome (in the choir 
of S. Maria del Popolo), and of part of the sculptures which adorn 
the Santa Casa at Loreto. Northern Italy also contributed largely 
to the development of the plastic art. The Certosa at Pavia , for 
example, afforded occupation during several decades to numerous 
artists, among whom the most eminent were Giovanni Antonio 
Amadeo (sculptor of the huge monuments in the Cappella Colleoni 
at Bergamo), and, at a later period, Cristoforo Solari, surnamed 
1l Gobbo ; Venice gave birth to the famous sculptor Alessandro 
Leopardi (d. 1521); Riccio or Briosco wrought at Padua; Agos- 
tino Busti, il Bambaja (p. 130) and the above-mentioned Cristo- 
foro Solari, were actively engaged at Milan; and Modena 
afforded employment to Mazzoni and Begarelli (p. 302), artists 
in terracotta , the latter of whom is sometimes compared with 

Of the various works executed by these masters , Monumental 
Tombs largely predominate. While these monuments are often of 
a somewhat bombastic character, they afford an excellent illus- 
tration of the high value attached to individuality and personal 
culture during the Renaissance period. We may perhaps also fre- 
quently take exception to the monotony of their style which 
remained almost unaltered for a whole century, but we cannot fail 


to derive genuine pleasure from the inexhaustible freshness of 
imagination and richness of detail displayed within so narrow 

As museums cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculpture 
of the 15th century, so the picture galleries will not afford an 
accurate insight into the painting of that period. Sculp- p AINT i NG 
tures aTe frequently Temoved from their original position, of the Cm- 
many of those belonging to the Florentine churches, for otecento. 
example , having been of late transferred to museums ; but mural 
paintings are of course generally inseparable from the walls which 
they adorn. Of the frescoes of the 15th century of which a record has 
been preserved, perhaps one-half have been destroyed or obliterated, 
but those still extant are the most instructive and attractive ex- 
amples of the art of this period. The mural paintings in the church 
del Carmine (Cappella Brancacci) at Florence are usually spoken of 
as the earliest specimens of the painting of the Renaissance. This 
is a chronological mistake , as some of these frescoes were not com- 
pleted before the second half of the 15th century; but on material 
grounds the classification is justifiable, as this cycle of pictures may 
he regarded as a programme of the earlier art of the Renaissance, 
the importance of which it served to maintain, even during the age 
of Raphael. Here the beauty of the nude was first revealed , and 
here a calm dignity was for the first time imparted to the individual 
figures, as well as to the general arrangement ; and the transform- 
ation of a group of indifferent spectators in the composition into a 
sympathising choir, forming as it were a frame to the principal act- 
ors in the scene , was first successfully effected. It is, therefore, 
natural that these frescoes should still be regarded as models for 
imitation, and that, when the attention of connoisseurs was again 
directed during the last century to the beauties of the pre-Raphaelite 
period, the works of Masaccio (1401-1428) and Filippino Lippi 
(1457-1504) should have been eagerly rescued from oblivion (comp. 
p. 384). 

A visit to the churches of Florence is well calculated to convey 
an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of painting. 
The most important and extensive works are those of Do- 
mbnico Ghirlandajo (1449-94) : viz. frescoes in S. Trinita, P f™™ n G c £. T 
and those in the choir of S. Maria Novella, which in spright- 
liness of conception are hardly surpassed by any other work of the 
same period. (The traveller will find it very instructive to compare 
the former of these works with the mural paintings of Giotto in S. 
Croce, which also represent the legend of St. Francis, and to draw 
a parallel between Ghirlandajo's Last Supper in the monasteries 
of S. Marco a7id Ognissanti , and the work of Leonardo.) In the 
Dominican monastery of S. Marco reigns the pious and peaceful 
genius of Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fibsolk (1387-1455), who, 
though inferior to his contempotaiies in dramatic power, vies with 

BAEPBKE»- T ' ;.Iy I. Pti, T^. rH; d 


the best of them in his depth of sentiment and his sense of beauty, 
as expressed more particularly by his heads, and who in his old 
age displayed his well-matured art in the frescoes of the chapel of 
St. Nicholas in the Vatican. 

Although the Tuscan painters exhibit their art to its fullest 
extent in their mural paintings, their easel-pictures are also well 
worthy of most careful examination ; for it was chiefly through 
these that they gradually attained to perfection in imparting beauty 
and dignity to the human form. Besides the two great Florentine 
galleries (Ufflzi and Pitti), the collection of the Academy (p. 426) 
is also well calculated to afford a survey of the progress of Floren- 
tine painting. 

Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Gozzoli's charming 
scenes from the Old Testament on the northern wall of the Carupo 
Painting in Santo of Pisa (p. 355), truly forming biblical genre-pictures, 
othek Parts and his scenes from the life of St. Augustine in S. Gimi- 
of Tuscan?. <j nan0j Filippo Lippi's frescoes at Prato (p. 372) , Piero 
della Francesca's Finding of the Cross in S. Francesco at Arezzo, 
and lastly Ltjca Signorelli's representation of the Last Day in 
the Cathedral at Orvieto, afford a most admirable review of the 
character and development of Renaissance painting in Central Italy. 
Arezzo and Orvieto should by no means be passed over, not only 
because the works they contain of Piero della Francesca and Luca 
Signorelli show how nearly the art even of the 15th century ap- 
proaches perfection, but because both of these towns afford an im- 
mediate and attractive insight into the artistic taste of the mediaeval 
towns of Italy. Those who cannot conveniently visit the provincial 
towns will find several of the principal masters of the 15th century 
united in the mural paintings of the Sistine Chapel at Borne, where 
Sandro Botticelli (see p. 384), a pupil of the elder Lippi, Cosimo 
Rosselli (p. 384), Dom. Ghirlandajo, Signorelli, andPerugino have 
executed a number of rich compositions from the life of Moses and 
that of Christ. 

But an acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never 
suffice to enable one to form a judgment respecting the general 
Other progress of art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly 
Schools, touched vibrate powerfully in Upper Italy. The works of 
Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506; at Padua and Mantua) derive 
much interest from having exercised a marked influence on the 
German masters Holbein and Diirer, and surpass all the other works 
of his time in fidelity to nature and excellence of perspective 
(p. 213). — The earlier masters of the Venetian School (Vivarini, 
Crivelli) were to some extent adherents of the Paduan school, to 
which Mantegna belonged, but the peculiar Venetian style, mainly 
founded on local characteristics, and admirably successful in its rich 
portraiture of noble and dignified personages, was soon afterwards 
elaborated by Gentile Bellini (1421-1507) and his brother Gio- 


vanni (1426-1516), sons of Giacoino (eoinp. p. 238). — The Um- 
brian School also, which originated at Gubbio, and is admirably re- 
presented early in the 15th century by Ottaviano Nblli, blending 
with the Tuscan school in Gentile da Fabriano, and culminating 
in its last masters Pietro Vannucci, surnamed Perugino (1446- 
1524), and Bernardino Pinturicchio (1454-1513), meritsattention, 
not only because Raphael was one of its adherents during his first 
period , but because it supplements the broader Florentine style, 
and notwithstanding its peculiar and limited bias is impressive in 
its character of lyric sentiment and religious devotion (e. g. Ma- 

The fact that the various points of excellence were distributed 
among different local schools showed the necessity of a loftier union. 
Transcendent talent was requisite in order harmoniously to union of 
combine what could hitherto be viewed separately only, different 
The 15th century, notwithstanding all its attractiveness, Schools. 
shows that the climax of art was still unattained. The forms em- 
ployed, graceful and pleasing though they be, are not yet lofty and 
pure enough to be regarded as embodiments of the highest and 
noblest conceptions. The figures still present a local colouring, 
having been selected by the artists as physically attractive , rather 
than as characteristic and expressive of their ideas. A portrait style 
still predominates , the actual representation does not appear 
always wisely balanced with the internal significance of the event, 
and the dramatic element is insufficiently emphasised. The most 
abundant scope was therefore now afforded for the labours of the 
great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo Buonar- 
roti, and Raphael Santi, by whom an entirely new era was in- 

Leonardo's (1452-1519) remarkable character can only be tho- 
roughly understood after prolonged study. His comprehensive 
genius was only partly devoted to art; he also directed Leonardo 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely D * Vinci. 
different nature. Refinement and versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations; a division of labour, a partition 
of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were , his entire personality into the scale in all that he 
undertook. He regarded careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than comprehensive culture of the mind ; -the vigour of 
his imagination served also to stimulate the exercise of his intellect ; 
and his minute observation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies , in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 
an artist, especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 



obliterate all trace of the latter. Few of Leonardo's works 
have been preserved in Italy , and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period , when he wrought under 
Andrea Verrocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lo- 
renzo di Credi, is the fresco (Madonna and Donor) in S. Onofrio 
at Rome. Several oil-paintings, portraits, Madonnas, and composed 
works are attributed to his Milan period, although careful research 
inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. The following are 
the most famous of his pictures in the Italian galleries : — in the 
Ambrosiana of Milan the Portrait of a Girl (p. 139) ; in the Palazzo 
Pitti the Goldsmith and the Portrait of a Lady (pp. 445, 446; 
both of doubtful authenticity) ; in the Uffizi the Portrait of Himself 
(certainly spurious) and the Adoration of the Magi, which last, though 
little more than a sketch , bears full testimony to the fertility of 
the artist's imagination (p. 394) ; and lastly, in the Vatican Gal- 
lery, the St. Jerome (in shades of brown). The traveller will also 
find Leonardo's drawings in the Ambrosiana exceedingly interesting. 
The best insight into Leonardo's style, and his reforms in the art of 
colouring, is obtained by an attentive examination of the works 
of the Milan school (Luini, Salaino ; p. 128), as these are far better 
preserved than the original works of the master , of which (his 
battle-cartoon having been unfortunately lost with the exception of 
a single equestrian group) the Last Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie 
at Milan is now the only worthy representative. Although now a 
total wreck, it is still well calculated to convey an idea of the new 
epoch of Leonardo. The spectator should first examine the delicate 
equilibrium of the composition , and observe how the individual 
groups are complete in themselves, and yet simultaneously point to 
a common centre and impart a monumental character to the work ; 
then the remarkable physiognomical fidelity which pervades every 
detail, the psychological distinctness of character, and the dramatic 
life , together with the calmness of the entire bearing of the 
picture. He will then comprehend that with Leonardo a new era 
in Italian painting was inaugurated , that the development of art 
had attained its perfection. 

The accuracy of this assertion will perhaps be doubted by the 
amateur when he turns from Leonardo to Michael Angelo (1475- 
Michael 1564). On the one hand he hears Michael Angelo extolled 
Angelo. a s the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance, while 
on the other it is said that he exercised a prejudicial influence 
on Italian art , and was the precursor of the decline of sculpture 
and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel the doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with what is perfect , pro- 
foundly significative, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, we shall find that it is only by studying the master's bio- 
graphy that we can obtain an explanation of these anomalies , and 


reach a true appreciation of Michael Angelo's artistic greatness. 
Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to the nude , and 
treats the drapery in many respects differently from his professional 
brethren. But, like them, his aim is to inspire his figures with life, 
and he seeks to attain it by imparting to them an imposing and im- 
pressive character. At the same time he occupies an isolated position, 
at variance with many of the tendencies of his age. Naturally pre- 
disposed to melancholy, concealing a gentle and almost effeminate 
temperament beneath a mask of austerity, Michael Angelo was con- 
firmed in Mb peculiarities by the political and ecclesiastical circum- 
stances of his time, and wrapped himself up within the depths of 
his own absorbing thoughts. His sculpture most clearly manifests 
that profound sentiment to which however he often sacrificed sym- 
metry of form. His figures are therefore anomalous , exhibiting a 
grand conception, but no distinct or tangible thoughts, and least of 
all the traditional ideas. It is difficult now to fathom the hidden 
sentiments which the master intended to embody in his statues and 
pictures ; his imitators seem to have seen in them nothing but massive 
and clumsy forms, and soon degenerated into meaningless mannerism. 
The deceptive effect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best ex- 
emplified by some of his later works. His Moses in S. Pietro in Vincoli 
is of impossible proportions ; such a man can never have existed ; the 
small head, the huge arms, and the gigantic torso are utterly dis- 
proportionate ; the robe which falls over the celebrated knee could 
not be folded as it is represented. Nevertheless the work is grandly 
impressive ; and so also are the Monuments of the Medici in S. 
Lorenzo at Florence , in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary 
moulding of some of the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices 
accuracy of detail in order to enhance the aggregate effect. Had 
so great and talented a master not presided over the whole , the 
danger of an inflated style would have been incurred , the forms 
selected would have been exaggerated, and a professional mannerism 
would have been the result. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, in 
their anxiety to follow the example of his Last Judgment in the Sis- 
tine, succeeded only in representing complicated groups of unnat- 
urally foreshortened nude figures, while Baccio Bandinelli, think- 
ing even to surpass Michael Angelo , produced in his group of 
Hercules and Cacus (in the Piazza della Signoria at Florence) a 
mere caricature of his model. 

Michael Angelo lived and worked at Florence and Rome alter- 
nately. We find him already in Rome at the age of 21 years (1490), 
as Florence, after the banishment of the Medici, offered no favour- 
able field for the practice of art. Here he chiselled the Pieta and 
the Bacchus. In the beginning of the 16th cent, he returned to his 
home, where he produced his David and worked on the Battle Car- 
toon (Florentines surprised while bathing by the Pisans), which has 
since disappeared. In 1505 the Pope recalled him to Rome, but 


the work entrusted to him there , the Tomb of Julius II. , was at 
this time little more than begun. The Ceiling Paintings in the 
Sistine Chapel absorbed his whole attention from 1508 to 1512. 
After the death of Julius , his monument was resumed on a more 
extensive scale. The commands of the new pope, however, who 
wished to employ the artist for the glorification of his own family, 
soon brought the ambitiously designed memorial once more to a 
standstill. From 1516 onwards Michael Angelo dwelt at Carrara 
and Florence, occupied at first with the construction and embellish- 
ment of the Facade of S. Lorenzo, which was never completed, and 
then with the Tombs of the Medici. This work also advanced very 
slowly towards maturity, and at last the artist, disgusted with the 
tyranny of the Medici, set up in their places those of the statues which 
were finished, and migrated to Rome (1539). His first work here 
was the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, his next the erection 
of the scanty fragments of the tomb of Pope Julius. His last years 
were mainly devoted to architecture (St. Peter s). 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of the Pieta 
in St. Peter's occupies the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence) likewise do not transgress the customary 
precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of Michael 
Angelo's earlier period are rare; the finest, whether conceived 
in the midst of his youthful studies, or in his maturer years, is un- 
questionably the ceiling-painting in the Sistine. The architectural 
arrangement of the ceiling , and the composition of the several 
pictures are equally masterly ; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 
Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind ; he under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation , which he conceived as motion in the prophets 
and sibyls. Notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the 
fundamental intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great 
variety of psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in 
distinct characters. Lastly, in the so-called Ancestors of Christ, 
the forms represented are the genuine emanations of Michael 
Angelo's genius , pervaded by his profound and sombre senti- 
meTits, and yet by no means destitute of gracefulness and beauty. 
The decorative figures also which he designed to give life to his 
architectural framework are wonderfully beautiful and spirited. 
The Last Judgment, which was executed nearly thirty years later 
(in 1541 according to Vasari) , is not nearly so striking as the 
ceiling-paintings, owing in a great measure to its damaged condi- 
tion. — Among Michael Angelo's pupils were Sebastian del 
Piomko (the Venetian) , Marcello Venusti , and Daniele da 



Whether the palm be due to Michael Angelo orto Raphael (1483- 
1520) among the artists of Italy is a question which formerly gave 
rise to vehement discussion among artists and amateurs. jt APHAEt 
The admirer of Michael Angelo need, however, by no means 
be precluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. We now know 
that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 
each master in his peculiar province , than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits ; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
obstructed the progress of the other , and that a so-called higher 
combination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was such, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted , was entirely exempt from his influence ; 
but the result of preceding development was turned to the best 
account , not by him , but by Raphael , whose susceptible and 
discriminating character enabled him at once to combine different 
tendencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his pre- 
decessors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of pro- 
found sentiment, but his imagination was so constituted that 
he did not distort the ideas which he had to embody in order 
to accommodate them to his own views, but rather strove to iden- 
tify himself with them , and to reproduce them with the utmost 
fidelity. In the case of Raphael , therefore, a knowledge of his 
works and the enjoyment of them are almost inseparable , and 
it is difficult to point out any single sphere with which he was 
especially familiar. He presents to us with equal enthusiasm 
pictures of the Madonna , and the myth of Cupid and Psyche ; in 
great cyclic compositions he is as brilliant as in the limited sphere 
of portrait-painting; at one time he appears to attach paramount 
importance to strictness of style , architectural arrangement, sym- 
metry of groups, etc. ; at other times one is tempted to believe that 
he regarded colour as his most effective auxiliary. His excellence 
consists in his rendering equal justice to the most varied subjects, 
and in each case as unhesitatingly pursuing the right course , both 
in his apprehension of the idea and selection of form , as if he had 
never followed any other. 

Little is known of Raphael's private life , nor is it known by 
what master he was trained after his father's death (1494). In 
1500 he entered the studio of Perugino (p. li), and probably soon 
assisted in the execution of some of the works of his prolific master. 
That he rendered some assistance to Pinturicchio in the execution 
of the frescoes at Siena (in 1503, or perhaps as late as 1504) ap- 
pears certain from their points of resemblance with some of his 
drawings. Of Raphael's early, or Umbrian period there are examples 
in the Vatican Gallery (Coronation of Mary) and the Brera at Milan 
[Sposalizio of the Madonna, 1504). On settling at Florence (about 
i504) Raphael did not at first abandon the style he had learned at 


Perugia , and -which he had carried to greater perfection than any 
of the other Umbrian masters. Many of the pictures he painted 
there show that he still followed the precepts of his first master; 
but he soon yielded to the influence of his Florentine training. 
After the storm raised by Savonarola had passed over, glorious days 
were in store for Florence. Leonardo, after his return from Milan, 
and Michael Angelo were engaged here on their cartoons for the 
decoration of the great hall in the Palazzo Vecchio ; and it was their 
example, and more particularly the stimulating influence of Leo- 
nardo , that awakened the genius and called forth the highest 
energies of all their younger contemporaries. 

The fame of the Florentine school was at this period chiefly 
R phael's rnaintained by Fra Bartolommeo (1475-1517) and Andrea 
Florentine i>el Sarto (1487-1531). The only works of Bartolommeo 
Contempo- which we know are somewhat spiritless altar-pieces, but they 
karies. exhibit in a high degree the dignity of character, the tran- 
quillity of expression, and the architectural symmetry of grouping 
in which he excelled. His finest pictures are the Christ with the four 
Saints, the Descent from the Cross (or Pieta), the St. Mark in the Pitti 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the cathedral at Lucca. The traveller 
would not do justice to Andrea del Sarto, a master of rich colouring, 
were he to confine his attention to that artist's works in the two 
great Florentine galleries. Sarto's Frescoes in the Annunziata 
(court and cloisters) and in the Scalzo (History of John the Baptist, 
p. 429) are among the finest creations of the cinquecento. Such, 
too, was the stimulus given to the artists of this period by their 
great contemporaries at Florence that even those of subordinate 
merit have occasionally produced works of the highest excellence, 
as, for instance, the Salutation of Albertinelli and the Zenobius 
pictures of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo in the Ufflzi. The last masters of 
the local Florentine school were Pontormo and Angelo Bronzino. 
Raphael's style was more particularly influenced by his relations 
to Fra Bartolommeo, and the traveller will find it most interesting 
to compare their works and to determine to what extent each derived 
suggestions from the other. The best authenticated works in 
Italy of Raphael's Florentine period are the Madonna del Granduca 
(Pitti). the Madonna del Cardinello (Ufflzi), the Entombment (Gal. 
Borghese in Rome) , the Predelle in the Vatican , the portraits of 
Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti) , and the Portrait of himself 
(Ufiizi). The Portrait of a Lady in the Pitti gallery is of doubtful 
origin , and the Madonna del Baldacchino in the same gallery was 
only begun by Raphael. 

When Raphael went to Rome in 1508 he found a large circle 

Raphael's °f notable artists already congregated there. Some of these 

Roman were deprived of their employment by his arrival, including 

1'ekioii. the Sienese master Giov. Antonio Bazzi, surnamed II So- 

homa, whose frescoes in the Farnesina (unfortunately not now ac- 


cessible) vie with Raphael's works in tenderness and grace. A still 
more numerous circle of pupils , however , soon assembled around 
Raphael himself, such as Giulio Romano, Perino del Vaga, An- 
drea da Salerno, Polidoro da Caravaggio , Timoteo della 
Vite, Garofalo, Franc. Penni, and Giovanni da Udine. Attend- 
ed by this distinguished retinue , Raphael enjoyed all the honours 
of a prince, although, in the Roman art world, Bramante (p. xliv) 
and Michael Angelo occupied an equally high rank. The latter did 
not, however, trench on Raphael's province as a painter so much as 
was formerly supposed, and the jealousy of each other which they 
are said to have entertained was probably chiefly confined to their re- 
spective followers. Raphael had doubtless examined the ceiling of 
the Sistine with the utmost care, and was indebted to Michael Angelo 
for much instruction ; but it is very important to note that he neither 
followed in the footsteps, nor suffered his native genius to be biassed 
in the slightest degree by the example of his great rival. A signal 
proof of this independence is afforded by the Sibyls which he painted 
in the church of S. Maria della Pace in 1514, and which, though 
conceived in a very different spirit from the imposing figures in the 
Sistine, are not the less admirable. In order duly to appreciate the 
works produced by Raphael during his Roman period, the traveller 
should chiefly direct his attention to the master's frescoes. The 
Stanze in the Vatican, the programme for which was obviously 
changed repeatedly during the progress of the work, the Tapestry, 
the Loggie, the finest work of decorative art in existence, the Dome 
Mosaics in S. Maria del Popolo (Capp. Chigi), and the Oalatea and 
Myth of Psyche in the Farnesina together constitute the treasure be- 
queathed to Rome by the genius of the prince of painters. (Farther 
particulars as to these works will be found in the second vol. of 
this Handbook.) 

Many, and some of the best , of Raphael's easel-pictures of his 
Roman period are now beyond the Alps. Italy, however, still pos- 
sesses the Madonna della Sedia, the most mundane, but most 
charming of his Madonnas (Pitti), the Madonna dell' Impannata 
(Pitti), the Madonna col Divino Amore (Naples), the Madonna di 
Foligno and the Transfiguration (in the Vatican), St. Cecilia (Bo- 
logna), and the Young St. John (Uffizi). The finest of his portraits 
are those of Pope Julius II. (Pitti; a replica in the Uffizi) and 
Leo X. with two Cardinals (Pitti ; a copy by Andrea del Sarto at 
Naples). Besides these works we must also mention his Cardinal 
Bibbiena (Pitti), the Violin-player (in the Pal. Sciarra at Rome), 
the Fornarina, Raphael's mistress (in the Pal. Barberini at Rome), 
and the Portrait of a Lady (Pitti, No. 245), which recalls the 
Sistine Madonna. 

After Raphael's death the progress of art did not merely come 
to a standstill, but a period of rapid Decline set in. The conquest 
and plundering of Rome in 1527 entirely paralysed all artistic effort 


for a time. At first this misfortune proved a boon to other parts of 

Italy. Raphael's pupils migrated from Rome to various pro- 

P Ueclin° F vinoial towns. Giulio Romano , for example, entered the 

service of the Duke of Mantua, embellished his palace with 

paintings, and designed the Palazzo del Te (p. 216), while Perino 

del Vaga settled at Genoa (Pal. Doria). These offshoots of Raphael's 

school, however, soon languished, and ere long ceased to exist. 

The Northeen Schools of Italy , on the other hand , retained 

their vitality and independence for a somewhat longer period. At 

Bologna the local style , modified by the influence of Ra- 

NItalv° F P nae 'i was successfully practised by Bart. Ramenghi , sur- 

named Bagnacavallo (1484-1542). Ferrara boasted of 

Lodovico Mazzolino (1481-1530), a master of some importance, 

and Dosso Dossi ; and at Verona the reputation of the school was 

maintained by Gianfranc. Caroto 

The most important works produced in Northern Italy were those 

of Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (14949-1534), and of 

n ,„„„„„,„ the Venetian masters. Those who visit Parma after Rome 

Kj O K It LtrO lO . 

and Florence will certainly be disappointed with the pic- 
tures of Correggio. They will discover a naturalistic tendency in 
his works , and they will observe , not only that his treatment of 
space (as in the perspective painting of domes) is unrefined , but 
that his individual figures possess little attraction beyond mere 
natural charms, and that their want of repose is apt to displease and 
fatigue the eye. The fact is, that Correggio was not a painter of all- 
embracing genius and far-reaching culture, but merely an adept in 
chiaroscuro, who left all the other resources of his art undeveloped. 
In examining the principal works of the Venetian School, how- 
ever, the traveller will experience no such dissatisfaction. From the 

school of Giovanni Bellini (p. 1) emanated the greatest re- 
School" P resentat i v es of Venetian painting — Giorgione , properly 

Barbarella (1477-1511), whose works have unfortunately 
not yet been sufficiently well identified , the elder Palma (1480- 
1528), and Tiziano Vecellio (1477-1576), who for nearly three 
quarters of a century maintained his native style at its culminating 
point. These masters are far from being mere colorists; nor do they 
owe their peculiar attraction to local inspiration alone. The enjoy- 
ment of life and pleasure which they so happily pourtray is a theme 
dictated by the culture of the Renaissance (a culture possessed in 
an eminent degree by Titian, as indicated by his intimacy with the 
'divine' Aretino). Their serene and joyous characters often recall 
some of the ancient gods, showing the manner in which the artists 
of the Renaissance had profited by the revived study of the antique. 
Properly to appreciate Titian it is of importance to remember how 
much of his activity was displayed in the service of the different 
courts. His connection with the family of Este began at an early 
period ; he carried on an active intercourse with the Gonzagas at 


Mantua, and executed numerous pictures for them. Later he basked 
in the favour of Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain. The natural 
result of this was that the painting of portraits and of a somewhat 
limited cycle of mythological subjects engrossed the greater part of 
Ms time and talents. That Titian's genius, however, was by no 
means alien to religion and deep feeling in art, and that his imagi- 
nation was as rich and powerful in this field as in pourtraying 
realistic and sensually attractive forms of existence, is proved by 
his numerous ecclesiastical paintings , of which the finest are the 
Pesaro Madonna (p. 275), the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (p. 266), 
the Presentation in the Temple (p. 254), and the Assumption 
(p. 256) at Venice. The St. Peter Martyr, another masterpiece, 
unfortunately fell a prey to the flames. 

Owing to the soundness of the principles on which the Venetian 
school was based, there is no wide gulf between its masters of the 
highest and those of secondary rank , as is so often the case in the 
other Italian schools ; and we accordingly find that works by Lo- 
renzo Lotto, Sebastian del Piombo, the Bonifacio's, Porbe- 
none, Paris Bordone , and Tintoretto frequently vie in beauty 
with those of the more renowned chiefs of their school. Even 
Paolo Caliari, surnamed Veronese (1528-88), the last great 
master of his school, shows as yet no trace of the approaching 
period of decline , but continues to delight the beholder with his 
delicate silvery tints and the spirit and richness of his compositions 
(comp. p. 238). 

Correggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently taken as models by the Italian painters of the 17th century, 
and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, if the entire post-Raphaelite ^J^n!,'" 
period were not usually overlooked. Those, however, who 
make the great cinquecentists their principal study will doubtless 
be loth to examine the works of their successors. Magnificent de- 
corative works are occasionally encountered, but the taste is 
offended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial man- 
nerism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas they embody; they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and finally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste foT beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their technical 
skill is not the result of mature experience, slowly acquired and 
justly valued : they came into easy possession of great resources of 
art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. The quaint, 
the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their taste ; rapidity, 
not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. Abundant specimens 
of this mannerism, exemplified in the works of Zuccaro, d'Arfino, 
Tbmpesta, and others, are encountered at Rome and Florence 


(cupola of the cathedral). The fact that several works of this 
class produce a less unfavourable impression does not alter their 
general position , as it is not want of talent so much as of con- 
scientiousness which is attributed to these artists. 

The condition of Italian art, that of painting at least, improved 
to some extent towards the close of the 16th century, when there 

was a kind of second efflorescence, known in the schools as 
SEC< ival RE tne ' reA,lval °f S 00(1 taste', which is said to have chiefly 

manifested itself in two directions , the eclectic and the na- 
turalistic. But these are terms of little or no moment in the study 
of art, and the amateur had better disregard them. This period of art 
also should be studied historically. The principal architectural mon- 
uments of the 17th century are the churches of the Jesuits, which 
unquestionably produce a most imposing effect ; but the historical 
enquirer will not easily be dazzled by their meretricious magni- 
ficence. He will perceive the absence of organic forms and the 
impropriety of combining totally different styles, and he will steel 
himself against the gorgeous, but monotonous attractions of the 
paintings and other works of the same period. The bright Renais- 
sance is extinct , simple pleasure in the natural and human is ob- 
literated. A gradual change in the views of the Italian public and 
in the position of the church did not fail to influence the tendencies 
of art, and in the 17th century artists again devoted their energies 
more immediately to the service of the church. Devotional pictures 
now became more frequent, but at the same time a sensual, natural- 
istic element gained ground. At one time it veils itself in beauty 
of form, at another it is manifested in the representation of volup- 
tuous and passionate emotions ; classic dignity and noble symmetry 
are never attained. Crist. Allom's Judith (p. 447) should be 
compared with the beauties of Titian, and the frescoes of Annibalb 
Carracci in the Palazzo Farnese with Raphael's ceiling-paintings in 
the Farnesina, in order that the difference between the 16th and 
17th centuries may be clearly understood ; and the enquirer will be 
still farther aided by consulting the coeval Italian poetry , and ob- 
serving the development of the lyric drama or opera. The poetry of 
the period thus furnishes a key to the mythological representations 
of the School of the Carracci. Gems of art, however, were not un- 
frequently produced during the 17th century, and many of the frescoes 
of this period are admirable, such as those by Guido Reni and 
Domknichino at Rome. Beautiful oil-paintings by various masters 
are also preserved in the Italian galleries. Besides the public col- 
lections of Bologna , Naples , and the Vatican and Capitol , the 
private galleries of Rome are of great importance. The so-called 
gallery-pieces, figures and scenes designated by imposing titles, and 
painted in the prevailing taste of the 17th century, were readily re- 
ceived, and indeed most appropriately placed in the palaces of the 
Roman nobles, most of which owe their origin and decoration to that 


age. This retreat of art to the privacy of the apartments of the great 
may be regarded as a symptom of the universal withdrawal of the 
Italians from public life. Artists, too, henceforth occupy an isolated 
position, unchecked by public opinion, exposed to the caprices of 
amateuTS , and themselves inclined to an arbitrary deportment. 
Several qualities, however , still exist of which Italian artists are 
never entirely divested ; they retain a certain address in the 
arrangement of figures, they preserve their reputation as ingenious 
decorators, and understand the art of occasionally imparting an 
ideal impress to their pictures ; even down to a late period in the 
18th century they excel in effects of colour, and by devoting 
attention to the province of genre and landscape-painting they may 
boast of having extended the sphere of their native art. At the 
same time they cannot conceal the fact that they have lost all 
faith in the ancient ideals , that they are incapable of new and 
earnest tasks. They breathe a close, academic atmosphere, they 
no longer labour like their predecessors in an independent and 
healthy sphere, and their productions are therefore devoid of ab- 
sorbing and permanent interest. 

This slight outline of the decline of Italian art brings us to 
the close of our brief and imperfect historical sketch, which, be 
it again observed, is designed merely to guide the eye of the 
enlightened traveller, and to aid the uninitiated in independent 
discrimination and research. 

Contents of Article on Italian Art : 


Art of Antiquity : the Greeks and Romans xxvii 

The Middle Ages : Early Christian Art xxxi 

Byzantine style xxxii 

Romanesque style . . xxxiv 

Gothic style xxxvi 

Niccolo Pisano, Giotto xxxvii 

The Renaissance xxxix 

Architecture xlii 

Early Renaissance xliii 

High Renaissance xliv 

Sculpture xlvi 

Painting : 

{Tuscan Schools xlix 

Upper Italian Schools. The Venetians . 1 

Umbrian School li 



[Leonardo da Vinci ...... li 

I Michael Angelo and his pupils ... Hi 

XVI. Cent. Raphael, his contemporaries, and pupils lv 

I Correggio lviii 

\, Venetian masters lviii 

End of the XVI., and XVII. Cent. : Mannerists, Naturalists, 

Eclectics lix 

Among the best works on Italian art are Crowe §■ Cavalcaselle's 
History of Painting in Italy and History of Painting in North Italy; 
Kugler's Handbook of Painting (new edit, by Sir H. Layard); Mrs. 
Jamesons Lives of the Italian Painters ; and the woTks of Mr. C. C. 
Perkins on Italian Sculpture. A convenient and trustworthy manual 
for the traveller in Italy isBurckhardt's Cicerone (translated by Mrs. 
A. II. Clough). 

I. Routes to Italy. 

1. From Paris to Nice via Lyons and Marseilles .... 1 

1. Vaucluse 12 

2. From Tarascon to St. Reiny 12 

3. From Tarascon to Nimes 12 

4. Hyeres 20 

2. From Paris (Oeneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis .... 23 

1. From Geneva to Culoz 24 

2. From Bussoleno to Susa 26 

3. From'Martigny over the Simplon to Novara or to Lago 

Maggiore 26 

From Gravellona to Pallanza and to Stresa 29 

4. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como (Milan) 29 

5. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen 41 

6. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 45 

1. From Trent to Bassano by the Val Sugana 49 

2. From Mori to Riva 49 

7. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 50 

1. From Paris to Nice via, Lyons and Marseilles. 

Railway to Marseilles, 536 M. , in 24 (express in 15'/0 hrs.; fares 
106fr. 30, 79fr. 75, 58fr. 45c. (Express from Paris to Lyons, 318 M., 
in 9, ordinary trains in 123/4 hrs. ; fares 63 fr. 5, 47 fr. 30, 34 fr. 70 c.) — 
From Lyons to Marseilles, 218 M., express in 6-8>/4hrs., first class only; 
fare 43fr. 30c. From Marseilles to Nice, 140 M., express in 5 3 /4-6 hrs.; 
fares 27 fr. 80, 20 fr. 85c. — In winter a 'Train de Luxe 1 leaves Paris every 
evening for Xice and the other winter-resorts of the liiviera, arriving on 
the afternoon of the following day. The supplementary charge varies 
from 25 to 100 fr. according to the distance and the season. 

Fuller details regarding the French places described in this route will 
be found in Baedeker's Northern, France , Baedeker's Centre de la France, 
and Baedeker s Midi de la France. 

Soon after quitting Paris the train crosses the Marne , not far 
from its confluence with the Seine, and near (3!/o M.) Charenton, 
the lunatic asylum of which is seen on an eminence to the left. 
Some distance beyond (4*^ M.) Maisons-Alfort we cross the Ligne 
de Grande-Ceinture de Paris. 9*^ M. VUUneuve St. Georges is 
picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Y'eres and the Seine, 
on the slope of a wooded hill, which is crowned by a new fort. 

The beautiful green dale of the Yeres is seen to the left. Numer- 
ous picturesque country-houses are passed. — 11 M. Montgeron. 
Beyond (13!/2 M.) Brunoy the train passes over a viaduct 105 ft. 
in height , commanding a beautiful view , and enters the plain of 
La Brie. 16 M. Combs-la-Ville; 19 M. Lieusaint; 23^2 M. Cession. 
The Seine is again reached and crossed at — 

28 M. Melun (Orand Monarque), the capital of the Departe- 
ment de Seine et Marne, an ancient town with 12,564 inhab., 
the Roman Methalum , or Melodunum, picturesquely situated on 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. 1 

2 Route 1. MUJMXEKEAU. From Paris 

an eminence above the river, !/ 2 M. from the station. The church 
of Notre Dame (11th cent.) , the church of St. Aspais (14th cent.), 
and the Renaissance Hotel de Ville are fine edifices. 

After affording several picturesque glimpses of the Seine valley, 
the train enters the forest of Fontainebleau. 31'/o M. Bois-le-Roi. 

361/-2 M. Fontainebleau (Buffet; Hotels de France et d'Angle- 
terre, du Cadran-BUu, du Nord, etc.) is a quiet place with broad, 
clean streets (13,340 inhab.). The *Palace, an extensive pile, con- 
taining five courts, is mainly indebted for its present form to Fran- 
cis I. (d. 1547) and Henri IV., and abounds in interesting histori- 
cal reminiscences. It contains a series of handsome saloons and 
apartments (visible daily, 10-5 in summer, 11-4 in winter). The 
beautiful Gardens are also open to the public. The *Forest of 
Fontainebleau occupies an area of 42,500 acres (50 M. in circum- 
ference) and affords many delightful walks. (For farther details, 
see Baedeker's Paris or Baedeker's Northern France.^ 

40 M. Thomery is celebrated for its luscious grapes (Chasselas 
de Fontainebleau). — 41 72 M - Moret (Buffet; Ecu de France), 
picturesquely situated on the Loing , has a Gothic church of the 
12th and 15th cent, and a chateau once occupied by Sully. To the 
right runs the railway to Montargis, Nevers, Moulins, and Vichy. 
The line crosses the valley of the Loing by a viaduct of thirty 
arches. — 43 M. St. Mammes , near the confluence of the Loing 
with the Seine. 

49 M. Montereau (Buffet ; Hotel du Grand-Monarque) , pictur- 
esquely situated at the confluence of the Seine and Yonne , with 
7700 inhab. and a church of the 13-15th centuries. Jean sans 
Peur , Duke of Burgundy , was assassinated on the bridge here in 
1419. The chateau of Surville, on a hill to the left, commands a 
line view. 

The train ascends the broad and well-cultivated valley of the 
Yonne. Stat. Villeneuve-la-Guyard, Champigny , Pont-sur- Yonne. 

70 M. Sens (Buffet; Hotels de VEcu, de Paris), the ancient ca- 
pital of the Senones , who under Brennus plundered Rome in B.C. 
390, is a quiet town with 14,000 inhabitants. The early-Gothic 
*Cathedral (St. Etienne), dating chiefly from the 12th cent. , is an 
imposing edifice. 

Next stations Etiyny-Veron , Villeneuve-sur-Yonne, St. Julien- 
du-Sault, Cezy. — 90 72 M. Joigny (Due de Bourgogne), the Jovinia- 
cum of the Romans , is a picturesque and ancient town (6500 in- 
hab.) on the Yonne. — 96 M. Laroche lies at the confluence of the 
Yonne, Armancon, and the Canal de Bourgogne. Branch-line hence 
to Auxerre. 

The line ascends the valley of the Armancon. — 102 M. Brie- 
non. — 107 1 /') M. St. Florentin, a small place with an interesting 
church (15th cent.). 

to Nice. DIJON. 1. Route. 3 

About 6 M. to the S. of St. Florentin is the Cistercian Abbey of Fon- 
tigny, where Thomas a Becket passed two years of his exile. Langton, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, banished by King John, and other English 
prelates have also sought a retreat within its walls. 

122 M. Tonnerre (Lion d'Or; Rail. Restaurant) , a town with 
5095 inhab., picturesquely situated on the Arman^on. The church 
of St. Pierre , on an eminence above the town , built in the 12th- 
16th cent. , commands a pleasing prospect. — Chablis, 8^2 M. to 
the S.W., is noted for its white wines. 

127 M. Tanlay boasts of a fine chateau in the Renaissance style, 
founded by the brother of Admiral Coligny. At (136 M.) Ancy-le- 
Franc there is a very handsome Chateau, erected in the 16- 17th 
cent, from designs by Primaticcio. From (140 M.) Nuits-sous-Ra- 
vieres branch -lines run to Chdtillon-sur-Seine and Avallon. — 
151 M. Montbard, birthplace of Buffon (1707-1788), the great 
naturalist, contains his chateau and a monument to his memory. — 
159!/ 2 M. Lea Laumes. 

164'/ 2 M. Darcey; 173 M. Verrey. Beyond (179 M.) Blaisy-Bas 
the line penetrates the watershed (1326 ft.) between the Seine and 
the Rhone by a tunnel, 2 l / 2 M. long. Between this point and 
Dijon is a succession of viaducts, cuttings, and tunnels; one of the 
last is 21/2 M. long. Beyond (184 M.) Malain , with its ruined 
chateau , the line enters the picturesque valley of the Ouche, 
bounded on the right by the slopes of the Cote d'Or. Stations Velars, 

195y 2 M. Dijon (Hotels de la Cloche, de Bourgogne, du Jura; 
*Buffet), with 61,000 inhab., the ancient Divio, once the capital of 
Burgundy, now that of the Departement de la Cote d'Or, lies at the 
confluence of the Ouche with the Suzon and the Canal de Bour- 
gogne. The dukes of Burgundy resided here down to the death of 
Charles the Bold in 1477. 

The Rue de la Gare leads from the station to the Place Darcy, 
adjoining the pleasant Promenade du Chateau d'Eau on the left, 
and to the Porte Guillaume. Passing through the latter, we proceed 
by the Rue de la Liberte to the Hotel de Ville , once the ducal 
palace , but remodelled in the 17th and 18th centuries. The two 
towers and the Salle des Gardes are almost the only ancient parts. 
The Museum, containing valuable collections of pictures, anti- 
quities, engravings, etc. , is open to the public on Sun. 12-4, on 
Thurs. and Sat. 12-3, and daily (except Mon. forenoon) for a fee. 

Notre Dame, to the N. of the H6tel-de-Ville, is a Gothic church 
of the 13th cent., of very picturesque exterior. The principal por- 
tal, a beautiful Gothic composition , has lately been restored. The 
interior is also interesting. 

St. Benigne, the cathedral, to the S. of the Porte Guillaume, a 
building of very early foundation, was re-erected in 1271-88. The 
plan resembles that of Byzantine churches. The two towers in front 

^ * 

4 Route 1 . MACON. From Paris 

are covered with conical roofs, and a wooden spire, 300 ft. in height, 
rises over the transept. 

The Castle , to the N. of the Porte Guillaume , now in a half- 
ruined condition, was erected by Louis XI. in 1478-1512, and 
is now used by the gendarmerie. Farther to the N. E., in the Place 
St. Bernard, stands the modern Statue of St. Bernard (d. 1153), 
who was born at Fontaine, a village near Dijon. 

On the E. side of the town, near the Faubourg St. Michel, rises 
the handsome Monument du 30. Octobre, erected in memory of the 
citizens who were killed during the siege of the town by the Ger- 
mans in 1870. 

Dijon is the centre of the wine-trade of Upper Burgundy ; the 
growths of Gevroy , including Chambertin, and of Vougeot, Nuits, 
and Beaune are the most esteemed. 

Dijon is the junction of the line via Dole and Mouchard to Pontarlier, 
where it diverges to the left (N.E.I to Neuch&tel , and to the right (S.E.) 
to Lausanne (Geneva) and Brigue. Comp. R. 3. 

The line to Macon crosses the Ouche and the Canal de Bourgogne 
(p. 2), and skirts the sunny vineyards of the Cote d'Or, which pro- 
duce the choicest Burgundy wines. At (206 M.) Vougeot is the 
famous Clos- Vougeot vineyard. 209 M. Nuits-sous-Beaune, a thriv- 
ing little town which carries on a brisk wine-trade. 

21872 M. Beaune (Buffet; Hotel du Chevreuil; Hotel de France), 
with 12,150 inhab., on the Bouzoise , deals largely in Burgundy 
wines. Notre Dame, a church of the 12th and 15th cent., has a fine 
Gothic porch. The Hospital, a quaint building in the Flemish style, 
was founded in 1443 by Nicholas Rolin, Chancellor of Burgundy. 

222!/2 M. Meursault. From (227l/ 2 M.) Chagny a branch-line 
diverges to Autun, Nevers, and Creuzot. The train passes through 
a tunnel under the Canal du Centre, which connects the Saone and 
the Loire, and enters the valley of the Thalie. 233 M. Fontaines. 

238 M. Chalon-sur-Saone (Grand-Hotel; Hdtel du Chevreuil), 
with 22,768 inhab., situated at the junction of the Canal du Centre 
with the Saone , contains little to interest the traveller. The ex- 
press trains do not touch Chalon, the branch-line to which diverges 
from the junction Chdlon-Saint-Come. Branch-lines hence to Lons- 
le-Saulnier and to Dole. 

The line follows the right bank of the Saone ; to the left in the 
distance rises the Jura , and in clear weather the snowy summit 
of Mont Blanc, upwards of 100 M. distant, is visible. 

254 M. Tournus (5250 inhab. J possesses an interesting abbey- 
church (St. Philibert), visible to the left of the railway. 

274 M. Macon (Hotel des Champs Elysees ; de VEurope ; Buffet), 
the capital of the Department of the Saone and Loire , with 19,670 
inhab., is another great centre of the wine-trade. The church of 
St. Pierre is a handsome modern building in the Romanesque st)le, 
near the back of which is the Hotel de Ville. Macon was the birth- 
place of Lamartine, the poet (1790-1869), to whom a statue, by 

to Nice. LYONS. /. Route. 5 

Falguiere, has been erected on the Quai du Midi. — The line to 
Culoz (Geneva, Turin) diverges here to the left ; see R. 1. 

The line continues to follow the right bank of the Saone. Scen- 
ery pleasing. The stations between Macon and Lyons present little 
to interest the traveller. Fine view , to the left , of the valley of 
the Saone. At Lyons the train stops first at Lyon- Vaise and then 
goes on to the main station at Perrache (PI. C, 6), passing through 
a tunnel l 1 ^ M. long and crossing the Saone. Good view of the 
town to the left. 

318 M. Lyons. — Hotels. Grand Hotel de Lyon (PI. a; D, 3), Eue 
de la Re'publique 16, R. from 3, dej. 3'/2, D. 5, pens, from 11 fr.; Grand 
Hotel Collet et Continental (PI. b; D, 4), Rue de la Re'publique 62, 
R. from 3fr.; Gr. Hot. de Bellecoub (PI. c; D, 5), Place Bellecour; Gr. 
Hotel de l'Europe (PI. d; D, 4), Rue de Bellecour 1, R. from 3 fr. ; Gk. 
Hotel du Globe (PI. e; D, 4), Rue Gasparin 21; Hotel de Rome (PI. p ; 
(', D, 5), Rue de Peyrat 4; Gr. Hotel des Beaux Arts (PI. f ; D, 4); Git. 
Hotel des Etrangers (PI. g; D, 4), Rue Stella 5, pension 7-10 fr.; Ho- 
tel des Negociants (PI. h; D, 4), R. & A. from 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; Hotel des 
Archers (PI. o; D, 4), R. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; Gr. Hotel de l'Univers (PI. i; 
D, 6), Cour du Midi 27 & 29, well spoken of, R. & A. from 2'/ 2 fr. ; Ho- 
tel d'Angleterre (PI. j; C, 6), Place Perrache 21; Grand Hotel de 
Bordeaux et du Parc (PI. k ; C, 6), near the main railway-station ; Hot. 
de la Poste (PI. 1; D, 5), a hotel garni, R. from 2 fr. ; Hot. he Milan 
(PI. n; D, 3); Hotel-Restaurant Dubost(P1.o; C, 6), Place Perrache 19. 

Cafes-Restaurants. Maison Dorie, Place Bellecour; Maderni, Rue de la 
Re'publique 19; Casati , Rue de la Re'publique 8; du Helder; du Theatre; 
Girard; Railway Restaurant, at the Perrache station. 

Cabs, for 2 pers. per drive 1 fr. 25 c, 1st hour 1 fr. 50 c, each following 
hour 1 fr. 25 c. ; for 4 pers. l'/2, 2, and I1/2 fr. Small new cabs for 2 pers. 
75 c. and 1 fr. 25 c. — Trunk 25 c. 

Tramways through all the principal streets (romp. Plan.) — Cable 
Tramways ( Chemins de Fer Funiculaires, known as Ficelles) from the Place 
Sathonay (PI. D, 3) to the Croix-Rousse and from the Avenue de VArche- 
vichii (PI. C, 4) to St. Just (fares 10-25 c). 

Steamboats (Bateaux-Omnibus) on the Saone from Perrache (Pont du 
Midi; PI. C, 6) to Vaise and St. Rambert (fares 10-25 c.) and from the 
Quai St. Antoine (PI. D, 4) to Vaise, Rochecardon, La Caille, etc. Also 
to Aix-les-Bains, Chalon-sur-Saone (p. 4), Avignon, etc. 

Post Office, Place Bellecour (PI. D, 5), entrance in the Place de la Cha- 
rite. — Telegraph Office, Place de la Republique 53. — Telephone at the 
Exchange, for Paris and Marseilles (2 and H/2 fr. per 5 min.). 

Baths. Bains de la Grolte, Rue de la Charite 4; Bains du Rhone, at 
the Quai de Retz and Quai de l'Hopital. 

Theatres. Grand-Thiatre (PI. D, E, 3), Place de la Come"die ; Theatre 
des Cilestins (PI. D, 4); T. Bellecour (PI. D, 4, 5). — Casino, cafe'-chantunt, 
Rue de la Republique. 

British Vice -Consul, Robert Ottley, Esq., Quai de Retz 19. — United 
States Vice-Consul, Lawson V. Moore, Esq., Rue Lafont 6. 

English Church Service, Holy Trinity Church, Quai de l'Est; chaplain, 
Rev. H. Lister. 

Lyons, the ancient Lugdunurn, the capital of the De'partement 
du Rh6ne, with 402,000 inhab., is the second city, and the most 
important manufacturing place in France, silk being its great staple 
commodity. It is also an archiepiscopal see, the headquarters of 
a corps d'armee, and the seat of an Academie Universitaire' (with 
five faculties). 

6 Route 1. LYONS. From Paris 

The situation of the city at the confluence of the Rhone and 
Saone is imposing. The Saone is crossed by thirteen, the Rhone by 
nine bridges. Lyons is one of the best built towns in France. 
Great alterations have taken place within the last 30-40 years, so 
that the general aspect of the city is modern. It consists of three 
distinct portions , the original town on the tongue of land between 
the Rhone and Saone, the suburbs of Les Brotteaux and La Ouillo- 
tiere on the left bank of the Rhone, and the suburb of Vaise on the 
right bank of the Saone. The military defences of the city consist 
of a wide girdle of eighteen forts. 

The beauty of the situation and the extent of the city are best 
appreciated when viewed from the **Hbight of Fourvierb (PI. C, 
4) , crowned by its conspicuous church. The hill is ascended 
by several different paths, and also by a wire-rope railway , which 
starts near the Cathedrale St. Jean (see below). On the slope 
are a number of fragments of Roman masonry , with explanations 
attached to them , which however are not to he implicitly trusted. 
The chapel of Notre Dame de Fourviere , a modern structure sur- 
mounted by a gilded statue of the Yirgin, contains a highly rever- 
ed 'miraculous' image (visited by upwards of l 1 ^ million pilgrims 
annually) and numerous votive tablets. Adjacent is the New 
Church , a huge modern Byzantine building with double aisles, as 
yet unfinished. The tower of Notre Dame commands a magnificent 
View (fee 25 c); visitors may also ascend to the top of the N.E. 
tower of the New Church (1 fr.) At the feet of the spectator lie 
the imposing city , with the two rivers and their bridges , and the 
picturesque district in the neighbourhood ; to the E. in fine 
weather Mont Blanc , 90 M. distant, is sometimes visible ; farther 
S. the Alps of Dauphine', the Mts. of the Grande Chartreuse and 
Mont Pilat, and to the W. the Mts. of Auvergne. 

The Cathedral or St. Jean (PI. C, 4) on the right bank of 
the Saone , adjoining the Palais de Justice, dates from the 12-15th 
centuries. The Bourbon chapel (1st on the right), erected by Car- 
dinal Bourbon and his brother Pierre de Bourbon, son-in-law of 
Louis XI. (15th cent.), contains some fine sculptures. 

The Place des Terreaux(P1. D,3), in which the H6tel-de-Ville 
and the Museum are situated, has recently been embellished with 
a fountain. Here Richelieu caused the youthful Marquis de Cinq- 
Mars, who for a short period was the favourite of Louis XIII. , and 
his partisan De Thou to be executed as traitors in 1642. Numerous 
victims of the Revolution perished here by the guillotine in 1794, 
after which the more wholesale system of drowning and shooting 
was introduced. The Hotel de Ville, a handsome edifice built by 
Maupin in 11)46-55, has been recently restored. 

The Palais St. Pierre or des Arts (PI. D, 3) contains collec- 
tions of Paintings , Sculptures , Antiquities , and Natural History. 
The pictures and natural history collections are open daily , free; 

to Nice. LYONS. 1. Route. 7 

the others on Thurs. and Sun., 11-4, but to strangers (for a fee) on 
other days also. 

The ground-floor contains the Musie Lapidaire ffragments of Roman 
sculptures, inscriptions, etc.) and the Musee de Sculpture, with modern 
sculptures, casts from the antique, architectural fragments, and 45 marble 
busts of distinguished natives of Lyons. 

The "Musee des Antiques, on the first floor, contains a very exten- 
sive and well-arranged collection of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman anti- 
quities, and of mediaeval curiosities and works of art. The different objects 
are labelled with explanatory inscriptions. The most important section 
consists of Roman bronzes and other antiquities found in the vicinity of 
Lyons. Among these are a large "Statue of Neptune (or Jupiter) ; the brazen 
"'Tables Claudiennes', or tablets (found in 1528) with the speech delivered 
by the Emperor Claudius before the Senate at Rome in the year 48, in de- 
fence of the measure of bestowing citizenship on the Gauls ; Gallo-Roman 
ornaments. Here are also the "Musee Bernard, a valuable collection of 
pictures presented to the city in 1875, and the Oalerie C'henaiard, con- 
taining the cartoons designed by the painter of that name for the Pantheon 
at Paris after the Revolution of February, but not executed owing to the 
restoration of the building to divine service. 

The "Picture Gallery is on the second floor. Among the pictures may 
be mentioned: 242. Jouvenet, the Money-changers driven from the Temple; 
80. Ph. de Champaigne, Adoration of the Shepherds; "136. Rubens, Saints; 
5. Guercino , Circumcision ; 28. Palma Giovane , Scourging of Christ ; "45 
Pietro Pervgino, Ascension , one of this master's finest works , painted in 
1495 for the cathedral of Perugia, and presented to the town by Pius VII. ; 
41. A. del Sarto, Sacrifice of Abraham; 186, 186A. Schoreel , Death and 
Coronation of the Virgin; "87. Old copy of Diirer's Madonna and Child 
bestowing bouquets of roses on the Emp. Maximilian and his consort , a 
celebrated picture containing numerous figures, painted by the master for 
the German merchants at Venice in 1506 (p. 264; original at Prague). — 
Adjacent to the Grande Galerie are four rooms containing the Galerie des 
Lyonnais, or works by natives of Lyons i Bonne/ond, Portrait of Jacquard, 
inventor of the improved loom, born at Lyons in 1752, died 1834; Paul 
and Hippolyte FUmdrin, and others. 

The Palais also includes a Musee d^Histoire Naturelle and a Library. 

The second floor of the Palais de la Bourse et du Commerce 
(PI. D, 3, 4) contains the Musee d'Art et d'Industrie (open free on 
Sun., Thurs., and holidays, 11-4; to strangers on other days also), 
founded in 1858 ; the specimens in illustration of the silk-culture 
are particularly instructive. 

The small Place de la Re'publique (PI. D, 4) is adorned with 
the handsome Monument de lajtepublique , by Peynot and Blavet, 
erected in 1889. 

The Civic Library in the Lycee (PI. E, 3) possesses 200,000 vols, 
and 2400 MSS. (open 10-3). In the neighbouring Place Tholozan 
rises the bronze Statue of Marshal Suchet, 'Due d'Albufera' (born 
at Lyons 1772, d. 1826), byDumont, and the Place Sathonay (PI. 
D, 3) is adorned with a fountain and a statue of Jacquard (see 
above), by Foyatier. 

Two magnificent new streets, the Rue de la Republique (PI. D, 
3, 4) and the Rue de V Ilutel-de-Ville (PI. D, 3, 4) lead from the 
Hotel de Ville to the *Place Bellecour (PI. D, 5), one of the most 
spacious squares in Europe, and adorned with an Equestrian Statue 
of Louis XIV. by Lemot, On one side of this square (No. 31) rises 

8 Route 1. VIENNE. From Paris 

the Musce de la Propagation de la Foi , containing relics, instru- 
ments of torture , and an ethnographical collection formed of ob- 
jects sent by the missionaries of the Propaganda from all parts of 
the world (open daily, except Sun. and holidays, 9-5, on Frid. 
10-5). — The Rue Victor Hugo leads thence to the Place Perrache 
with the station of that name, abutting on the wide Cours du Midi 
(PI. C, D, 6) , which is planted with trees. Beyond the station, 
and occupying the point of the tongue of land between the rivers, 
is the suburb Perrache, named after its founder (1770), and rapidly 
increasing in extent. 

On the left bank of the Saone, about ] /3 M. lower down, is sit- 
uated the church of the Abbey d'Ainay (PI. C, 5), one of the oldest 
in France, dating from the 10-llth centuries. 

At the N. end of the town lies the *Parc de la Tete d'Oe 
(PI. F, G, 1, 2; 1 M. from the Place des Terreaux), laid out in 
1857, and containing pleasure-grounds in the style of the Bois de 
Boulogne at Paris. A portion of it near the Rhone has been laid out 
as a Zoological and Botanic Garden. The grounds contain also an 
Observatory , a chalet-restaurant, etc. — Near the entrance to the 
park is the Monument des Enfants du Rhone, by Coquet and Pagny, 
erected to commemorate those who fell in the struggle of 1870-71. 

The Railway to Marseilles (Gare de Perrache) descends the 
valley of the Rhone, which flows on our right. 

337 M. Vienne (Hotel du Nord ; Hotel de la Poste), the Vienna 
Allobrogum of the ancients, with 25,500 inhab., lies picturesquely 
on the left bank of the Rhone, at the influx of the O'ere. Several 
interesting mementoes of its former greatness are still extant. The 
finest of these is a *Temple, of the Corinthian order (88 ft. long, 
49 ft. wide, 56 ft. high), with 1(3 columns, and hexastyle portico, 
dedicated, according to the remains of an inscription on bronze, to 
Augustus and Livia. It was used in the middle ages as a church, 
but has been restored as nearly as possible to its original condition. 

— In front of the Hotel de Ville stands a bronze statue of the dra- 
matist Ponsard, a native of Vienne (1814-1867) , by Dechaume. 

— The Cathedral of St. Maurice (between the temple and the bridge 
across the Rhone) is a handsome Gothic building of the 12-15th 
centuries. — The ancient abbey-church of St. Pierre, of the 6th 
cent., altered in the 18th and now restored, contains an interesting 
Museum of Roman antiquities (inscriptions , architectural frag- 
ments, sculptures; open on Thurs. and Sun., 2-5). — On the high- 
road, 1 /t M. to the S. of the town, stands the Plan de V Aiguille, an 
ancient pyramid 50 ft. high and hollowed out at its base so as to 
form a quadrangle with four arcades adorned with Corinthian 
columns, probably the meta (goal) of a large circus. It is popularly 
known as Pilate's Tomb. 

A small part only of Vienne is visible from the railway , which 

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long'.Est 4diParigi 

to Nice. VALENCE. 1 . Route. 9 

passes under the town by a tunnel. The banks of the Rhone rise 
in gentle slopes, planted with vines and fruit-trees. On the right 
bank, at some distance from the river, towers Mont Pilat (3750 ft.), 
a picturesque group of mountains , at the base of which lie the 
celebrated vineyards of La Cote Rotie. — 356 M. St. Rambert 
d'Albon (Buffet) , whence branch-lines diverge to Grenoble and to 
Annonay. — 373 '/ 2 M. Tain, where the valley of the Rhone con- 
tracts ; on the left rises the extensive vineyard of Ermitage, where 
the well-known wine of that name is produced. In the distance to 
the left the indented spurs of the Alps are conspicuous , above 
which in clear weather the gigantic Mont Blanc is visible. 

On our left now opens the broad valley of the turbid Isere, 
which is also traversed by a railway to Grenoble. In September, 
B. C. 218, Hannibal ascended this valley with his army, and 
crossed the Little St. Bernard into Italy. 

384 M. Valence (Hotel de la Croix d"Or; Hotel du Louvre et 
de la Poste ; Rail. Restaurant) , the Valentia of the ancients, once 
the capital of the Duchy of Valentinois, with which the infamous 
Csesar Borgia was invested by Louis XII. , is now the chief town 
of the Department of the Drome, with 24,000 inhabitants. It is 
picturesquely situated, but contains comparatively little to interest 
the traveller. The Cathedral of St. Apollinaris , in the Auvergne 
variety of Romanesque, was consecrated by Pope Urban II. in 1095 
and has frequently been restored. — On the right bank lies St. 
Peray, famous for its sparkling wine. 

394!/2 M. Livron is the junction of a line to (34 M.) Die. — 
411 M. Montelirnar (Rail. Restaurant; Poste), an old town with 
14,000 inhab. and the ancient castle of the once celebrated Monteil 
d'Adhemar family (now a prison). The line here quits the Rhone ; 
the plain on the right expands. 

443 M. Orange (Hotel de la Poste et des Princes), with 10,300 
inhab. , the Arausio of the Romans and once a prosperous and im- 
portant place. In the middle ages it was the capital of a small 
principality , which , on the death of the last reigning prince 
without issue in 1531, fell to his nephew the Count of Nassau, 
and until the death of William III. (d. 1702), King of England, 
continued subject to the house of Nassau-Orange. By the Peace 
of Utrecht, Orange was annexed to France, and the house of Nassau 
retained the title only of princes of Orange. The antiquarian 
should if possible devote a few hours to the interesting Roman 
remains at Orange. On the road to Lyons, 1 M. to the N. of the 
station, is a well-preserved *Triumphal Arch, the finest extant in 
France, 72ft. high, 69 ft. broad, with three archways and twelve 
columns , probably dating from the 2nd century. It is adorned 
with reliefs of battles and of trophies consisting of weapons and 
the prows of ships. On the S. side of the town, at the foot of 
an eminence, lies the *Roman Theatre, 118 ft. in height, 338 ft, in 

Wagner 4 Delif.s, Leipzig- 

to Nice. AVIGNON. 1. Route. 11 

the Salle du Consistoire and the chapels were executed by Simone 
Memmi of Siena (d. 1344). Rienzi was incarcerated here in 1351 
in the Tour de Trouillas , at the same time that Petrarch was 
entertained in the palace as a guest. 

The town is commanded by the abrupt Rocher des Doms (rupes 
dominorum; PI. D, 1, '2), 300 ft. in height, which is surmounted 
by the Cathedral of Notre Dame, a structure of the 11th cent., 
several times rebuilt in the subsequent centuries and recently 
restored with moderate success. The church contains the hand- 
some *Monument of Pope John XXII. (Jacques d'Euse of Cahors, 
d. 1334), a fine Gothic work of the 14th cent., unfortunately muti- 
lated during the Revolution. The square tower behind the Cathe- 
dral, called La Olaci'ere, was formerly employed as a prison of 
the Inquisition, and during the Days of Terror in 1791 became 
the place of execution of several innocent victims. 

Pleasant grounds have been laid out on the hill near the cathe- 
dral (unpretending cafe"). The best point of view is a rocky emin- 
ence in the centre. The *Prospect, one of the most beautiful in 
France, embraces the course of the Rhone and its banks ; Villeneuve 
on the opposite bank, with its citadel and ancient towers ; in the 
distance towards the N.W. the Cevennes; N.E. Mont Ventoux ; E. 
the Durance, resembling a silver thread, and beyond it the Alps ; 
below the spectator the tortuous and antiquated streets of Avignon. 
On the promenades is a statue to Jean Althen, a Persian who in 
1766 introduced the cultivation of madder, which long formed the 
staple commodity of the district, being used extensively in dyeing 
the French red military trousers. The introduction of the alizarine 
dyes, however, caused a great decline in the use of madder, which 
is no longer cultivated here. 

In the Rue Joseph Vernet is the *Musee Calvet (PI. B, 2, 3; 
open on Sun., 12-4, and to strangers on other days also; catalogue 
2 fr.), containing numerous works of the Vernet family , who were 
natives of Avignon (Joseph, the painter of sea-pieces, his son 
Carle, and his celebrated grandson Horace), other pictures, and a 
collection of Roman antiquities. The Municipal Library , in the 
same building, contains 110,000 vols, and 2850 MSS. 

In the garden at the back of the Museum a monument was 
erected in 1823 by Mr. Charles Kensall to the memory of Petrarch's 
Laura. Her tomb was formerly in the Eglise des Cordeliers, but 
was destroyed with the church during the Revolution. 

In 1326, Francesco Petrarca, then 22 years of age, visited Avignon, 
and beheld Laura de Noves, who was in her 18th year , at the church of 
the nunnery of St. Claire. Her beauty impressed the ardent young 
Italian so profoundly, that, although he never received the slightest, token 
of regard from the object of his romantic attachment, either before or 
after her marriage with Hugues de Sade, he continued throughout, his 
whole lifetime to celebrate her praises in songs and sonnets. In 1334 he 
quitted Avignon for Vaucluse, travelled in France, Germany, and Italy, 
and returned to Avignon in 1342 (with his friend Cola di Rienzi), where 

J 2 Route 1. NIMES. From Paris 

he found Laura the mother of a numerous family. She died in 1348, 
bowed down by domestic affliction. Petrarch lived till 1374, and long 
after Laura's death dedicated many touching lines to her memory. 

John Stuart Mill died at Avignon in 1873 and is buried in the 
cemetery here. 

Avignon is a very windy place . The prevailing Mistral often blows 
with great violence, and has given rise to the ancient saying : 'Ave- 
nio ventosa, cum vento fastidiosa, sine vento venenosa'. 

The 'Fountains of Vaucluse may easily be visited from Avignon 
in the course of an afternoon with the aid of the Cavaillon railway. 
After several unimportant stations, the train reaches (15 M.) Vlsle sur 
Sorgues (in I-I1/2 hr.). Thence drive (omn. there and back l'/2 fr.) or walk 
up the valley of the Sorgues, following its sinuosities towards Mont Ven- 
toux, to the (4>/2 M.) village of Vaucluse (Hdtel de Laure). A footpath 
leads hence in '/4 nr - i nto tne Vaucluse ravine , a rocky gorge , above 
which the ruined chateau of the Bishops of Cavaillon rises on the right. 
At its extremity the sources of the Sorgue emerge from a profound grotto, 
at one time in precipitate haste, at another in gentle ripples. This spot 
is mentioned by Petrarch in his 14th Canzone, 'Chiare, fresche e dolci 
acque.'' His house, where he composed many of his poems, stood on 
the site now occupied by a paper-factory, adjacent to the village. 

Soon after quitting Avignon trie train crosses the broad bed 
of the often impetuous and turbid Durance, the Roman Druentia. 

474 M. Tarascon (Hotel des Empereurs ; Rail. Restaurant), with 
9300 inhab. , once the seat of King Rene of Anjou , the great 
patron of minstrelsy, whose lofty old castle and above it the Gothic 
spire of the church of St. Marthe (14th cent.) arrest the traveller's 
attention. — On the opposite bank, and connected with Tarascon by 
a bridge, is situated the busy town of Beaucaire (Hotel de Luxem- 
bourg), commanded by an ancient castle of the Counts of Toulouse. 

Fkom Tarascon to St. Remy, 10 M., branch-line in 40-55 min. (fares 
1 fr. 65, 1 fr. 25, 90 c.) St. Remy (Cheval Blanc) is an unimportant little 
town with 5800 inhabitants. About 1 M. to the S , on the site of the an- 
cient Glanum, are situated two interesting '"Roman Monuments. One of 
these, 53 ft. in height, was erected by the three brothers Sextus, Lucius, 
and Marcus Julius to the memory of their parents, and is constructed of 
massive blocks of stone in three different stories. This magnificent relic 
probably belongs to the time of Csesar. Adjacent to it is a half-ruined 
"Triumphal Arch, also adorned with sculptures. — Beyond St. Eemy the 
line goes on to Organ. 

Continuation of the line to Marseilles, see p. 14. 

Railway fhom Tarascon to Nimes, 17 M., in i/ 2 -l hr. (fares 
3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 45 , 1 fr. 80 c). The train crosses the Rhone to 
Beaucaire (see above) and passes the unimportant stations of Belle- 
garde, Manduel-Redessan, and Orezan. 

17 M. Nimes. — Omnibus to the hotels 1/2 fr., cab 60 c.-l fr. — *H6tel 
ra Luxembourg (PI. a; E, 4), in the Esplanade, R. from 3, D. 5 fr. ; Hotel 
i>u Midi (PI. b; E, 3), Place de la Couronne ; Manivet (PI. c; C, 3), op- 
posite the Maison Carree, R. 2, D. 2'/2 fr. ; Cheval Blanc (PI. d- ]->, 4), 
opposite the Arena, well spoken of, R. 2 l /i, D. 3 fr. — Good Cafe's in' the 
Esplanade and at the Maison Carree. 

Nimes, the ancient Nemausus , capital of the Gallic Arecomaci, 
and one of the most important places in the Roman Gallia Narbo- 

Wagner* Debes, Leipzig 

to Nice. NIMES. 1. Route. 13 

nensis, is now the chief town of the Departement du Gard. The 
town, which numbers 15,000 Protestants among its present popula- 
tion of 70,000, has several times been the scene of fierce religious 
struggles , especially during the reign of Louis XIV. The Roman 
antiquities here are of extreme interest. 

From the railway-station (PI. E, 5), the beautiful Avenue 
Feucheres leads to the Esplanade (PI. D, 4), a large Place adorned 
with a handsome modern fountain-group by Pradier (representing 
the city of Nemausus r with four river-deities ; 1848). A few paces 
to the W. of this point lies the Roman *Arena or Amphitheatre 
(PI. C, D, 4), consisting of two stories, each with 60 arcades, 
together 74 ft. in height. The exterior is in excellent preservation. 
The interior contains 32 tiers of seats (entrance on the S.W. side; 
gratuity), and could accommodate 20,000 spectators; longer axis 
145, shorter 112 yds., height 74 ft., inner arena 76 by 42 yds. ; 
upper gallery about V4M. in circumference. 

The founder is unknown, but is conjectured to have been the emperor 
Antoninus Pius, about 140 A.D., whose ancestors were natives of Nemau- 
sus. Some authorities believe that it was intended for 'naumachiaV, or 
naval sports , and left unfinished. The four original entrances are still 
traceable. Doors in the pavement of the arena lead to the (modern) 'souter- 
rain', the ceiling of which is supported by beams. In the middle ages the 
Arena was employed as a fortress and down to the end of the 14th 
century was garrisoned by an order of knights named the 'Milites Castri 
Arenarum'. It was afterwards taken possession of by the lower classes, 
who built their wretched hovels within its walls , and these were not 
finally removed till 1809. Extensive works of restoration have recently 
been made, especially in the interior and on the E. side of the exterior, 
as the Arena is still used for the exhibition of bull-fights. 

We now follow the Boul. Victor Hugo , past the Lycee and 
the church of St. Paul, with beautiful frescoes by Hipp, and 
Paul Flandrin, to the Place de la Come'die (PI. C, 2, 3), on the 
right side of which rises the *Maison Carreb , a well - preserved 
and very graceful temple (83 ft. long, 42 ft. wide), with 30 Cor- 
inthian columns (10 detached , 20 immured), probably dating from 
the reign of Antoninus Pius (2nd cent.). It was employed as a 
church in the middle ages and subsequently as a town-hall. This 
temple was connected with other buildings, the foundations of which 
still exist, and in all probability constituted part of the ancient 
forum , like the similar temple at Vienne (p. 8). Having been 
judiciously restored, it now contains a museum of Roman antiquities 
found at Nimes : funeral monuments , inscriptions , architectural 
fragments, a fine half-lifesize figure of Venus found in 1879, etc. 
(open on Thurs. & Sun., 9-5 ; strangers admitted on other days also). 

Opposite the Maison Carree is the modern Theatre. The visitor 
should next proceed by the Boul. Victor Hugo and the Quai de la 
Fontaine to the Jardinde la Fontaine (PI. B, 2), a beautiful prome- 
nade which owes its name to the Fontaine de Nimes a little farther 
on, a fountain with handsome basins in the taste of the 18th cent., 
constructed on ancient foundations. To the left of the fountain 

14 Route 1. PONT DU GARD. From Paris 

stands the Nymph^um (PI. A, 2), formerly supposed to be a Tem- 
ple of Diana. This fine vaulted structure , with niches for the 
reception of statues, has partly fallen in ; it contains statues, busts, 
architectural fragments, etc., from the excavations which have been 
made here. The ruins behind the Nymphaeum probably belonged to 
the reservoir of the aqueduct. 

Beyond the spring rises the Mont Cavalier (375 ft.), a hill with 
promenades , surmounted by the *Toub Magne (turris magna ; PI. 
B, 1), a Roman structure, variously conjectured to have been a beacon- 
tower, a temple, or a treasury (keys at a small red house, to the right 
on the way from the baths, about 200 paces below the summit). It was 
more probably a monumental tribute to some illustrious Roman. The 
tower is of octagonal form, and is ascended by a modern staircase 
of 140 steps. The *View from the summit well repays the ascent ; it 
embraces the town and environs , as far as the vicinity of the estuary 
of the Rhone, and the distant Pyrenees to the W. The extent of 
the ancient Nemausus is distinctly recognised hence ; one of the an- 
cient gates, the Porte d'Auguste (PI. E, 2), is still partly preserved. 

The Musee de Peinture (PI. D, 5; open on Thurs. & Sun., 9 
to 12 and 1 to 4 or 5) contains French, Flemish, Dutch, and Italian 
paintings, a few sculptures, two Roman mosaics, etc. 

Excursion to the Pont du Gaud , 14'/a M. Railway to (12 M.) La- 
foux or (13 M.) Remoulins , each of which is about 2 M. from the Pont 
du Gard. 

The "Pont du Gard, a bridge and aqueduct over the Gard, which 
descends from the Cevennes, passing the town of Alais with its extensive 
iron-works, is one of the grandest Roman works in existence. The 
rocky valley of the Gard is bridged over by a threefold series of arches 
(the lowest 6, the next 11, and the highest 35 in number), which present a 
most majestic appearance. Agrippa, the general of Augustus, is generally 
supposed to have been the founder, but without satisfactory evidence. The 
object of this structure was to supply Nimes with water from the springs 
of Airan near St. Quentin and Ure near Uzes, a distance of 25 M. Several 
arches are also seen to the N. of the Pont du Gard, and other traces of 
the aqueduct still exist nearer the town. The bridge for carriages was 
added to the Roman aqueduct in 1745. 

Branch-lines run from Ximes to Aignes-Mortes and Le Vigan 

From Tarascon (p. 12) to Abxes the railway skirts the left 
bank of the Rhone. The country, which is flat, and planted with 
the vine and olive , presents a marked southern character. The 
manners and unintelligible patois of the inhabitants differ materially 
from those of N. France. The peculiar softness of the old Pro- 
vencal language employed by the Troubadours may still be traced. 
8 is pronounced here like sh (e.g. pershonne), ch like s (serser for 
chercher). The ancient love for song and poetry still survives, and 
has given rise to a modern school of Provencal poets. These char- 
acteristics , as well as the vivacious and excitable temperament 
of the natives, betoken the gradual transition from France to Italy. 

483 M. Aries (Hotel du Nord , Hotel du Forum , both in the 
Place du Forum ; Buffet), the Arelate of the ancients, once one of 

to Nice. ARLES. 1. Route. 15 

the most important towns in Gaul and a flourishing seat of commerce 
in the 5th cent, of our era, is now a somewhat dull place (23,500 
inhab.) on the left bank of the Rhone, 24 M. from its mouth. It is 
connected with Trinquetaille on the opposite bank by an iron bridge. 
At the point where the street leading direct to the town from 
the station forks is the Fontaine Pichot, erected in 1887 to Ame- 
de'e Pichot (1796-1877), the author, a native of Aries. Farther on, 
to the left, is the "Arena, the largest Roman amphitheatre extant 
in France, but not in so good preservation as that of Nimes (p. 13). 
It is about 500 yds. in circumference; the longer axis is 150 yds., 
the shorter 116 yds. long ; the arena 75 yds. long and 43 yds. wide. 
This arena, which probably dates from the 1st or 2nd cent, of our 
era, possessed five corridors and forty-three tiers of seats, holding 
26,000 spectators. The two stories of 60 arches, the lower being 
Doric, the upper Corinthian, present a most imposing aspect. The 
entrance is on the N. side. 

The Interior was formerly occupied by a number of dwellings tenanted 
by poor families, but these have been almost entirely removed since 1846-47. 
After the Roman period the amphitheatre was employed by the Goths, 
then by the Saracens, and again by Charles Martel (who expelled the latter 
in 739), as a stronghold, two of the four towers of which are still stand- 
ing. A staircase of 103 steps ascends the W. tower, which commands a 
pleasing survey of the neighbourhood. The vaults beneath the lowest tier 
of seats served as receptacles for the wild beasts, the gladiators, etc. They 
communicated with the arena by means of six doors. The spectators of 
high rank occupied the front seats and were protected from the attacks of 
the wild animals by a lofty parapet. Bloodless bull-fights are now oc- 
casionally exhibited here. 

The *Theateb (commonly called that of 'Augustus') , to the 
right beyond the amphitheatre, a picturesque ruin, is in a very di- 
lapidated condition. The most perfect part is the stage-wall, which 
according to the ancient arrangement had three doors. In front of 
it was a colonnade, of which two columns, one of African, the other 
of Carrara marble, are still standing. The opening for the letting 
down of the curtain is distinctly recognisable. The orchestra, paved 
with slabs of variegated marble, contained the seats of persons of 
rank. The lower tiers only of the seats of the ordinary spectators 
are preserved. The theatre once possessed a second story, indica- 
tions of which are observed when the ruin is viewed from the 
Saracens' Tower (in the direction of the public promenade). The 
dimensions of the building when perfect were very extensive 
(breadth from N. to S. 337y 2 ft.), and the effect it produces is ex- 
tremely striking. 

The Rue du Cloitre leads hence to the W. to the Place de la 
Republique, where there are the other principal sights. In the 
middle rises an *Obelisk of grey granite from the mines of Esterel 
near Frejus (p. 21), an ancient monument of unknown origin, found 
in the Rhone in 1676. It is destitute of hieroglyphic inscriptions. 

On the E. side of the Place stands the *Cathedral of St. Tro- 
phimb (Trophimus is said to have been a pupil of St. Paul), founded 

16 Route 1. ARLES. From Paris 

in the 6th or 7th cent., possessing an interesting Romanesque *Portal 
of the 12th cent., of semicircular form, supported by twelve columns 
resting on lions, between which are apostles and saints (St. Tro- 
phimus, St. Stephen, etc.) ; above it Christ as Judge of the world. 

The Interior contains little to interest the visitor, with the ex- 
ception of several sarcophagi and pictures. — On the S. side (entered 
from the sacristy) are the ''Cloisters , with round and pointed arches 
and remarkable capitals, dating from various epochs. The N. side is in 
the half antique style of the Carlovingian period (9th cent.), the E. side 
dates from 1221, the W. side (the most beautiful) from 1389, and the S. 
side from the 16th century. 

The *Musbum, established in the old church of St. Anna, oppo- 
site St. Trophime to the W., contains numerous antiquities found 
in and near Aries (open on Sun., to strangers on other days also). 
The following relics deserve special mention : colossal head of Au- 
gustus ; figures of dancing women (found in the theatre); sarcophagi 
from the ancient burial-ground (see below); tomb of Cornelia Ja- 
i-asna ; beautiful female head, called head of Livia, etc. 

On the N. side of the Place de la Re'publique is the Hotel de 
Ville, erected in 1673-75. — In the Place du Forum, the site of 
the ancient market-place, at the back of the Hotel de Ville, to the 
left, two granite pillars and fragments of a Corinthian pediment are 
still seen. ■ — On the bank of the Rhone lie the remains of an ex- 
tensive building, probably once a Palace of Constantine. 

On the S.E. side of the town are the Aliscamps or Champs Ely- 
sees, originally a Roman burying-ground, consecrated by St. Tro- 
phimus and furnished by him with a chapel. In the middle ages 
this cemetery enjoyed such celebrity that bodies were conveyed 
hither for sepulture from vast distances, audit is mentioned by Dante 
in his Inferno (IX. 112). To this day many ancient sarcophagi are 
still to be seen in the environs of the curious old church, although 
after the first Revolution great numbers were sold to relic-hunters 
from all parts of the world. 

Below Aries begins the flat delta of the estuary of the Rhone called 
the lie de la Camargue. It is protected against the sea by dykes, and is 
employed partly as arable and partly as pasture land, which supports 
numerous flocks and herds. A canal, constructed in 1864-71, admits vessels 
to the estuary of the Rhone, which had previously been inaccessible. 

Between Aries and Salon the line intersects the stony plain of 
Crau , which the ancients mention as the scene of the contest of 
Hercules with the Ligures. Near (506 M.)S*. Chamas the line skirts 
the long Etang de Berre, an extensive salt lake on the right. From 
(519 M.) Rognac a branch-line diverges to Aix, the ancient Aquae 
Sextiae. Beyond (525 M.) Pas-des-Lanciers the train traverses the 
longest tunnel in France, nearly 3 M. in length, on emerging from 
which it passes some grand rocky scenery. The sea now comes in 
sight, and the rocky islands of Chateau d'lf, Ratonneau, and Po- 
megues, are seen rising from the Gulf of Marseilles. 

536 M. Marseilles. — Arrival. Hotel Omnibuses at the station (6 are 
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to Nice. MARSEILLES. 1 . Route. 17 

gare'), with two seats, 1 pers. lfr. 25; with four seats, 1 pers. 1 fr. 75 c.; 
each pers. additional 25 c; each trunk 25 c. — Carriages in the town 
('voitures de place'), one-horse, per drive 1 fr., per hour 2 fr. ; two-horse, 
I1/4 and 2'/4 fr. ; from midnight till 6 a.m., one-horse l'/a and 2'/2, two- 
horse 2 and 3fr. 

Hotels. At the station, "Terminus Hotel (PI. F, 2), a large building 
erected by the railway company, R. 4-12 fr. — *Gr. Hotel Noailles (PI. c; 
E, 4); -Grand Hotel du Loovre et de la Paix (PI. a; E, 4), with 250 
rooms and a lift, principal facade facing the S. ; i! Gr. Hotel de Marseille 
(PI. b; F, 4), with lift, all "three in the Rue Noailles, and fitted up in 
the style of the great Parisian hotels : R. from 3 fr. upwards, table d'hote 
at 6 p.m. 5-6 fr., B. l'/2-2 fr., L. & A. IV2 fr. Hotel de l'Univers, de 
Castille et de Luxembourg (PI. e; E, 5), Rue St. Ferr^ol; Hotel des 
Colonies (PI. f ; E, 4), Rue Vacon 15; Hotel d'Orleans (PI. g; E, 4), same 
street, 19; Hotel des Princes (PI. h; E,4), Place de la Bourse 12, unpre- 
tending; Hotel des Phoceens (PI. i; E,4), Rue Tlmbaneau 4 ; Gr. Hotel 
Beauveau (PI. j ; D, 4), Rue Beauveau 4, facing the sea, pens, from 8 fr. ; 
Gr. Hotel de Bordeaux et d'Orient (PI. k ; E, 3) , Boulevard du Nord 11 ; 
Hotel de Rome (PI. 1j E, 4), Place St. Louis 7, patronised by Roman Catholic 

Restaurants. Cafi Glacier, Place de la Bourse; Malson Doric, Rue 
Noailles 5, dej. 4, D. 5 fr., wine included; Restaurant des Freres Proven- 
caux, Cours St. Louis 6, dej. 2 1 /?, D. 3 fr. ; Roubion, Chemin de la Corniche 
(p. 20). — 'Bouillabaisse' is a kind of fish-soup, of which the praises have 
been sung by Thackeray. The white wines usually drunk are Chablis, 
Graves, and Sauterne. 

Cafes, the principal in the Rues Noailles and Cannebiere. — Bras- 
series : Taverne Alsacienne, Allees de Meilhan 36; Brasserie Nalionale, 
Place Castellane 10; Brasserie de Munich, Rue Paradis 17. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Place de Rome (PI. E, 5), and Place de la 
Bourse (PI. E, 4). — Telephone (communicating with Lyons and Paris), at 
the Bourse (IV2 and 3 fr. per 5 min.). 

Tramways intersect the town in various directions. Fares 10-40 c. 

Steamboats to Ajaccio (Corsica), Algiers, Chateau d'Jf (on Sun. and 
holidays; 75 and 50c), Genoa, Naples, Palermo, Malta, Barcelona, etc. — 
Steam Ferry across the harbour 5 c. — Small Boat across the harbour 
10-20 c. each pers.; per hour lfr., each addit. pers. 25 c. The tariff should 
be asked for. 

Baths. Bains des Allies, Alle'es de Meilhan 64; Maures Hammann, 
Allees de Meilhan 14; Longcharnp, Boul. Longchamp 26; Bains Phoceens, 
Rue Paradis 17. 

Physicians, English-speaking. Br. Pllatte, Rue Nicolas 17; Br. Milsom, 
Rue St. Jacques 15 (specialist for diseases of the ear, nose, and throat). 

Theatres. Grand- Thidtre (PL E, 5), for operas and ballets ; Gymnast 
(PI. F, 4), tragedies and comedies ; Variitis (Folies ; PI. E, 4). — Cafes- 
Concerts. Alcazar (PI. E, 3); Palais de Cristal, Alle'es de Meilhan 32. 

Sea Baths, handsomely fitted up, in the Anse des Catalans (PI. A, 5, 6), 
on the E. side of the town, below the conspicuous former Residence Im- 
periale (p. 19; tramway 10 c). The Bains du Roucas Blanc (including 
warm sea-water baths, douche, vapour, etc.), and Bains du Prado, some- 
what more distant, on the Route de la Corniche, are also well fitted up. 

British Consul, Charles Perceval, Esq., Rue St. Jacques 36. — United 
States Consul, C. Trail, Esq., Rue Breteuil 45. 

English Church, Rue Sylvabelle 100 (PI. D, 6); services at 10.30 and 
3. Chaplain, Rev. T. C. Skeggs, M. A., Boul. Notre Dame 56. — French 
Reformed Church (PI. E, 5). Rue Grignan 15; service at 10 a.m. — Eglise 
Libre, Cours Lieutaud 133 (PI. F, 6) ; services at 9 and 10 a.m. 

Marseilles, with 376,000 inhab., the capital of the Departement 
des Bouches du Rhone and the headquarters of the XV. Corps d'Ar- 
mee, is the principal seaport of France , and the depot of a brisk 
maritime traffic with the East, Italy, and Africa. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. 2 

IS Route 1. MARSEILLES. From Paris 

Massilia was a colony founded about B.C. 600 by Greeks from Phocsea 
in Asia Minor, who soon became masters of the sea, defeated the Car- 
thaginians in a naval battle near Corsica, and stood in friendly alliance 
with the Romans as early as B. C. 390. They also established new colonies in 
their neighbourhood, such as Tauroeis (near Ciotat), Olbia (near Hyeres), 
Aniipolis (Antibes), and Nicaea (Nice), all of which, like their founders, 
adhered to the Greek language, customs, and culture. Massilia maintained 
this reputation until the imperial period of Rome, and was therefore treat- 
ed with leniency and respect by Julius Ceesar when conquered by him, 
B.C. 49. Tacitus informs us that his father-in-law Agricola, a native of 
the neighbouring Roman colony of Forum Julii (Frejus), found, even under 
Claudius, ample opportunities for completing his education at Massilia 
in the Greek manner, for which purpose Athens was usually frequented. 
The town possessed temples of Diana (on the site of the present cathedral), 
of Neptune (on the coast), of Apollo, and other gods. Its government was 
aristocratic. After the fall of the W. Empire Marseilles fell successively 
into the hands of the Visigoths, the Franks, and Prelate; it was de- 
stroyed by the Saracens, restored in the 10th cent, and became subject to 
the Vicomtes de Marseille; in 1218 it became independent, but shortly af- 
terward succumbed to Charles ofAnjou. In 1481 it was united to France, 
but still adhered to its ancient privileges , as was especially evident in 
the wars of the Ligue, against Henry IV. In 1660 Louis XIV. divested the 
town of its privileges, so that it retained its importance as a sea-port only. 
In 1720 and 1721 it was devastated by a fearful pestilence. During the 
revolution it remained unshaken in its allegiance to royalty and was there- 
fore severely punished. In 1792 hordes of galley-slaves were sent hence 
to Paris , where they committed frightful excesses. It was for them that 
Rouget de VIsle, an officer of engineers, composed the celebrated Marseil- 
laise, 'Allons, enfants de la patrie', which subsequently became the battle- 
hymn of the republican armies. 

*La Cannebiere (PL D, E, 4), abroad and very handsome street, 
with, its extension , the Rue Noailles and the Allies de Meilhan, 
intersects the town from W. to E. , from the extremity of the 
Vieux Port to the centre of the town where the ground rises. In 
this street, a few paces from the harbour, stands the Bourse (PI. D, 
E, 4), with a portico of Corinthian columns, erected in 1852-60. 

A short distance farther the Cours Belzunce (PI. E, 4) is reach- 
ed on the left , a shady promenade generally thronged with foot- 
passengers, at the S. end of which stands the statue of Bishop Bel- 
zunce, who during the appalling plague in 1720, which carried off 
40,000 persons, alone maintained his post and faithfully performed 
the solemn duties of his calling. (The statue is to be removed to 
the terrace in front of the Cathedral.] — From this point the Rue 
d'Aix ascends to the Arc de Triomphe (PL D, 3), erected in 1825, 
and afterwards adorned with representations of Napoleonic battles 
in relief by Ramey and David d' Angers. 

The docks and quays (comp. Plan) are very extensive. The 
harbour has been quadrupled in size since 1850, notwithstanding 
which there is still a demand for increased accommodation. In 1853 
the Port de la Joliette was added to the Vieux Port, and is now 
the starting-point of most of the steamboats. The Bassins du Laza- 
ret and d'Arenc were added next, in 1856 the Bassin National, and 
in 1872 the Bassins de la Oare Maritime. — The old harbour is 
long and narrow. Its entrance is defended by the forts of St. Jean 

to Nice. MARSEILLES. 1 . Route. 19 

and St. Nicolas. Near the former is the Sante (PI. B, C, 4 ; adm. 
50 c.) , or office of the 'Intendance Sanitaire' (quarantine au- 

The principal hall contains several good pictures : Horace Vernet, The 
cholera on board the frigate Melpomene ; David , St. Eochus praying to 
the Virgin for the plague-stricken, painted in Rome, 1780; Pugel, The 
plague at Milan, a relief in marble ; Oirard, Bishop Belzunce during the 
plague of 1720 (see p. 18); Tanneur, The frigate Justine returning from 
the East with the plague on board ; Quirin, The Chevalier Rose directing 
the sepulture of those who have died of the plague. 

A few paces farther N. is the Cathedral (PL B, C, 3), a modern 
edifice constructed of alternate courses of Mack and white stone, in 
a mixed Byzantine and Romanesque style, from the designs of 
Vaudoyer and Esperandieu. The towers are surmounted by domes. 
The terrace commands a pleasant survey of the Bassin de la Joli- 
ette. — To the E., facing the old harbour, is the former 'Residence 
Imp6riale', now Chateau du Pharo, a hospital (PI. A, 5). In the 
vicinity are the sea-baths (p. 17). 

"We now return to the Cannebiere. Opposite the Cours opens 
the small Cours St. Louis, continued by the Rue de Rome and the 
Promenade du Prado, which is 2 M. long (comp. PL E, F, 4-7). 
In the latter, close to the sea, is the Chateau Borely, situated in 
an extensive park, and containing a valuable Musee archeologique 
(Egyptian, Phoenician, Greek, and Roman inscriptions and anti- 
quities, Christian sarcophagi, valuable glass, etc. ; open daily for 
strangers). The 'Salon Dore' is richly furnished in the style of 
Louis XVI. and is adorned with paintings ascribed to Cheix. On 
the upper floor is an Oratory with marble bas-reliefs and an ivory 

At the E. end of the Boulevard de Longchamp rises the hand- 
some *Palais de Longchamp (PL H, 2), designed by Esperandieu 
and consisting of two extensive buildings connected by a colonnade 
of the Ionic order, adorned with a triumphal arch and a handsome 
monumental fountain in the centre. The right wing contains the 
Musee d'Histoire Naturelle ; in the other is the Musee des Beaux 
Arts, containing a large collection of modern French pictures and 
a few good works by Perugino (*No. 331) and other Italian and 
Flemish masters. 

The grounds at the back of the Museum extend to the well-kept 
Zoological Oarden (PL H, I, 1, 2; adm. 50 c, free on Sun. and 

* View. The best survey of the town and environs is afforded 
by the church of Notre Dame de la Garde (PL D, 7), situated 
on an eminence to the S. of the old harbour, an ancient shrine, 
rebuilt from designs by Esperandieu in 1864. The church was 
sadly damaged by fire in 1884, but has since been restored. The 
tower which surmounts the facade is crowned with a large figure 
of the Virgin. The terrace in front of the church commands an ad- 
mirable survey of the extensive city, occupying the entire width 

20 Route 1. TOULON. From Paris 

of the valley , the innumerable white villas (bastides) on the sur- 
rounding hills, the harbour and the barren group of islands at its 
entrance, with the Chateau d'lf (see below), and part of the Medi- 
terranean. Several different paths ascend to this point from the 
old harbour, terminating in steps, a somewhat fatiguing climb of 
1/2 hour. The full force of the prevailing Mistral (see p. 12), or 
piercing N.W. wind, the scourge of Provence, is often felt here. 
Two-horse carriage to Notre Dame de la Garde 5 fr. 

The following drive of several hours is recommended. Ascend the 
Promenade du Prado (see p. 19), descend to the sea, and return to the 
town by the picturesque Chemin de la Corniche, on which lies the "Restau- 
rant Roubion (p. 17). 

An interesting water-excursion (steamer, see p. 17) may be made from 
the Vieux Port to the (2 M.) Chateau d'lf, on the islet of that name. This 
castle, celebrated by Dumas in his 'Monte Cristo', was built in 1529 and 
used as a state-prison. Mirabeau was one of its most illustrious inmates. 
Fine view from the top. 

Railway from Marseilles to Nice (140 M., in 6-8 hrs. ; fares 
27 fr. 80, 20 fr. 85, 15 fr. 30 c). This interesting route traverses a 
hilly district at some distance from the sea, and, farther on, com- 
mands striking views. Several tunnels. — 23 M. La-Ciotat-Oare is 
the junction for La Ciotat (Hotel de VUnivers), charmingly situated 
on the coast, 2 1 /i M. to the S.E., with 10,700 inhabitants. 

42 M. Toulon (*Orand Hotel, near the station, R. from 2 l /2 f r - ; 
Victoria; de laPaix; Louvre; Railway Restaurant ; British Vice- 
consul, Mr. Jouve; U.S. Consular Agent, Mr. T. P. Mott), the war- 
harbour of France for the Mediterranean, with 70,100 inhab., poss- 
esses a double harbour, protected by eleven forts which crown the 
surrounding heights. In 1707 the town was besieged in vain by 
Prince Eugene, and in 1793 the inhabitants surrendered to the Eng- 
lish Admiral Hood. In December of that year it was gallantly de- 
fended by a small body of English soldiers against an enemy of ten- 
fold number, but was at last taken by storm. The attack was con- 
ducted by Bonaparte, lieutenant of artillery, then 24 years of age. 
Beautiful *View from the hill on which stands the fort of La Malgue. 

From Toulon to Ht£res, 13 M. , railway in 3/4-I hr. (fares 2 fr. 55, 
1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 40 c.)- — 5 M. La Garde; 7 M. La Pauline, where our line 
diverges from the main railway (see p. 21) ; 8'/2 M. La Crau ; 13 M. Hyeres- 
Ville, 3 /i M. from the town. 

The small town of Hyeres (Grand Hdlel des lies d^Or; des Hespirides; 
des Palmiers; des Ambassadeurs; d' Europe; des lies d' 'Hyeres ; d' Orient; du 
Pare; du Louvre; Beau-Sijour; de la Mtditerranie, less pretending, well 
spoken of; English Church, Avenue des lies d'Or) lies 2'/2 M. from the 
sea, on the slope of a spur of the lofty Mts. des Maures, but not sufficiently 
protected from the Mistral (see p. 12), which sometimes throws back the 
vegetation for years. Pop. 13,500. Hyeres has long been frequented as a 
winter-residence by persons suffering from pulmonary complaints (Eng- 
lish physicians, Dr. Biden, Dr. Griffith, and Dr. Cormaclc). Beautiful 
gardens and a fine avenue of palms. The Islands of Hyeres (the JStoechades 
of the ancients) are a group of rocky islands and cliffs near the coast. 
The largest of them are the He du Levant or Titan, Portcros, Porquerolles, 
and Bagaud. Some of them are fortified and inhabited, but they do not 

to Nice. CANNES. 1. Route. 21 

enjoy so mild a climate as Hyeres itself, being more exposed to the wind. 
The peninsula of Oiens, which may he visited from Hyeres by carriage 
(about 20 fr.), affords a charming view of the islands. 

Beyond Toulon the train quits the coast and winds through the 
Montagues des Maures to the N.E. 47 M. La Garde; 49 V2 M. La 
Pauline, where the branch to Hyeres diverges (see p. 20). — 85 M. 
Les Arcs, whence a branch-line runs to Draguignan. 

98 M. Frejus (Hotel du Midi; Hotel desEtrangers), a small town 
with 3140 inhab., the ancient Forum Julii , founded by Julius 
Caesar , contains the remains of a Roman amphitheatre , archway 
(Porte Doree), and aqueduct. 

1 01 M. St. Raphael, delightfully situated in a ravine on the 
coast. At the small harbour of this place Napoleon landed in 
Oct., 1799, on his return from Egypt. Here, too, after his abdi- 
cation, he embarked for Elba, 28th April, 1814. 

The line now traverses a romantic, rocky district, occasionally 
affording charming glimpses of the numerous bays of the coast. 
Several tunnels. 

123 M. Cannes. — Hotels, upwards of fifty in number, of which a 
few only need be mentioned (most of the larger ones have lifts). On the 
W. side of the town: 'Hotel d'Esterel; ''Beau-Site, R. from 2fr. ; "Hot. 
Bellevue ; Pension dk la Tour. Nearer the sea, "Hotel du Pavillon ; Hotel 
des Princes, well spoken of, D. 5, B. IV2 fr. ; Hotel de la Terrasse. 

On the E. side of the town: Splendid Hotel; Beau-Rivaoe ; Gray & 
d'Albion, well spoken of; Gonnet & de la Reine; Grand Hotel de Cannes 
(handsomely fitted up) ; de la Plage, Avell spoken of, moderate charges. 
Farther from the sea: Continental; "Hotel-Pension Suisse, 'pension' 
8 fr. ; Hotel Biustol (Central), near the railway-station; Hotel de la 
Paix; Pens. Bel-Air; Hotel de France; Westminster, well spoken of; 
Windsor; Beau-Sejour; "St. Charles, moderate. 

In the Campagne: Beau-Lieu ; '-Hotel d'Alsace-Lorraine ; Richemont ; 
Hotel des Anglais, well spoken of; Pension de Lerins ; *H6tel Mont- 
fleuri; Hotel de la Californie, on Mont Californie; Paradis ; Pro- 
vence; "Prince de Galles, with a large garden. 

At Le Cannet, H/4 M. to the N. of the station : Grande Bretagne. 

The charges at the pensions vary from 8 to 14 fr. per day, at the 
larger hotels from 15 to 20 fr. and upwards. Furnished houses are easily 
obtained, and there are also a few furnished flats. Engagements are usually 
made for the whole season, from October to May, the rent being 3000 fr. 
and upwards. Messrs. John Taylor &■ Riddett, Rue de Frejus 43 & 45. are 
recommended as agents. Cannes is considered a somewhat expensive place. 

Restaurants. Faisan Dori, Rue d'Antibes 18 ; Splendid Hotel, see 
above ; La Reserve, Boul. de la Croisette (fine view). 

Cafes. Cufi des Allies, des lies, in the Allees de la Liberte; Maison 
Dorie; Casino; etc. — Confectioner: "Rumpelmayer, on the beach, by the 
Cercle Nautique, dear; Nlgre, Rue d'Antibes 20. 

Warm Baths. Bains de Notre Dame , Rue de la Foux ; also in the 
sea-bathing establishments. 

Carriages. Within the town , l'/» fr. per drive ; 2>/2 fr. per hour ; 
outside the town and at night 2 and 3 fr. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. John Taylor. — U.S. Consular Agent, Dr. 
T. de Valcourt. 

Physicians. Dr. Frank; Dr. Bright; Dr. Battersby ; Dr. Duke ; Dr. de Val- 
court; Dr. Brandt; Dr. Blanc. — Dentist. Mr. Fay (American), Rue Herman 1. 
— Chemists. Ginner ; Brearley & Bascoxtl ; Carlevan. Rue d'Antibes 23. 

English Churches. St. PauVs, Boul. du Cannet, services during the 
season at 8.30, 11, and 3, in April and May at 8, 11, and 3.30. — C/trisfchurch 

22 Route 1. CANNES. 

Route de Frejus, at 8.30, 11, and 3. — Holy Trinity, Rue d'Oustinoff, at 11 
and 3. — St. George's (Duke of Albany Memorial Church), Chemin de la 
Californie; services at 8.30, 11, and 3. — Scottish Presbyterian Church, 
Route de Frejus, services at 11 and 3. — French Evangelical Church, Rue 
Notre Dame. — French Reformed Church, Route de Grasse. 

Climate. Cannes is protected on the N.W. by the Esterel Mts. and on 
the N. and N.E. by other ranges of hills, but the beach is somewhat ex- 
posed to the Mistral. It is thus at times, particularly in spring, cooler and 
more windy than Mentone or San Remo, but its winter-climate is usually 
mild, equable, and dry. The warmest and most sheltered parts of Cannes, 
and consequently those most suitable for patients with pulmonary com- 
plaints, are the space between the N. side of the town and the village of 
Le Cannet and Mont Californie to the N.E. Its comfortable accommodation, 
its excellent drinking-water, and the numerous pretty drives in the vicinity, 
have co-operated with its sheltered situation in making Cannes a most 
popular winter-resort, especially among the upper classes. 

Cannes, a small but rapidly increasing town with 20,000 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the Qolfe de la Napoule, consists chiefly 
of a main street, parallel with which , along the coast , runs the 
Boulevard de la Croisette, terminating on the W- in the Allies de la 
Liberie, a 'place' with promenades and fountains and a marble Sta- 
tue of Lord Brougham (d. at Cannes in 1868), who made the re- 
putation of the place by settling here in 1834. The best French so- 
ciety is also well represented. The Hotel de Ville, a handsome edi- 
fice built in 1876, contains a Musee and library. 

The old town lies at the foot of the Mont Chevalier , on which 
the parish-church rises, and from which the pier closing the S.W. 
side of the harbour extends. Fine view from the top. 

Opposite the Cap de la Croisette , the promontory which sepa- 
rates the Golfe de la Napoule from the Qolfe Jouan, rise the lies 
de Lerins. On Sainte Marguerite , the largest of these , is situ- 
ated Fort Monterey, in which 'the man with the iron mask' was 
kept in close confinement from 1686 to 1698, and recently well 
known as the prison of Marshal Bazaine (from 26th Dec. 1873 to 
the night of 9th Aug. 1874, when he effected his escape). The 
island commands a fine survey of Cannes and the coast. On the 
island of St. Honorat rise the ruins of a fortified monastery and 
church (steamer to both islands hourly, there and back 1 fr.). 

The Environs of Cannes are delightful, and studded with numerous 
villas. On the Frejus road (to the W.) is the Chateau des Tours, the 
property of the Due de Vallombrosa, with a beautiful "Garden, to which 
visitors are generally admitted in the afternoon or evening. Another walk 
may be made towards the E. to the Cap de la Croisette, where the Jardin 
des Hespirides, with its fine orange plantations, is situated. An excursion 
to the Chapel of St. Antoine on the road to Vallauris , which commands 
an admirable view, is somewhat more fatiguing. Visits may also be 
paid to Mougins , the monastery of St. Cassien, and the ruin of Napoule. 
The active pedestrian should walk to the rocky nest of Auribeau, and 
thence to Mouans , on the railway from Cannes to Grasse , or to Grasse 
(Grand Hotel, well spoken of; Hdtel Muraour; Engl. Church Service) it- 
self, a well-situated little town (12,000 inhab.), which is coming into re- 
pute as a winter-resort. Its chief industry is the manufacture of per- 
fumes and essences, for which 325,000 lbs. of roses and 350,000 lbs. of 
oran^e-blofsoms are used annually. From Grasse a trip may be made to 
the Saut du Loup, where a guide may be obtained to the interesting Oorge 

ANTIBES. /. Route. 23 

de Courmcs. The vegetation is luxuriant, but lemon-trees are not com- 
mon here. Orange -trees are principally cultivated for the sake of the 
blossoms, which form an important article of commerce. 

Beyond Cannes the line passes Golfe Jouan ; a column marks 
the spot where Napoleon bivouacked on the night after his arrival 
from Elba, 1st March, 1815. 

128 M. Antibes (Hotel desAigles d'Or), the ancient Antipolis, a 
colony of the Massilians , is now a small , but busy seaport (6400 
inhab.), beautifully situated on a promontory, and commanding a 
charming view of the sea, the Bay of Nice, and the Alpes Mar- 
itimes. A pier constructed by Vauban connects it with several 
islands in the vicinity. The Cap d'Antibes or Cap de la Garoupe, 
2 l /i M. from the town, should be visited for the sake of the beauti- 
ful view which it affords. — This portion of the line traverses a 
remarkably rich and attractive district. It soon crosses the Var 
(Varus ; station), an impetuous mountain-torrent, which in mod- 
ern, as well as ancient times formed the boundary between France 
and Italy, until in 1860 Nice was ceded to France, and the frontier 
removed farther to the E. 

140 M. Nice {Rail. Restaurant, dej. 3, D. 4 fr.), see p. 109. 
From Nice to Qenoa, see RR. 15 & 16. 

2. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis. 

496 M. Railway in 22-30'/ 2 hrs. (fares 98 fr. 80, 73 fr. 55, 53 fr. 30c). 

From Paris to Macon (274 M.), see R. 1. The railway here 
quits the Lyons line and turns to the left, crosses the Saone , and, 
at (279 M.) Pont-de-Veyle, the Veyle. In front and to the left a 
view of the Jura is obtained. The next place of importance is — 

297!/ 2 M. Bourg (Hotels de I'Europe, de France, de la Gare), 
with 18,200 inhab., the ancient capital of the Bresse, situated on the 
left bank of the Reyzousse, 3 / 4 M. from the station. The church of 
Notre Dame de Bourg, erected in the 15th-17th cent., in a variety 
of styles , contains some fine old and modern stained-glass win- 
dows and carved choir-stalls of the 16th cent. On the promenade Le 
Bastion is the ^Monument of Bichat (d. 1802), the celebrated 
physiologist , who once studied at Bourg , by David d'Angers, and 
in front of the Prefecture statues have recently been erected to 
General Joubert (1769-99) and to Edgar Quinet , the well-known 
author (1803-1875), both of whom were also natives of the Bresse. 

About l'/j M. from the station is the celebrated "Church of Brou, be- 
sung by Matthew Arnold. It is a building in the florid Gothic style, 
erected in 1511-36 by Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, and 
contains the sumptuous ^Monuments of the foundress , the Duke Philibert 
of Savoy, her husband , and Margaret of Bourbon , her mother-in-law. 
Her well-known motto 'Fortune infortune forte une\ may be seen in dif- 
ferent parts of the church. 

The line intersects the forest of Seillon. Near Stat. Pont d'Ain 
the Ain is crossed. 

24 Route 2. CULOZ. From Paris 

317 M. Amberieu, a pleasant little town on the Albarine , sit- 
uated at the hase of the Jura Mts., is the junction for Lyons (p. 5). 

The train now continues to ascend the valley of the Albarine. 
To the left lie the ruined castles of Vieux-Mont-Ferrand and St. 
Germain. Beyond St. Rambert de Joux the valley becomes wilder 
and more imposing. The line quits the Albarine at stat. Tenay, and 
enters a sequestered valley to the right , where Les Hopitaux is 
situated. Near Rossillon are a few fragments of an ancient strong- 
hold. Beyond a tunnel , ^3 M. in length , the lakes of Pugieu are 
observed on the right. Beyond two small stations the train next 
reaches the valley of the Rhone near — 

348 M. Culoz (775 ft. ; Hotel Folliet; Rail. Restaurant), at the 
base of the Colombier (5030 ft.), the junction of the Geneva line. 

From Geneva to Culoz (411/2 M.), railway in l 3 /4-2'/3 hrs. (fares 8fr. 10, 
Cfr., 4fr. 45 c). The line follows the right bank of the Rhone, on the 
slopes of the Jura Mts. Beyond (14 M.) Collonges, the Rhone flows through 
a narrow rocky valley, confined between the Jura and Mont Vouache, 
and commanded by the Fort de VEcluse , which rises far above on the 
right. The line quits the defile by the long Tunnel du Crido (2>/3 M.), 
crosses the grand Valserine Viaduct (275 yds. long and 170 ft. high), and 
reaches (20 l / 2 M.) Bellegarde (Poste), at the influx of the Valserine into the 
Rhone (French custom-house examination). The latter here forms a species 
of rapid, known as the Perte du EMne. Stations Pyrimont, Seyssel, and 

The train crosses the Rhone, and at stat. Chindrieux reaches the 
N. end of the Lac du Bourget, 10 M. in length, 3 M. in breadth, 
the E. bank of which it follows. Several tunnels and fine views. 

363 M. Aix-les-Bains (850 ft.; Grand Hotel d'Aix; Venat; 
Hotel de V Europe; Hotel de I'Univers; Splendid-Hotel; Guilland et 
de la Poste, less expensive ; and many others), the Aquae Allo- 
brogum or Aquae Gratianae of the Romans, is a celebrated water- 
ing-place with 5580 inhab. (12,000 visitors to the baths annually), 
possessing sulphur-springs (113° Fahr.), adapted for internal and 
external use. The large Etablissement Thermal, with baths and 
pump-room, deserves inspection. In the place in front of it rises 
the Arch ofCampanus, a Roman tomb of the 3rd or 4th cent., built 
in the shape of a triumphal arch ; the other scanty relics of the 
Roman period (fragments of a temple and of baths) are almost all 
within the precincts of private property and not easily accessible. 
Handsome Casino ('cercle'). — Pleasant excursion by steamboat (in 
summer) to Haute- Combe, a Cistercian Abbey on the N. W. bank of 
the Lac du Bourget. The church contains a number of handsome 
monuments erected to Princes of Savoy. 

The line quits the lake and traverses the broad valley of the 
Laisse ; to the left the beautifully wooded slopes of the Mont d'Azi 
and the Dent de Nivolet (5110 ft.). 

370 M. Chambery (880 ft. ; Hotel de France; Hotel de la Poste; 
Hotel des Princes; Hotel de la Paix~), beautifully situated on the 
Leisse, is the capital of the Department of Savoy, with 20,900 in- 
hab. , and an archiepiscopal see. On the Promenade are the 

to Turin. CHAMBERY. 2. Route. 25 

Monument of General de Boiyne (d. 1830), adorned with life-size 
figures of elephants, and (in front of the Palais de Justice) a statue 
of the jurist Antoine Favre (d. at Chambe'ry in 1624). The old 
palace of the Dukes of Savoy, erected in 1232, has been restored 
and enlarged, and now contains the Prefecture; a square tower and 
remnants of the facade of the original building still exist. It con- 
tains a small archaeological and historical collection, and behind it 
is a small Public Garden commanding a fine view. The Cathedral 
dates from the 14-15th centuries. A new Museum, opposite the 
Palais de Justice, is soon to be opened. 

The line traverses a picturesque district , passing the ruined 
castles of Bdtie and Chignin. — 377 M. Chignin-les-Marches is the 
junction for a branch-line to Grenoble , which enters the valley 
of the here (or Valley of Graisivaudan) to the right. From Grenoble 
to Marseilles by railway in 12 hrs. 

380 M. Montmelian (Buffet). The ancient castle , of which 
scanty fragments now alone exist , was long the bulwark of Savoy 
against France. The train crosses the Isere. — 385 M. St. Pierre 
d'Albigny ; the town lies opposite on the right bank, commanded by 
the ruins of the chateau of Miolans. Near (388 M.) Chamousset 
the line turns to the right , and traverses the valley of the Arc 
(Vallee de Maurienne), which here joins the Isere. Beyond (393 M.) 
Aiguebelle , which is grandly situated , the Arc is crossed (in the 
vicinity, on the left bank , the extensive iron mines of St. George 
des Hurtiires). Between stations Epierre and La Chambre the train 
passes through a tunnel. 

413 M. St. Jean de Maurienne. — 421 M. St. Michel (2330 ft.). 
The train crosses the Arc several times. Numerous tunnels (nine 
between St. Michel and Modane). — 427 M. La Praz (3135 ft.). 

431 M. Modane (3470 ft.; Rail. Restaurant, de'j. with wine 
472 fr. 5 Hotel International) is the seat of the French and Italian 
custom-house authorities (change carriages). 

The train (view to the right) describes a wide curve round the 
village, and passing through two short tunnels, enters, beyond the 
small village of Fourneaux, the great *Mont Cenis Tunnel , by which 
the Col de Frejus (8340 ft.) is penetrated in a S.E. direction. 

The tunnel (7 3 /4 M. in length; N. entrance 3800 ft., S. entrance 4160 ft. 
above the sea-level; height, in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur- 
face of the mountain 4080 ft.) was begun in Jan. 1861 and completed in 
Dec. 1870, under the superintendence of the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis, 
and Grattoni. Its total cost was 75,000,000fr. The ingenious boring- 
machines, constructed for the purpose, were worked by compressed air. 
From 1500 to 2000 workmen were constantly employed on each side. 
The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high , and almost entirely lined with 
masonry. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500 metres, and 
the distances are given in kilometres. The carriages are lighted with 
gas. The air in the tunnel, although somewhat close, is not unpleasant. 
The transit occupies 30 minutes. Travellers are warned not to protrude 
their heads or arms from the carriage-windows during the transit, and 
are also recommended to keep the windows shut. 

26 Route 2. MONT CENIS. 

The now deserted Mont Cenis Road, which continues to ascend the 
valley of the Arc, was constructed by Fabbroni in 1802-5, during the 
reign of Napoleon I. The culminating point of the Mont Cenis (6950 ft.) 
lies 17 M. to the E. of the tunnel, which was therefore hardly appro- 
priately called after the mountain. The road then descends to Susa (see 
below), about 40 M. from Modane. 

At the S. end of the tunnel is (443 M.) stat. Bardonnecchia 
(4125 ft.). Two tunnels. Stat. Beaulard. Near stat. Oulx (3500 ft.), 
the Roman Villa Martis , the line enters the picturesque valley 
of the Dora Riparia. Beyond a bridge and two tunnels , (446 M.) 
Salbertrand (3300 ft.). The river is again crossed. Before the 
next station , nine tunnels are traversed. To the left , between 
the second and third , a glimpse is obtained of the small town 
of Exilles with the frontier fortress of that name; farther on, 
a fine waterfall. — 453 M. Chiomonte , or Chaumont (2525 ft.). 
Then a number of tunnels and aqueducts. The valley contracts 
and forms a wild gorge (Le Qorgie), of which beautiful views 
are obtained, with the Mont Cenis road winding up the hill on the 
farther side , and the Roche-Melon, Roche-Michel , etc., towering 
above it. When the valley expands, Susa with the arch of Augus- 
tus comes in sight on the left (see below). — 456^2 M. Meana 
(1950 ft.) , 1 M. from Susa , lies 325 ft. higher than the latter. 
Three tunnels. The train then descends through beautiful chest- 
nut woods, and crosses the Dora. — 462 M. Bussoleno. 

A short branch-line (4i/ 2 M. in 17 min.; fares 80, 55, 35 c.) runs hence 
to Susa (1625 ft.; Hdtel de France; Soleil), a small and ancient town, 
the Roman Segusio, situated on the right bank of the Dora. A garden 
on the W. side of the town contains a Triumphal Arch, 44 ft. in height, 
39 ft. in width, and 23 ft. in depth, with projecting Corinthian columns 
at the corners and sacrificial scenes on the frieze, erected according to the in- 
scription in A.D. 8. There are also a few other Roman relics. The church 
of S. Giusto dates from the 11th century. On the opposite bank of the Dora 
rises the fort La Brunette, which was destroyed by the French in 1798. 

Next stations Borgone (where the Dora is crossed) , S. Anto- 
nino , Condove , and S. Ambrogio , high above which , on a rocky 
eminence to the right, rises the abbey of La Sagra di S. Michele, 
remarkable for its tombs which convert dead bodies into natural 
mummies. At (481 M.) Avigliana the valley expands into a broad 
plain. — 496 M. Turin, see p. 57. 

3. From Martigny over the Simplon to Novara or 
to Lago Maggiore. 

144 M. Railway from Martigny to (48 M.) Brieg in 3hrs. (fares 11 fr. 85, 
7 fr. 90, 6 fr. 30c). Diligence from Brieg over the Simplon to Domo 
d'Ossola (41 M.) twice daily in summer in 8 3 /4-9'/2 hrs. (fare 16 fr. 5, coupe 
19 fr. 40 c). Railway from Domo d'Ossola to (55 M.) Novara in 3V2 hrs. 
(fares 10 fr. 20, 7 fr. 15, 4 fr. 60 c). Diligence from Gravellona (20 M.; 
from Domo d'Ossola; train in l'/i hr.) to (6 M.) Pallanzafour times daily in 
55-60 min. (fare 1 fr., coupe' or banquette I1/2 fr.); twice daily to (4'/2 M.) 
Baveno in 40 min. (fares 80 c, 1 fr. 20 c.) and to (71/2 M.) Stresa in 
1 hr. (fares 1 fr. 20, 1 fr. 80 c.) — Private Carriage from Brieg to 

BRIEG. 3. Route. 27 

Domo d'Ossola, with one horse 45, with two horses 90 fr. (apply at the 
hotels at Brieg). 

Martigny (1560 ft. ; l*H6tel Clerc; *H6tel du Mont Blanc), 
■with 1500 inhab., is a busy little town in summer, being the start- 
ing-point of the Great St. Bernard and Chamonix routes. 

The Railway runs in a straight direction past the Baths of 
Saxon to Riddes, where the Rhone is crossed. 

151/2 M. Sion, Ger. Bitten (1710 ft. ; Hotel de la Poste), with 
4900 inhab., the capital of the Canton du Valais, has an important 
appearance in the distance with the picturesque castles of Tour- 
billon, Majoria, and Valeria towering above it. 

251/2 M. Sierre, Ger. Siders (1765 ft. ; Hdtel Bellevue ; Poste), 
picturesquely situated on a hill. — Beyond Sierre a tunnel is 
passed. 27 M. Salgesch, French Salquenen. The rocks have been 
blasted in several places for the construction of the railway. The 
train passes through two short tunnels, and crosses the Rhone. 

301/2 M. Leuk-Susten, Fr. Loeche-Souste (2045 ft. ; Hotel de 
la Souste), station for the Baths of Leuk. The important-looking 
old village of Leuk , with its castle and towers, lies high on the 
opposite slope. — 33 J / 2 M. Turtman, Fr. Tourtemagne (2080 ft.), 
at the mouth of the Turtman Valley. — 35 M. Gampel ; 38*/2 M. 
Raron. The line crosses the Visp, which has covered a great part 
of the valley -with debris. 

42 M. Vispaeh or Visp, Fr. Viege (2155 ft. ; Hotel des Alpes, 
opposite the station ; Post ; Sonne ; Railway Restaurant) , pictur- 
esquely situated at the entrance to the "Visp Valley, at the head 
of which rises the snow-clad Balfrin (12,475 ft.). Beyond Vispaeh 
the line again approaches the Rhone. 

48 M. Brieg , Fr. Brigue (2245 ft. ; *Hotel des Couronnes et 
Poste, R. 21/2, D- 41/2 fr. ; Angleterre , D. 4 fr.; Railway Re- 
staurant), a well-built little town, with a turreted chateau. The 
railway terminates here. 

The Simplon Route , properly so called, which begins here, 
was constructed by order of Napoleon in 1800-1806, and was the 
first carriage-road across the Alps from Switzerland to Italy, and, 
after the Brenner, the first great route across the Alps. In con- 
struction it is less imposing than the Splugen, but its scenery is 
much finer. The road quits the valley of the Rhone at Brieg, and 
ascends in numerous windings. 

57 M. (9 M. from Brieg) Berisal (5006 ft.) , the Third Refuge 
(*H6tel de la Poste, R., L., & A. 3y 2 fr.). Above the Fourth 
Refuge (5645 ft.) a retrospect is obtained in clear weather of the 
Bernese Alps to the N., from which the huge Aletsch Glacier 
descends. The part of the road between the Fifth Refuge (6345 ft.) 
and the culminating point is the most dangerous during the period 
of avalanches and storms. The road passes through the Wasser 
Qallery (6460 ft.), over which the stream issuing from the Kalt- 

28 Route 3. SIMPLON. From Martigny 

wasser Olacier is precipitated into the depths below , forming a 
waterfall which is visible through a side-opening. The road then 
passes through two other galleries. From the Sixth Refuge (6540 ft.) 
a splendid final view is enjoyed of the Bernese Alps ; far below in 
the Rhone Valley lies Brieg. 

The Simplon Pass (6590 ft.) is 6 M. from Be'risal. About 
3 / 4 M. beyond the summit is the Hospice , a spacious building 
founded by Napoleon , but not completed till 1825. A broad, 
open valley, bounded by snow-capped heights and glaciers, forms 
the highest portion of the Pass. The imposing Raut Olacier is a 
conspicuous object on the mountains to the S. ; to the E. rises the 
Monte Leone (11,695 ft.). The Old Hospice, a lofty square tower 
now tenanted by herdsmen, lies on the right far below the road. 

68 M. Simplon, Ger. Simpeln, Ital. Sempione (4855 ft. ; Poste, 
R. 2, D. 3^2 fr- ; Hotel Fletschhorn). The road now describes a long 
curve to the S. , which pedestrians may cut off by a rough path regain- 
ing the road at the Algaby Gallery, where the most interesting part 
of the Simplon route begins. It leads through the *Ravine of Gondo, 
one of the wildest and grandest in the Alps , becoming narrower 
and more profound at every step, until its smooth and precipitous 
walls of mica-slate completely overhang the road , below which 
rushes the impetuous Doveria. The longest of the cuttings by 
which the road penetrates the rocks is the Gallery of Gondo, a 
tunnel 245 yds. in length. At its end the Fressinone (or Alpien- 
bacK) forms a fine waterfall, which is crossed by a slender bridge ; 
on both sides the rocks tower to a dizzy height. The dark entrance 
of the tunnel forms a striking contrast to the white foam of the 
falling torrent, and with the beautiful Bodmer Glacier in the back- 
ground to the left presents a most imposing picture. Gondo (2820 ft.) 
is the last Swiss village ; i / 2 M. beyond it is the Italian boundary- 
column. S. Marco, >/4 M. farther, is the first Italian village. 

77 M. Iselle (2155 ft. ; Posta) is the seat of the Italian 
custom-house. The valley, although now less wild, continues to be 
extremely picturesque. It unites with the broad and fertile valley 
of the Tosa (Vol Antigorio) at the bridge of Crevola , 100 ft. in 
height, below which it is called the Val d'Ossola. The character- 
istics of the scenery are thoroughly Italian. 

88 M. Domo d'Ossola (905 ft.; Hotel Ville et Poste, R., L., & 
A. 4 1 / 2 -5, D. 5fr.; Hotel d Espa.gne; Albergo Nazionale, well spoken 
of), a small town with 3300 inhab., beautifully situated. The Cal- 
vary Hill, Y2 nr - *° tne S., commands a superb view. 

The Railway (fares, see p. 26) skirts the base of the moun- 
tains bounding the broad Val d'Ossola on the W. At (93 M.) Villa 
d'Ossola, the Antrona Valley opens on the right. 94 M. Pallanzeno ; 
95 M. Piedimulera, opposite which opens the Anzasca Valley. The 
Anza and the Tosa are crossed before we reach (962y 2 M.) Rumi- 

to Novara. VOGOGNA. 3. Route. 29 

97 M. Vogogna (240 ft. ; Corona), a small town at the base of 
precipitous rocks. The next stations are (99 M.) Premosello and 
(101 M.) Cuzzago , beyond which the Tosa is crossed by a bridge, 
515 yds. long. 

104 M. Ornavasso. The marble-quarries in the vicinity belong 
to the chapter of the cathedral of Milan. 

At (108 M.) Gravellona Toce {Albergo Sempione, poor), a place 
with large cotton-mills, the Strona falls into the Tosa. The roads 
to Stresa and Pallanza diverge here. 

The Road to Pallanza (diligence, see pp. 2G, 169) crosses the Tosa and 
leads past the base of the Montorfano, near the picturesque Lago di Mer- 
gozzo , to Fondo Toce, at the influx of the Tosa into the Lago Maggiore 
(p. 170). To the S. in the distance are the Borromean Islands (p. 170); 
on the right rises the Monte Motterone (p. 172). We now follow the bank 
of the lake, passing Cavetidone on the hill to the left, with its pilgrimage 
church, to Suna and (6 M.) Pallanza (p. 169). 

The Road to Steesa (7>/2 M. ; diligence see pp. 26, 171) passes large 
granite quarries, in which beautiful crystals of felspar are found, and 
reaches the Lago Maggiore at (2 M.) Feriolo (p. 170) ; in the distance are 
seen Pallanza and the Isola Madre (p. 171), and farther off, the fine outline 
of the Sasso di Ferro. 3 M. Baveno (p. 170) ; the road continues to skirt 
the lake, in view of the Borromean Islands, and next reaches (2'/2 M.) 
Stresa (p. 171). 

The Railway to Orta and Novara runs to the S. through the 
fertile valley of the Strona. Beyond (110 M.) Crusinallo it crosses 
the river and immediately afterwards the Nigulia Canal , which 
drains the Lake of Orta. At the picturesquely situated station of 
(112 M.) Omegna the line reaches the lake, which it then skirts, 
keeping above the high-road and commanding beautiful views. 
Beyond (ilb 1 ^ M.) Pettenasco , the train crosses the Pes cone , and 
then the imposing Sassina Viaduct to the (lH 1 /^ M.) station of 
Orta-Miasino, 1 M. to the E. of Orta (p. 173). 

Beautiful views of the lake as we proceed. In the centre lies 
the island of S. Qiulio (p. 173), and on the steep cliffs of the W. 
bank is the church of Madonna del Sasso (p. 174). Beyond (119 M.) 
Corconio the train traverses a cutting on the W. side of the Castello 
di Buccione (p. 174) and quits the Lake of Orta. 120^2 M. Bolzano. 
122 M. Oozzano, a place of considerable size, is the junction for 
a branch-line to Alzo (with large granite-quarries). We now tra- 
verse the fertile Val d'Agogna. 125 ] /2 M- Borgomanero (Alb. del 
Ramo Secco), 77 2 M. to the S.W. of Arona (p. 165). — 129 M. 
Cressa-Fontaneto ; 130y 2 M. Suno; 134V 2 M - Momo; 1381/2 M - f 'al- 
tignaga; 141 1 / 2 Vignale; 144 M. Novara. From Novara to Milan, 
railway in iy 4 hr.. see p. 125; to Laveno in 11/2 hr., see p. 168. 

4. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como 

(Milan) . St. Grotthard Railway. 

Railway to (144 M.) Chiasso in 6-9Vi hrs. (fares 32 fr., 22 fr. 4 c, 
16 fr.; through-fares to Milan, 176 M. , 36 fr. 65, 25 fr. 65, 18 fr. 5 c. ; 
sleeping compartment 11 fr. 80 c. extra). — A table-d'hote dinner (3 J /2 fr.) 
for passengers by the day-express is provided at Goschenen, where the 

30 Route 4. LUCERNE. From Lucerne 

traveller should be careful to avoid an involuntary change of carriages, 
or even of trains. In the great tunnel it is unnecessary to close the 
windows (comp. p. 25), hut this should he done in the curved or loop- 
tunnels, especially in ascending. Finest views from Lucerne to Fliielen 
to the right, from Fliielen to Goschenen to the left, and from Airolo to 
Bellinzona to the right. These are seen most comfortably from the open 
galleries of the new saloon-carriages (1st & 2nd class). 

The * "St. Gotthard Railway , constructed in 1872-82 at a cost of 23S 
million francs, is one of the most stupendous engineering enterprises of 
modern times. It comprises the lines Immensee-Goldau-Fliielen-Bellinzona- 
Lugano-Chiasso (128 M.), Bellinzona -Locarno (13'/2 M.), and Bellinzona- 
Magadino-Pino (16'/2 M.). The highest point of the railway is in the 
middle of the great tunnel and is 3785ft. above the level of the sea. The 
maximum gradient is 1:4, the shortest curve-radius 330 yds. The inclines 
have partly been surmounted by large spiral tunnels, of which there are 
three on the N. side of the St. Gotthard and four on the S. In all the 
railway has 56 tunnels (with an aggregate length of 25 M.) , 32 large 
bridges, 24 minor bridges, and 10 viaducts. - — The * Steamboat Voyage on 
the Lake of Lucerne from Lucerne to Fliielen is much pleasanter than 
the railway journey, and is recommended to those who are not pressed 
for time. Those who wish to examine the most interesting structure of 
the line itself should drive in an open carriage or walk from Amsteg to 
Goschenen (12 M.) and from Airolo to Giornico (15 M.). Comp. Baedeker's 

Lucerne. — Schweizerhof; Luzerner Hof; Hotel National; Beau- 
kivage; Europe ; Angleterre; Ctgne; Hotel du Rigi, all near the 
steamboat-pier ; the iirst-named are on a large scale. Hotel du Lac and 
St. Gotthard, both near the station. Balances, on the Reuss. — Engel, 
Adler, Rossli, Poste, Mohr, all unpretending. 

U. S. Consular Agent, Mr. Ernest Williams. 

Lucerne , the capital of the canton of that name , with 17,900 
inhab., is situated at the efflux of the Reuss from the Lake of 
Lucerne. The celebrated *Lion of Lucerne , designed by Thor- 
valdsen, V2M. to the N., of the Schweizerhof-Quai, is the prin- 
cipal attraction in the town. The best views are obtained from the 
Oiitsch, at the N.W. end of the town, s / i M. from the station (wire- 
rope railway in 3 min.), and from the Drei Linden, 1 M. from the 
Lion Monument. The historical and industrial Museum in the town- 
hall is also interesting. Excursions, see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

Soon after leaving the station the train passes through a small 
tunnel below the Oiitsch (see above) , beyond which the lines to 
Bern and Basel diverge on the left. It then crosses the Reuss by 
a bridge 175 yards long, passes through another tunnel and a 
cutting, and skirts the Roth-See (l*/ 2 M. long) on the right. 
Between (5 M.) Ebikon and (9 M.) Oisikon we obtain a view of 
the Rigi to the right; to the left is the wooded Hundsrilcken. 

11 M. Rothkreuz (Rail. Restaurant), the junction of the lines 
to Aarau and Zurich. Our train runs hence to the E., and at 
(16 M.) Immensee-Kiissnacht reaches the picturesque Lake of Zug 
(9 M. long, 2Y2 M. broad); opposite rises the Rossberg (p. 31). 
The railway skirts the N. slope of the Rigi at a considerable height 
above the lake, passes Arth on the left, and penetrates the Rindel- 
fluh Tunnel, beyond which lies (21 M.) Arth-Goldau (Rail. 
Restaur.), situated in the midst of debris and fragments of rock, 

to Lugano. FLUELEN. 4. Route. 31 

the results of a disastrous landslip which descended from the Ross- 
berg in 1806. Arth-Goldau is also a station on the Arth and Rigi- 
Kulm line. Farther on, to the left, are the farms of Steinenberg 
on the mountain-side, while to the right lies the Lake of Lowerz, 
with the island of Schwanau. 24 M. Stelnen, in a rich fruit-district. 
26M. Seewen, the station for Schwyz, the capital of the canton, 
with 6500 inhab., which lies 1 M. inland, at the base of the double- 
peaked Mythen (6240 ft.). 

The train now turns to the S., passing the Frohnalpstock 
(6305 ft.) on the left, crosses the Muotta, and reaches — 

28y 2 M. Brunnen (Waldstatter Hof; Adler; Hot. Aufdermaur; 
Hirsch ; Rossli), the most beautifully situated place on the Lake of 
Lucerne. The railway-station is at the back of the village, some- 
what distant from the lake. 

The railway is now carried by a tunnel 135 yds. in length below 
the Outsch and the Axenstrasse, which leads along the E. bank of 
the lake from Gersau to Fliielen. It then reaches the *Umer See, or 
E. arm of the Lake of Lucerne, along the bank of which it runs 
through a succession of tunnels and cuttings. On the right opens 
a noble view of the lake, on the opposite bank of which, at the 
base of the Seelisberg, is the meadow of Riltli, where, according to 
the legend, the first Swiss league (between Uri, Schwyz, and Un- 
terwalden) was concluded in 1307. Farther on rises the double- 
peaked Uri-Rothstock (9620 ft.), with its glacier. The train now 
threads the Hochfluh Tunnel (640 yds.), the St. Franciscus Tunnel 
(212 yds.), and the Oelberg Tunnel (i'/4 M.), the last of which is 
the second longest on the Gotthard line. Beyond (32 M.) Sisikon, 
at the mouth of the narrow Riemenstalden- Thai, the line crosses 
the Axenstrasse, and passes through the tunnels of Stutzeck (1082 
yds.) and TelVs Platte (185 yds.). (The Chapel of Tell, which 
stands on Tell's Platte, is not visible from the train.) The Axenberg 
(1220 yds.) and the Sulzeck (175 yds.) tunnels are then traversed. 

36 M. Fluelen, Ital. Flora (1435 ft. ; Adler; Kreuz ; Tell), 
the port of the canton of Uri. 

The train now ascends the broad and level valley of the Reuss, 
the background of which is formed by the pyramidal Bristenstock 
(10,090 ft.). On the right rise the abrupt rocky walls of the Git- 
sehen (8335ft.) and the Bockli (6810 ft.); to the left the Mittag- 
stock (6663 ft.), Belmistock (7933 ft.), Hohe Faulen (8260 ft.), 
aud lastly the two Windgellen (10,460 and 9800 ft.). — 38 M. 
Altdorf, the capital (3900 inhab.) of the canton of Uri, is the place 
where Tell is said to have aimed his arrow at the apple on his 
son's head. 

The line crosses the Schachenbach, a little above its junction 
with the Reuss, and approaches the foot of the mountains to the 
left. Beyond the Reuss is the hamlet of Altinghausen , with a 
ruined castle. 

32 Route 4. WASEN. From Lucerne 

411/2 M. Erstfeld (1500 ft.; Hof Erstfeld, at the station), a 
large railway depot, where the ascent begins and a heavier loco- 
motive is attached to the train. The village lies on the opposite 
hank of the Reuss, at the mouth of the Erstfelder Thai, from which 
peep the jagged Spannorter, the Engelberg-Rothstock , and the 
strangely contorted Schlossberg Glacier. 

45 M. Amsteg (1760 ft.; Stem or Post : Freihof; Hirsch), a small 
village with substantial-looking houses , occupies a picturesque 
site at the mouth of the Maderaner Thai, through which the 
Kerstelenbach descends to the Reuss. The station lies 3 / 4 M. from 
the village, halfway between Amsteg and Silenen, a hamlet with 
a ruined castle, hidden among orchards. 

The most interesting part of the railway begins here. Immedi- 
ately beyond Amsteg the train pierces a projecting rock by means 
of the Windgelle Tunnel (189 yds. long), crosses the Kerstelenbach 
by 'an imposing bridge (147 yds. long, 177 ft. high), and is then 
carried through the slope of the Bristenstock, which is much ex- 
posed to avalanches, by means of the two Bristenlaui Tunnels (436 
yds. and 234 yds. long), and across the brawling Reuss by an iron 
*Bridge 256 ft. high. We now follow the left bank of the pictur- 
esque Reuss valley, sharing the narrow space with the road, until 
the latter again crosses to the right bank. After passing through 
four short tunnels (Inschi, Zgraggen, Breiten, and Meitschlinger) we 
reach — 

50 M. Gurtnellen (2300 ft.). Beyond Gurtnellen the train 
ascends the hill of Goschenen (see below) by means of three curved 
tunnels and an immense double bend. It crosses the Gorneren- 
Bach and the Haegrigen - Bach (fine waterfall on the right) and 
enters the Pfaffensprung Loop Tunnel (1635 yds.), near the 
Pfaffensprung bridge, by which the road re-crosses to the left bank 
of the Reuss. On emerging from the upper end of the tunnel, 
which is 115 ft. above the lower, the train proceeds through the 
short Miihle-Tunnel, again crosses the Haegrigen-Bach, with a view 
of the Pfaffensprung bridge below us to the left, and then traverses 
the Muhr en-Tunnel (93 yds. ; 2820 ft. above the sea-level). Im- 
mediately afterwards we cross the deep gorge of the Meienreuss, 
which descends from the Meien- Thai, penetrate the hill of Wasen 
by the Kirchberg Tunnel (330 yds.), and after passing to the right 
bank of the Reuss, enter the Wattinger Loop Tunnel (1199 yds. 
long; 76 ft. of ascent). Beyond the tunnel, the train again crosses 
the Reuss, penetrates the Rohrbach Tunnel (242 yds.), and reaches 
the station of — 

55 M. Wasen (3055 ft.), a considerable village (Hdtel des 
Alpes ; Ochs) with a loftily situated church commanding an admis- 
able survey of the bold structure of the railway. The imposing 
* Middle Meienreuss Bridge (69 yds. long, 260 ft. high) and the 
Leggistein Loop Tunnel (1204 yds. long, 82 ft. of ascent) now carry 

to Lugano. AIROLO. 4. Route. 33 

us to the third or Upper Meienreuss Bridge (59 yds. long, 148 ft. 
high), beautifully situated. We then pass through the short Meien- 
kreuz Tunnel (84 yds. ; 3250 ft. above the sea), skirt the hillside, 
and obtain a view of Wasen and the windings just traversed. 
Opposite rises the Rienzer Stock (9785 ft.). We then cross the 
Kelterbach and the Rohrbach by an arched iron bridge (44 yds. 
long, 92 ft. high), penetrate the Naxberg Tunnel^l M. long; ascent 
of 118 ft.), and span the deep gorge of the Gbschenen-Reuss by a 
bridge 69 yds. long, 161ft. high (view of the Goschenen-Thal to the 
right, with the beautiful Damrnafirn in the background). 

60 M. Goschenen, (3640 ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant, D. with wine 
3'/2 fr. ; Hot. Goschenen; Rbssli) , with a monument to Louis 
Favre (see below), erected in Sept., 1889. Immediately beyond 
the station the train crosses the Ootihard Reuss and enters the 
great *St. Gotthard Tunnel, which runs nearly due S., 5-6000 ft. 
below the highest point of the mountain. 

The tunnel is 16,309 yds. or about 9'/4 M. in length, thus exceeding the 
Mont Cenis Tunnel (p. 25) by about l'/ 2 M. The highest point (3786 ft.) 
is almost exactly in the middle, whence it descends on both sides, about 
6 ft. in 1000 ft. towards Goschenen and 2 ft. in 1000 ft. towards Airolo. 
The work was begun in June 1872 at Goschenen, and a month later at 
Airolo, and the boring was completed on 29th Feb. 1880. The contractor, 
M. Louis Favre , died in the tunnel of apoplexy on July 19th, 1879. The 
boring was accomplished by boring-machines, driven by compressed air, 
on the improved Ferroux system. The greatest number of workmen 
employed at one time was 3400. The tunnel is 28 ft. wide and 21 ft. 
high. It is laid with a double line of rails, and is lined with masonry 
throughout. The construction cost nearly 57 million francs (2,375,000*.). 
— Express trains take 16 min. to pass through the tunnel, slow trains 25 
min. ; lanterns are placed on each side of the tunnel at intervals of 1000 
metres, numbered I to xv, the even numbers being on the right side and 
the uneven on the left. As a current of fresh air (temperature 70° Fahr.) 
constantly passes through the tunnel, it is unnecessary to close the windows. 

At the S. end of the tunnel, to the right, are some new forti- 

70 M. Airolo (3755 ft. ; *Posta; Hotel Airolo; *H6tel Lombard^ 
Hotel des Alpes, Hotel Rossi, all three at the station), in the upper 
Ticino Valley (Valle Leventina). The scenery here still retains 
quite an Alpine character, but as we proceed the influence of the 
Italian climate soon makes itself evident. 

Beyond Airolo the train crosses the Ticino, which descends from 
the Vol Bedretto opening to the right, passes through the Stalvedro 
Tunnel (209 yds. long) and enters the Stretto di Stalvedro. On the 
left bank of the Tioino the high-road runs through four rock-cut- 
tings. The valley expands near (73 M.) Ambri-Piotta. To the left 
lies Quinto. Beyond (76 M.) Rodi-Fiesso (3110 ft.) the Platifer 
(Monte Piottino) projects into the valley on the N. The Ticino 
has worn a course for itself through the mountain, and descends 
the gloomy gorge in a series of waterfalls. The railway effects a 
more gradual descent by means of two circular tunnels. At Dazio 
Grande it crosses the Ticino (striking view down the valley), 

Baedekek. Italy I. 8th Edit. 3 i 4 

34 Route 4. FAIDO. From Lucerne 

passes through the Dazio Tunnel (388 yds.) and the Artoito Tunnel 
(78 yds.), and enters the Freggio Loop Tunnel (1 M. in length), 
from which it emerges into the Piottino Ravine, 118 ft. lower 
down. It then reerosses the Ticino , at a point where the scenery 
is very fine , passes through the Monte Piottino and Pardorea 
tunnels, and descends 118 ft. more by means of the Prato Loop 
Tunnel (1711 yds.), beyond which we enjoy a view of the beau- 
tiful valley of Faido. Crossing the Ticino by the Polmengo Bridge, 
and going through another tunnel, we reach — 

82 M. Faido (2352 ft.; Hotel- Pension Suisse and Hotel Faido, 
at the station ; Angelo ; Hotel-Pension Fransioli) , the capital of 
the Leventina, very picturesquely situated. On the right the 
Piumogna descends to the Ticino in a fine waterfall. — The train 
now follows the left bank of the Ticino , traversing a beautiful 
district , richly wooded with walnut and chestnut trees. To the 
right lies Chiggiogna, with an old church. Near (86 M.) Lavorgo 
the Cribiasca forms a fine waterfall on the right. Farther on the 
Ticino forces its way through the picturesque *Biaschina Ravine to 
a lower region of the valley , while the railway descends about 
300 ft. on the left bank by means of two loop-tunnels, one below 
the other in corkscrew fashion. We pass through the La Lume 
Tunnel (508 yds.), cross the Pianotondo Viaduct (114 yds.), and 
then enter the Pianotondo Loop Tunnel (nearly 1 M. long; 115 ft. 
of descent). Next follow the short Tourniquet Tunnel (74 yds.), 
the Travi Viaduct (67 yds.), and the Travi Loop Tunnel (nearly 
1 M. long; 118 ft. of descent). The train has now reached the 
lower zone of the Valle Leventina, and reerosses the Ticino by a 
bridge 55 yds. long. 

90 M. Giornico (1480 ft.). The large village (1295 ft. ; Cervo ; 
Corona), picturesquely situated among vineyards on the left bank, 
l'/4 M. to the E., has an old Lombard tower, and traces of forti- 
fications near the church of Sta. Maria di Castello. The old church 
of 8. Niccol'o da Mira , in the early-Romanesque style , is said to 
stand on the site of a heathen temple. 

Beyond Giornico the line reerosses the Ticino by a bridge 
132 yds. long. On the right is the pretty fall of the Cramosina. 
94 M. Bodio (1085 ft.; Posta~). Beyond Polleggio the Brenno de- 
scends from the Val Blegno on the left, and is twice crossed by 
the line. The valley of the Ticino now expands and takes the name 
of Riviera down to the mouth of the Moesa. Luxuriant vines, chest- 
nuts, walnuts , mulberries, and fig-trees now remind the traveller 
of his proximity to 'the garden of the earth, fair Italy'. The vines 
extend their dense foliage over wooden trellis-work supported by 
stone pillars , 6-10' in height. Two bridges carry the line across 
the two branches of this river to — 

97 M. Biasca (Railway Restaurant ; Hotel Vnione, in the village). 
The station lies 1 M. to the S. of the village, which contains an 

to Lugano. MONTE CENERE. d. Route. 35 

old Romanesque church, situated upon a Mil. From the station a 
series of oratories ascends to the Petronilla Chapel , near which is 
the *Froda or St. Petronilla Fall. 

The train skirts the base of the richly clothed E. slopes of the 
valley, which is very hot and dusty in summer. It passes through 
two tunnels. 101 M. Osogna (965 ft."), at the foot of an abrupt 
and rocky height. — 105 M. Claro (1025 ft.), at the foot of the 
Pizzo di Claro (8920 ft.) , with the monastery of S. Maria on the 
hillside. Beyond (107 M.) Castione the train passes the mouth 
of the Vol Mesocco and crosses the Moesa. The train then passes 
through a tunnel (77 yds. long), beyond which we obtain a magni- 
ficent view of Bellinzona. 

109 M. Bellinzona (760 ft. ; Railway Restaurant ; Poste et 
Pension Suisse ; Hot. Bellinzona; Angelo"), the capital of the canton 
of Ticino, with 2500 inhab., presents a strikingly picturesque 
appearance when viewed from a distance , but the charm is dis- 
pelled when the town is entered. 

The three picturesque Castles were once the residence of the bailiffs 
of the three ancient confederate cantons. The largest, the Castello Grande, 
on an isolated hill to the W., belonged to Uri; of the other two, towards 
the E., the lower, II Castello di Mezzo or di Svitto, belonged to Schwyz, 
and the Castello Corbario or Corbi (1500 ft.), the upper, now a ruin, 
to Unterwalden. The Castello Grande is now used as an arsenal; visi- 
tors are admitted to the court and gardens to see the beautiful view (fee 
to the guide). Another admirable point is the loftily situated pilgrim- 
age-chapel of S. Maria delta Salute. 

From Bellinzona to Genoa, see R. 11 (carriages changed). 

The lower valley of the Ticino forms a wide plain, enclosed by 
lofty mountains, the lower slopes of which are covered with vines, 
the higher with walnut and chestnut trees. The train passes through 
a tunnel (300 yds.) below the Castello di Mezzo (see above). 

At (111 M.) Giubiasco the railway to Genoa (see p. 76) di- 
verges to the right. Our line describes a wide circuit towards the 
left, approaches the foot of the mountains near Camorino, and ascends 
the slopes of Monte Cenere, through walnut and chestnut trees. S. 
Antonio lies below on the right; then Cadenazzo (p. 76). Two tun- 
nels (the Precassino, 435 yds., and the Meggiagra, ill yds.). *View 
of the Ticino Valley, the influx of the Ticino into the Lago Mag- 
giore, Locarno, and the Val Maggia Mts., improving as we ascend. 
The train then penetrates the Monte Cenere by means of a curved 
tunnel (1 M. long; close the windows), 1435 ft. above the sea- 
level and about 370 ft. below the summit of the pass. At the S. 
end of the tunnel, in the sequestered valley of the Leguana, lies — 

H8V2 M. Rivera-Bironico (1420 ft.). The train then skirts the 
Leguana, which soon unites with the Vedeggio, a stream descending 
from Mte. Camoghe (p. 39), to form the Agno. Beyond the short 
Molincero Tunnel is (124 M.) Taverne (1130 ft.), the station for 
the two villages of Taverne Superiori and Taverne Inferiori (Inn). 
At Lamone (1033 ft.) the train quits the Agno and ascends past 


36 Route 4. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

Cadempino and Vezia to the Massagno Tunnel (1135 ft. ; 1016 yds. 
long) , describes a long curve (with a fine -view of the lake to the 
left), and reaches — 

128 M. Lugano. — The Railway Station (PI. C, 2; "Restaurant) lies 
on the hill above the town, of which it commands a fine view as well as 
of the lake. Besides the road there is a shorter footpath and a Cable 
Tramway (Funicolare ; comp. PI. C, 2, 3), to the right of the exit from the 
station (fares up 30 or 20 c, down 20 or 10 c). — The Steamboat (p. 160) 
has two piers (PI. B, 5, and C, 3). 

Hotels (the chief of which send omnibuses to meet the trains and 
steamers). On the lake: 'Hotel du Paec (PI. a; B, C, 4), in an old mon- 
astery at the S. end of the town , with shady garden (band thrice a day) 
and the dependances of Belvedere, Villa Ceresio, and "Beau-Sejour (PI. b; 
B, 4; the last, with fine garden, alone open in winter), R., L., & A. 5-6, 
B. I1/2, D. 5, omnibus I1/2, pens. 9-11 fr. ; 'Hotel Splendide (PI. c; B, 5), 
5 min. farther to the W., on the Paradiso road (see below), pens. 10-12 fr. ; 
Hot. -Pens. Lugano, with a small garden, well spoken of; Hot. -Restaurant 
Americano (PI. f ; D, 3), Piazza Bandoria, pens. 6 fr. — In the town: Hotel- 
Restaurant Suisse (PI. g; D, 3), near the Piazza Bandoria, R. & A. 2'/2, 
B. l'/ii lunch 2, D. 3'/2 fr. ; "Pension Zweifel, Pens. Grutli, both plain. 

— Near the station: Hot. National (PI. h; D , 1), in the former Villa 
Enderlin, with fine garden, pens, from 8 fr. ; "Hotel Washington (PI. C, 
1), R., L., & A. 3'/2, D. 41/2, pens. 7-8 fr.; "Hot.-Pens. Beauregard 
(PI. i; B, 3), "Hot.-Pens. Beausite (.PI- k; B, 3), both to the S. of the 
station, on the hill; Pens. Bon-Air, a little below the station. • — At Para- 
diso, 1/2 M. to the S., at the foot of Mte. Salvatore, Hot. -Pens. Beauri- 
vage (PI. m; B, 6), with the dependance Villa Rosa; "Hot. -Pens. Reich- 
mann (PI. n; B, 6), 7-9 fr. ; "Bellevue (PI. A, 6), pens. 6-8 fr. ; all with 
gardens on the lake and fine views. — At Cassarale (p. 38), 1 M. to the E., 
in a sheltered position, with a S. aspect, "Pens. Villa Castagnola (PI. 
G, 3), with pretty garden, 6-8 fr. ; Pens. Villa du Midi (PI. G, 5), '/ ( I 
farther on, 4V2-5 fr. 

Restaurants. At the hotels; "Trattoria Biaggi (also R. and pens.), 
to the W. of the Piazza della Riforma, on the way to the cable-tramway, 
thoroughly Italian. — Beer at the Brasserie Bale, at the N.E. corner of the 
Piazza Bandoria; Walter; Steinhof, near the quay, next the Hotel Lugano. 

— "Cafe Jacchini, Piazza della Riforma. — Confectioner: Jfeister. 

Lake Baths on the Paradiso road (50 c. with towels) ; Warm Baths 
at Anastasi's, near the Hot. du Pare. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. D, 3), Via Canova, near the Hot. Suisse. 

— Physicians, Br. Cornils, Dr. Zbinden, Dr. Reali. — Bookseller, Dalp, 
Piazza Bandoria. 

Carriage to Luino with one horse 12, with two 20 fr. (fee extra). 

Boats to Porlezza (p. 160) with one rower 7fr., two 12fr., three 
16>/2fr. ; to Osteno 6, 10, or 12fr., incl. fee. At the hotels, one rower 
2 fr. , two rowers 3 fr. for the first, hour , each additional hour, l>/2 and 
2 fr. respectively. 

English Chapel adjoining the Belvedere du Pare (see above ; English 
chaplain resident from May to the end of Oct.). 

Lugano (930 ft.) , the largest and busiest town in the Swiss 
canton of Ticino , with 7160 inhab., is charmingly situated on 
the lake of the same name, and enjoys quite an Italian climate (the 
agave blooming here in the open air). It is a very pleasant place 
for a lengthened stay. The winter temperature is somewhat higher 
than that of Montreux or Meran, from which Lugano is also distin- 
guished by its comparatively low elevation above the sea. The 
climate is therefore less stimulating, and for susceptible constitu- 
tions forms a suitable transition-stage on the way farther south. 


Geo^raph. Ansrtalt -,'oti 

-J . 

CaJiobfrio? Eva.1 ColLa. 

L U © A\ HJ © 

1". 16700 

,_„,, zoo ™„°_^Jffl MptTi 

lBtmcad JVrze (V7iZJ)3|3-3/iOTi<^0ro .. JJ3 
r?Viro(J7J«&i/«D3lt7fea(TO . 

™ ,iPresfassana. 

WagiLFr it, Debes.Xeipxil'" 

to Lugano. LUGANO. 4. Route. 37 

The heat of summer is seldom excessive. The environs possess all 
the charms of Italian mountain scenery ; numerous villages, churches, 
chapels, and country - seats are scattered along the margin of 
the lake , and the lower hills are covered with vineyards and 
gardens, contrasting beautifully with the dark foliage of the chest- 
nuts and walnuts in the background. To the S., immediately above 
the town, rises the Monte S. Salvatore , wooded to its summit; to 
the E., across the lake, is the Monte Caprino , to the left the 
Monte Bre and the beautiful Monte Boglia. On the N. opens 
the broad valley of the Cassarate, backed by a group of moun- 
tains among which the double peak of Monte Camogh'e (p. 39) is 

A broad Quay, planted with trees, and frequented as an evening 
promenade , stretches along the bank of the lake. Opposite the 
steamboat pier is the imposing Palazzo Civico (PI. d ; C, 3), with a 
beautiful colonnaded court. It is adjoined on the E. by the Theatre, 
beyond which is the spacious Piazza Band6ria, at the harbour. 
The Piazza delta Riforma lies farther back. At the S. end of the 
quay rises a Fountain Statue of Tell by Vela. — The church of S. 
Maria degli Angioli (opposite , adjoining the H6tel du Pare) , con- 
tains beautiful *Frescoes by Bernardino Luini. 

The painting on the wall of the screen, one of the largest and finest 
ever executed by Luini , represents the "Passion of Christ , and contains 
several hundred figures, arranged according to the antiquated style in 
two rows. In the foreground, occupying the upper part of the wall, 
stand three huge crosses, at the foot of which we perceive Roman war- 
riors, the groups of the holy women, and St. John, and the executioners 
casting lots for the garments. Above, on a diminished scale, from left to 
right, are Christ on the Mount of Olives, Christ taken prisoner, the 
Mocking of Christ, the Bearing of the Cross, the Entombment, Thomas's Un- 
belief, and the Ascension, all immediately adjacent. Although the style of 
the composition strikes one as old-fashioned, especially after seeing Leon- 
ardo's works, the eye cannot fail to be gratified by the numerous beau- 
tiful details. The St. Sebastian and St. Rochus , below , between the 
arches , are particularly fine. To the left, on the wall of the church, is 
the Last Supper, a picture in three sections, formerly in the Lyceum, and 
in the 1st Chapel on the right is a tine Madonna, two easel-paintings by 
Luini. The sacristan expects a small fee. 

The interior of the town , with its arcades , workshops in the 
open air , and granite-paved streets , is also quite Italian in its 
character. — S. Lorenzo (PI. C, 2) , the principal church , on a 
height below the station , probably erected by Tommaso Rodari at 
the close of the 15th cent., has a tastefully enriched marble facade. 
— The terrace in front of the station commands an extensive *View. 

Pleasant Walk to the S., on the high-road past the Hotel du 
Pare and H6tel Splendide, through the surburb of Paradiso (PI. A, 
B, 6) and by the foot of Mte. Salvatore, to the (II/4M.) headland of 
S. Martino, a charming point of view. — To the W. by the winding 
Ponte Tresa road (PI. A, B, 4, 5), which diverges to the S. at 
the Villa Beause'jour (short-cuts for walkers), to the (lV-2-l 3 /4 M.~) 
hill on which lies the frequented Restaurant du Jardin. The village 

38 Route 4. MONTE S. SALVATORE. Environs 

of Sorengo is situated on a hill to the right (fine view from the 
church); to the "W. is the Lake of Muzzano. A carriage-road leads 
from the Restaurant du Jardin, to the left, via, Otntilino, to (l 1 /^ M.) 
the conspicuous church of S. Abbondio , in the graveyard of which 
are several monuments by Vela. — To the E., from the Piazza 
Castello (PL D, 3), we may follow the Via al Campo Marzio, which 
crosses the (l/ 4 M.) Cassarate, to ( 3 / 4 M.) Cassarate (PI. G, 3), and 
thence proceed by the sunny high-road skirting the foot of the 
Mte. Bre to (1 M.) Castagnola, where we obtain a fine view of the 
Mte. Salvatore. At No. 227 in the Piazza Castello is the entrance 
to the shady grounds of the Villa Qabrini, formerly the Villa Ciani 
(PL D, E, 3), with 'La Desolazione', a mourning woman by Vine. 
Vela (gardener 1 fr.). — If time permit, some of the villas near 
Lugano may be visited; most of them are shown on application to 
the gardener. To the N., on a hill, are the Villa Maraini (PI. C, 1) 
and the Villa Luvini (PI. D, 1) ; at Canobbio (1275'), 1 M. to the 
N. (comp. PI. E, 1 ) is the Villa Trevano , the property of the 
Russian general Von Heins, on a hill commanding the Val Cassa- 
rate, with fine grounds. — Comp. the Map, p. 150. 

•The "Monte S. Salvatore (2982'; ascent 2-2'/4, descent IV2 lirs.; guide 
4 fr., superfluous; mule 8 fr., inel. guide and fee; cable-railway, to be 
opened in 1889, fare up or down 4 fr. ; comp. PI. A, 6) is a charming point 
of view. About 300 paces beyond the Hotel Splendide, before the first 
house of Paradiso (p. 37), a road diverges to the right from the S. Martino 
road ; 2 min. farther, we ascend between the houses a little to the left, and 
pass the Hotel Bellevue and under the railway. We proceed via, Calprino 
to (IV2 M.) the village of Pazzallo, from which Monte Rosa is visible through 
an opening in the mountains. Here we diverge to the left by a lane 'al 
Monte', and then follow the bridle-path. The route, which is stony at 
places, but cannot be mistaken, crosses the (12 min.) cable-railway. In 
I1/2 hr. from Pazzallo we reach the small inn (6 beds), immediately below 
the summit, on which there is a pilgrimage-chapel. The 'View embraces 
all the arms of the Lake of Lugano , the mountains and their wooded 
slopes , especially those above Lugano , sprinkled with numerous villas. 
To the E. above Porlezza is Monte Legnone (p. 158); N. above Lugano 
the double peak of Monte Camoghe (p. 39), to the left of this the 
distant Rheinwald mountains; W. the chain of Monte Rosa, with the 
Matterhorn and other Alps of the Valais. This view is seen to best ad- 
vantage in the morning, when Monte Rosa gleams in the sunshine. The 
descent on the S. side of the mountain, via Carona and Melide (somewhat 
longer and more fatiguing), is not recommended. — • Circoit of Monte 
Salvatobe (a drive of 2'/2 hrs. ; carr. with one horse 7, with two horses 
14 fr.). Road by (J.1/2 M.) Pambio, where there is a monument by Vela to 
Capt. Carloni, and through the pretty Val Scairolo to (3 M.) Figino, where 
we reach the W. arm of the lake. We then follow the lake, rounding 
the Mte. Arbostora (p. 161), to (2 M.) Morcote and (3 M.) Melide (p. 40). 
Thence to Lugano 3'/2 M. more. 

The ascent of Monte Bre (3050 ft.), to the E. of Lugano, is another easy 
excursion (2V2-3 hrs.), scarcely less interesting than that to Mte. S. Sal- 
vatore (guide needless ; mule 10 fr.). From the Piazza Castello to the iron 
bridge over the Cassarate, see above. Beyond the bridge we turn to the 
left, then after about 130 paces to the right, and ascend the winding road 
between low walls to a large mill, Molinazzo (PI. G, 2), where mules 
may be hired. Thence the same road to (1 M.) Viganello, and below the 
hill crowned by the church of Pazzolino turn to the right to (l'/i M.) 
Bonago. Thence the road again ascends, partly between walls, and among 

of Lugano. MONTE CAMOGHE. 4. Route. 39 

chestnuts, figs, and vines, to ( 3 /4 hr.) Desago, on the mountain-slope, the 
highest village visible from Lugano. Desago may also be reached in 
3 /4-l hr. from Caslagnola (p. 38), via Ruvigliano. Above Desago the path 
divides : both branches lead round to the 0/a- 3 /< hr.) village of Bre (263U ft. ; 
2 hrs. from Lugano ; Restaurant & Pension Forni), at the back of the hill. 
From the church of Bre a narrow forest-path ascends to the summit of 
the mountain. This path also divides ; the branch to the right traverses 
the highest crest of the hill, that to the left leads to a spur of the moun- 
tain in the direction of Lugano. The summit may be attained in >/2 hr. 
by either. The view of the several arms of the Lake of Lugano, especially 
in the direction of Porlezza, and the surrounding mountains, is remarkably 
fine. Lugano itself is not visible from the summit, but from the above- 
mentioned spur a good view of it may be obtained. 

Monte Caprino, opposite Lugano, on the E. bank of the lake, is much 
frequented on holidays by the townspeople, who possess wine-cellars (can- 
tine) in the numerous cool grottoes by which the side of the mountain is 
honeycombed. These cellars (closed at sunset), are guarded by numerous 
huts, which from a distance present the appearance of a village. Good 
wine of icy coolness may be obtained here ('Asti' recommended), and there 
is also a birreria. Small boat there and back in 2'/2 hrs., including stay 
(fares, see p. 37); steamboat on Sun. and holidays. 

To S. Bernardo and Bigorio (to the station of Taverne, 3>|2-4 hrs.). 
A cart-track on the fertile slopes to the N. of Lugano leads by Massagno, 
Savosa, Porza, and Comano to the (l'/2 hr.) church of S. Bernardo (2300ft.), 
on a rocky plateau, with a picturesque view. (At the S.E. base of the 
hill are the village of Canobbio and the chateau of Trevano; see p. 38.) 
Thence (at first following the top of the hill to the N. ; no path) to Sala 
and the (l'/4 hr.) monastery of Bigorio (2300 ft. ; refreshments), charmingly 
situated on the wooded hill of that name. (The church contains a Madonna 
attributed to Guercino or Perino del Vaga.) Back by (lM.) Ponte Capriasca 
(1425 ft. ; with a church containing a good old copy of Leonardo da Vinci's 
Last Supper) to (l'/a M.) the railway- station of Taverne (p. 35). 

< Monte Boglia (4900 ft.; 4-4'/2 hrs.), a picturesque hill visible from Lu- 
gano to the left of Mte. Bre (guide desirable). Ascent by Soragno and the 
Alp Bolla, or from Bre (see above ; steep). View little inferior to that from 
Mte. Generoso. Descent on the E. side through the grassy Val Soldo to 
Castello and iS. Mamette (steamboat-station ; p. 161). 

Monte Camoghe (7300 ft. ; 7-8 hrs. from Lugano ; guide from Colla), a 
famous point of view, fatiguing. Road via, Canobbio (p. 38) and Tesserete, 
and then to the right, through the Val Colla, to (12 M. ; carr. in 2'/2 hrs.) 
Scareglia or Lower Colla (3205 ft.; 'Osteria Garzirola). We then (with guide) 
ascend by Colla and the Alp Pietrarossa, leaving the Mte. Garzirola (see 
below) to the right, to the (3 hrs.) Alp Sertena (5920 ft.) and the (I1/2 hr.) 
top, where we enjoy a striking panorama of the Alps from Mte. Rosa to 
the Ortler. — The descent may be made to the N., by the Rivolte and 
Leveno Alps, to the Val Morobbia, Giubiasco , and (5 hrs.) Bellinzona. 
(Ascent of the Camoghe from Bellinzona, 7-8 hrs.) — Monte Garzirola 
(6940 ft.), 3 hrs. from Colla, also repaying. — From the Val Colla an in- 
teresting walk over the pass of S. Lucio (5960 ft.) to Porlezza, or over the 
Cima dell' Arabione (5930 ft. ; fine view) to the Val Soldo (p. 161), or to the 
Val Soldo by a path passing the curious dolomite pinnacles of the Denti 
di Vecchia. 

Monte Tamaro (6430 ft. ; 4 hrs. ; guide) from Taverne (p. 35) or Biro- 
nico (p. 35), not difficult. Splendid view of Lago Maggiore, etc. 

Val Magliasina. Beautiful drive by Agno, Vernate, and Cademario to 
(8 M.) Breno (2105 ft.; Ost. Ferrajo); back by Novaggio and Magliaso. 
Pleasant walk from Breno over Mte. Lemo (5312 ft. ; splendid view) to 
(5-6 hrs.) Luino (p. 168); or back to Lugano by <S. Bernardo (see above). 

To the ''Grotto of Osteno, see p. 160. Ascent of Mte. Generoso, see p. 40. 

40 Route -1. MONTE GENEROSO. 

Steamboat on the Lake of Lugano, in connection with the rail- 
ways to the Lago Maggiore and the Lake of Como, see p. 160. 

From Lugano to Chiasso and Como (Milan). The train crosses 
the Tassino Valley, by means of a viaduct, 120 ft. high (charming 
■view to the left), and passes through the Paradiso Tunnel (833 yds.) 
under the N. E. spur of Monte S. Salvatore (p. 38). It then skirts 
the lake, with views (to the left) of the wooded slopes of the E. 
bank and the villages upon it. Beyond (132 M.) Melide (Micheli's 
Inn, good wine) the train and the road cross the lake to Bissone by 
a stone viaduct '/-2 M. long, which sadly mars the scenery. At each 
end there is an arch for the passage of boats. To the right a pleasant 
view of the lake, which branches into two bays (p. 160). Two tun- 
nels. Then (134 M.) Maroggia (Elvezia), at the W. base of the Mte. 
Qeneroso ; continuous view of the lake on the right. 136 J /2 M. Ca- 
polago, at the top of the S. E. arm of the lake. — The train now 
ascends the fertile valley of the Laveggio. 

139 M. Mendrisio (1190 ft. ; pop. 2750; *H6tel Mendrisio, to the 
right at the entrance to the town, R., L., & A. 3y 2 , D. 4^2 fr. ; *An- 
gelo, in the village, Italian, R. & A. iy 2 trJ), a small town ] / 2 M. 
from the station. 

The 'Monte Generoso (5440 ft.), M. Gionnero, or M. Calvaggione, the Rigi 
of Italian Switzerland, is frequently ascended from Mendrisio (to the hotel 
2'/2-3 hrs. ; guide unnecessary ; mule 6 fr. ; small vehicle to the top for one 
person 10, there and back 16 fr. and fee; shade in the afternoon). We 
ascend the broad high-road past the Albergo deir Angelo, then (1 M.) 
follow the road to the left to the Wine-cellars of Salorino (the sharp angle 
formed by the two roads may be cut off by following the steep footpath). 
A paved bridle-path ascends between the houses, and at a chapel with an 
open portico turns to the left (walkers may go through the village of Salo- 
rino, to the right, and follow the telegraph-wires). The path, which is very 
stony at places and paved at points where it is liable to be flooded by the 
mountain-streams, is at other parts tolerable. After about 50 min. from Men. 
drisio it enters a wooded dale (spring on the left), whence high up on the 
mountain-slope in the background is seen the dairy of Cassina, 3 /t M. to 
the E. of the hotel. In i hr. more the road crosses the stream (to the 
right) and winds up among low trees to (i.1/4 hr. more) the "Hdtel du Gini- 
roso (3965 ft.; R., L., & A. 4-5, D. 5, pens, from 12 fr. ; post and telegraph 
offices ; English Church Service), the property of Dr. Pasta of Mendrisio. 
The hotel (closed in winter), which is concealed until we are close upon 
it, is situated on a mountain terrace commanding a view towards the plain 
of Lombardy. Rich flora. — Guide-posts to the N. of the hotel indicate the 
paths to the (20 min.) "Bellavista, and to the summit of the Generoso. The 
former is a mountain-spur immediately above Capolago, with a fine view 
(best in the morning) of the Lake of Lugano and the surrounding hills, 
and of the distant snow-peaks from the Gran Paradiso to the St. Gotthard. 

— The path to the Generoso at first ascends in windings, then skirts several 
spurs on the E. slope, and finally passes a small Chalet Restaurant (5 beds), 
to the (l>/ 2 hr.) summit. The *View (Panorama at the hotel) embraces the 
lakes of Lugano, Como, Varese, and Maggiore, the populous plains of Lom 
bardy, and the entire Alpine chain to the N. from Monte Viso to the Ber- 
nina. — Monte Generoso may also be ascended from Maroggia (see above) 
by Rovio (Hut. des Prealpes), or from Balerna (see p. 41) by Muggio in 
4-4'/2hrs. (roads to Rovio and Muggio, beyond which the ascent is fatiguing). 

— From Lanzo uV Intelvi (bridle-path, 5'/2 hrs), see p. 161 (recommended 
for the return, 6 hrs. to Osteno). — A rack-and-pinion railway from Capolago 
(Sft. 1 above) tu the holel is projected. 

REICHENAU. 5. Raute. 4 1 

The short Coldrerio Tunnel carries us through the watershed 
between the Laveggio and the Breggia. 142 M. Balerna. 

144 M. Chiasso (765 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; *Alb. S. Michele, 
by the station), the last Swiss village (custom-house ; usually a long 
halt). The line pierces the Monte Olimpino by means of a tunnel 
3190 yds. long, and passes Borgo Vico, a suburb ofComo, on the left. 

147 M. Como (p. 148); thence to Milan, see R. 20. 

5. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen. 

74 M. Diligence from Coire to Chiavenna twice daily in summer in 
12 hrs. (coupe 26 fr. 65 c, interior 22 fr.). Extra Post from Coire to Chia- 
venna with two horses 151 fr. 10 c, with three horses 208 fr. 50 c. — 
Railway from Chiavenna to Colico, 17 M., in 1 hr. (fares 3fr. 10, 2 fr. 15, 
1 fr. 40 c), corresponding with the steamboats to Como. 

Coire, Ger. Chur, Ital. Coira (1935 ft. ; Steinbock, outside the 
town ; Lukmanier, near the station ; Weisses Kreuz ; Stern ; Rother 
Lowe], situated on the Plessur, ll/ 2 M. from its confluence with the 
Rhine, with 9250 inhab. , is the capital of the Canton of the Gri- 
sons, and an episcopal residence. ^ 

Within the 'Episcopal Court\ which is surrounded by walls and rises 
above the town, are the Cathedral of St. Lucius, the oldest part of which 
is said to date from the 8th cent, (choir 1208, nave consecrated in 1282), 
the mediaeval Episcopal Palace, and a few Roman remains. See Baedekers 

The Diligence Road from Coire ascends the broad valley of 
the Rhine. The scenery is uninteresting as far as Reichenau. On 
the opposite bank of the river , at the base of the Calanda, lies the 
village of Felsberg, which was partly destroyed by a landslip in 
1850. The road passes through the large village of Ems, with 
the scanty ruins of the castle of Oberems, and crosses the Rhine. 

6 M. Reichenau (1935 ft.; Adler), a hamlet at the confluence 
of the Vorder-Rhein and Hinter-Rhein, which is best viewed from 
Dr. A. von Planta's garden, adjoining the Adler (open to the public ; 
time allowed by the diligence). Dr. v. Planta's Chateau, opposite 
the entrance to the garden, was erected by the bishops of Coire. 

A covered wooden bridge crosses the Vorder-Rhein, immediately 
before' its confluence with the Hinter-Rhein. Through the valley of 
the Vorder-Rhein a post-road, not crossing this bridge, but branch- 
ing off to the right, on the left bank of the Vorder-Rhein, leads to 
Disentis and Andermatt. Our road, on the left bank of the Hinter- 
Rhein, soon ascends for a short distance, and passes the villages of 
Bonaduz and Rhazuns. The fertile valley which we follow as far 
as Thusis, called Domleschg, or Domliaschga, on the right (E.) bank 
of the Rhine, and on the W. side Heinzenberg , or Montagna, is 
remarkable for its numerous castles. Towards Katzis (2185 ft.) the 
scenery is particularly fine. To the S. rises the snow-clad summit 
of the Piz Curoer (9760 ft.) ; beyond it, to the left, is the Schyn 
Pass, with the majestic Piz Michel (10,370 ft.) in the back- 
ground; to the N. the Ringelspitz (10,660 ft.) and the Trinserhom 

42 Route 5. THUSIS. From Coire 

(9935 ft. J. Near Thusis , above the village of Masein, rises the 
castle of Tagstein. 

16 M. Thusis, Romanic Tuseun (2450 ft. ; Via Mala; Kurhaus 
or Post ; Rhaetia ; Weisses Kreuz), lies at the confluence of the Rhine 
and the Nolla, the turbid water of which tinges the Rhine for a 
considerable distance. Fine view from the bridge over the Nolla. 
In the background towers the Piz Beverin (9840 ft.). 

Beyond Thusis the valley of the Rhine is apparently terminated 
by lofty mountains. The entrance of the ravine of the Rhine is 
guarded on the right bank by the ruined castle of Hohen-Rhatien, 
or Hoch-Realta. Prior to 1822 the bridle-path from Thusis ascended 
the valley of the Nolla on the right bank through forest , and en- 
tered the gorge below Rongellen (see below). The path through the 
gorge (the ' Verlorne Loch 1 '), the celebrated *Via Mala, was then 
only 4 ft. wide, and followed the left bank. The new road was 
constructed in 1822. The limestone-rocks rise almost perpendicu- 
larly on both sides to a height of 1600 ft. At the Kanzli, a little 
way from the entrance of the ravine , there is a fine retrospect. 
About IYj M. from Thusis is a tunnel 55 yds. long, penetrating 
the projecting rock. The retrospective *View, through the narrow 
and gloomy defile, before we enter the tunnel, of the solitary tower 
of Hohen-Rhaetien and the sunny slopes of the Heinzenberg beyond 
is very striking. At the point, beyond the tunnel, where the side- 
wall ceases and the wooden railings recommence, a view of the 
brawling torrent is obtained. 

Near the ( 3 / 4 M.) post-house of Rongellen the gorge expands, 
but soon again contracts. The road crosses the river three times at 
short intervals. The scene is most imposing in the vicinity of the 
*Second BuiDGE(2844ft.), built in 1739, 1 M. from Rongellen. The 
Rhine, 160 ft. below the road, winds through a ravine so narrow 
that the precipices above almost meet. At the third bridge (2903 ft.), 
about 1 M. farther, the Via Mala ends. 

The road now enters the more open Valley of Schams , the 
green meadows and cheerful cottages of which present a pleas- 
ant contrast to the sombre defile just quitted. In the background 
to the S. rises the pointed Hirli (9370 ft.). Above the old bridge 
the Rhine forms a small waterfall. The first village in the valley 
of Schams (6 M. from Thusis) is Zillis, Roman. Ciraun (3060 ft. ; 
Post), with the oldest church in the valley. On the hill to the 
right, on the left bank of the Rhine, above the village of Donath, 
and overshadowed by Piz Beverin, stands the ruined castle of Far- 
diin, or La Turr, once the seat of the governors of the valley. On 
the same bank are the village of Clugin and the square tower of 
the ruin of Cagliatscha. 

231/2 M. Andeer (3210 ft. ; Krone, or Hotel Fravi) is the prin- 
cipal village in the valley, with 580 inhabitants. Fine view from 
the loftily situated church, built in 1673. 

to Colico. SPLUGEN. 5. Route. 43 

The road ascends in windings , passes the ruins of the Bdren- 
burg , and enters the *Rofna Ravine , a gorge 3 M. in length, in 
which the Rhine forms a series of waterfalls. Near the entrance 
the Averser Rhein descends from the Ferrera Valley and joins the 
Hinter-Rhein. Towards the end of the gorge, an old bridge crosses 
the Rhine. Farther on, a rocky gateway (Sassa Plana), 16 yds. in 
length, is passed. The open Alpine landscape of the Rheinwald- 
thai (Vol Rhein) is now disclosed; to the right lies Sufers (4670 ft.), 
at the foot of the barren Kalkberg (9760 ft.) ; opposite rises the Eins- 
horn (9650 ft.) ; to the left of Spliigen, adjoining the Quggernull 
(9470jft.), is the Tambohorn (10,750 ft.). 

32^2 M. Spliigen, Roman. Spluga (4755 ft. ; Hotel Bodenhaus, 
D. 41/2 fr. ; Hotel Spliigen), the capital of the Rhein waldthal, is a 
busy place, owing to its position at the junction of the Spliigen and 
Bernardino routes. The latter here runs to the "W. The Spliigen 
route turns to the left, crosses the Rhine, and ascends in windings, 
passing through a tunnel 93 yds. in length. Retrospect of the barren 
Kalkberg rising above Spliigen. The road then enters a bleak valley 
and ascends on theW. slope in numberless zigzags, passing a solitary 
Refuge, to the (6% M.) Spliigen Pass (Colmo dell' Orso ; 6945 ft.), 
between the Tambohorn, or Schneehorn (10,750 ft.) on the right, 
and the Surettahorn (9925 ft.) on the left. This narrow ridge 
forms the boundary between Switzerland and Italy. The pass, 
which was known to the Romans, was traversed down to 1818 by 
a bridle-path only. The road was constructed by the Austrian 
government in 1819-21. About 3 / 4 M. beyond the pass is the 
Dogana (6245 ft. ; poor inn), the Italian custom-house, at the head 
of a bleak valley surrounded by lofty mountains. 

The road now descends by numberless zigzags along the E. 
slope, being protected against avalanches by long galleries. Be- 
yond the second gallery a beautiful view is obtained of Isola and 
the old road, destroyed by an inundation in 1834. The new road 
avoids the dangerous Liro Oorge between Isola and Campo Dolcino. 
Beyond Pianazzo, near the entrance to a short gallery, the Madesimo 
forms a magnificent waterfall , 650 ft. in height , which is best 
surveyed from a small platform by the road-side. 

From Pianazzo a road ascends to (I1/4 M.) Madesimo (4920 ft.), a pret- 
tily situated village with a chalybeate spring and a hydropathic f,: Kurhaus 
(pens. 8V2 fr-), recommended as a health-resort. 

50 M. Campo Dolcino (3455 ft. ; Croce d'Oro ; Posta or Corona) 
consists of four large groups of houses. The second contains the 
church, surrounded by ash-trees, and the 'Campo Santo'. The Liro 
Valley, or Valle 8. Qiacomo, is strewn with fragments of rock, but 
the wildness of the scene is softened by the luxuriant foliage of 
the chestnuts lower down, from which rises the slender white cam- 
panile of the church of Madonna di Qallivaggio. Near 8. Oiacomo 
there are whole forests of chestnuts, which extend far up the steep 

44 Route 5. CHIAVENNA. 

mountain slopes. The vineyards of Chiavenna soon begin, and the 
rich luxuriance of Italian vegetation unfolds itself to the view. 

58 V2 M. Chiavenna. — Hotels. *Hotel Conkadi, in the middle of 
the town, with railway-ticket and luggage oflice, B., L., & A. 3-5, B. I1/4, 
lunch 2'/2, D- 4'/2 fr. ; "Albekgo Specola, at the station, R., L., & A. I1/2, 
B. 1 fr. — Restaurant CMave d'Oro, with heds, on the Promenade. 

The Station ("Cafe-Restaurant, lunch 21/2 fr., beer) lies outside of and 
below the town. Through-tickets are here issued to the steamboat-stations 
on the Lago di Como, with coupon for the omnibus-journey between the 
railway-station and the quay at Colico. 

Chiavenna (1090 ft.), the Roman Clavenna, an ancient town 
with 4100 inhab., is charmingly situated on the Mera, at the mouth 
of the Val Bregaglla, through which the road to the Maloja Pass and 
the Engadine leads. Opposite the Hotel Oonradi, on the road, are 
the ruins of an unfinished castle of De Salis, the last governor ap- 
pointed by the Grisons. Picturesque view from the castle-garden or 
'paradise)' (fee y 2 fr.). — S. Lorenzo, the principal church, has a 
slender clock-tower or campanile, rising from an arcaded enclosure 
which was formerly the burial-ground. The Battisterio contains an 
ancient font adorned with reliefs. 

The Railway to Colico (fares, see p. 41) traverses three tun- 
nels soon after starting, beyond which we enjoy a fine retrospect of 
Chiavenna. The line runs through a rich vine-bearing country, the 
lower parts of which, however, are exposed to the inundations of 
the Liro and Mera. The valley (Piano di Chiavenna) is enclosed on 
both sides by lofty mountains. On the right bank of the Mera lies 
Oordona, at the mouth of the Val della Forcola, beyond which 
the Boggia forms a pretty waterfall in its precipitous descent 
from the narrow Val Bodengo. — 6 M. Samolaco is the station for 
the large village of that name on the opposite (right) bank of the 
Mera, at the mouth of the Val Mengasia. Before (8 1 /-2 M.) Novate, 
the railway reaches the Lago di Mezzola. This lake was originally 
the N. bay of the Lake of Como, from which it has been almost 
separated by the deposits of the Adda; but the shallow channel 
which connects the lakes has again been rendered navigable. To 
the S. appears the pyramidal Mte. Legnone (p. 158). The railway 
crosses the diluvial land formed by the mountain-stream issuing 
from the Val Codera on the left, and, supported by masonry and tra- 
versing tunnels, skirts the E. bank of the lake via Campo and Ver- 
zeia. It crosses the Adda beyond (2272M.) Dubino. The Valtellina 
railway (p. 158) joins ours from the left; we observe on a hill to the 
right the Tuined castle of Fuentes, once the key of the Valtellina, 
erected by the Spaniards in 1603, and destroyed by the French 
in 1796. 

74 M. Colico (720 ft.), at the N. extremity of the Lake of Como, 
see p. 158. — The station is nearly 1/2 M- from the quay. The om- 
nibus-coupons are collected at the exit from the station. There is 
abundant time to permit of passengers walking to the quay, instead 
of taking the omnibus. 

6. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner. 

166 M. Railway in 8>/*-12 hrs. ; express fares 39 fr. 55, 29 fr. 30 c. ; ordi- 
nary 33 fr. 50, 24 fr. 95, 16 fr. 80 c. Views on the right as far as the 
summit of the Brenner. Information as to through-tickets , which are 
paid for in Italian money, see Introd. vii. 

The Brenner, the lowest pass over the principal chain of the Alps, is 
traversed by the oldest of the Alpine routes, which was used as early as 
the Roman period, and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The 
railway, opened in 1867, one of the grandest modern works of the kind, 
affords the most direct communication between S. E. Germany and Italy. 
Within a distance of 78 M. the line is carried through 22 tunnels, and 
over 60 large and a number of smaller bridges. The greatest incline, 
1 : 40 , is between Innsbruck and the culminating point. 

Innsbruck (1910 ft. ; Tiroler Hof, Europdischer Hof, Ooldene 
Sonne, all near the station ; Stadt Munchen, Habsburger Hof, 
Ooldener Adler, in the town, second-class), see Baedeker's East- 
ern Alps. The train passes the Abbey of Wilten (on the right) and 
penetrates the hill of Jsel by a tunnel 750 yds. in length. It then 
passes through another tunnel, and crosses to the right bank of the 
Sill, on which it ascends. On the S. rises the Waldr aster -Spitze 
(8905 ft.). Five tunnels. Beyond (4i/ 2 M.) Patsch (2550 ft.) the 
valley becomes narrower and wilder. Four more tunnels. The Sill is 
crossed twice. — 11 M. Matrei (3240 ft.), with the chateau of Traut- 
son, the property of Prince Auersperg, is charmingly situated. — 
14'/2 M. Steinach (3430 ft.) ; the village lies on the other side of the 
valley, at the mouth of the Osehnitzthal. — The train now ascends a 
steep incline, crosses the Schmirner Thai in a wide curve above 
the village of Stafflach (two tunnels), and runs high above the 
profound ravine of the Sill to (I91/2 M.) Gries (4100 ft.). It then, in 
another curve, passes the small green Brennersee, and reaches — 

23 Y 2 M. Stat. Brenner (4485 ft. ,• Buffet), on the summit of the 
pass, the watershed between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. The 
Sill, which rises on the N. side of the pass, falls into the Inn ; the 
Eisak, rising on the S. side, descends to the Adige. The train follows 
the course of the Eisak and soon stops at (27 M.) Brennerbad 
(4350 ft. ; *Sterzinger Hof), a popular bath-establishment. It then 
descends rapidly by means of a long embankment and through two 
tunnels to (29 M.) Schelleberg (4065ft.), where it turns into the 
Pflersch-Thal. Here it enters the N. slope of the valley by a curved 
tunnel, 800 yds. long, from which it emerges in the opposite di- 
rection, soon reaching (33 M.) Gossensass (3480 ft.; Grobner), 585ft. 
below Schelleberg. This is one of the most interesting parts of the 
line, and is most striking when seen in the reverse direction. 

The train now runs high above the Eisak , passing at places 
through wild rocky scenery, and enters the broad basin in which 
lies (38 M.) Sterzing (3105 ft. ; Rose ; Alte Post ; Neue Post ; 
Adler), a clean and picturesque little town with curious old build- 
ings and arcades , deriving its prosperity from mines formerly 
worked here. 

46 Route 6. BOTZEN. From Innsbruck 

The train now crosses the Pfitscher Bach ; on the left rises the 
castle of Sprechenstein , and on the right the ruins of Thumburg 
and Beifenstein. — 40^2 M. Freienfeld. The train crosses the Eisak ; 
on the left bank rises the ruined castle of Welfenstein and the vil- 
lage of Mauls. — Beyond (45 M.) Orasstein the train enters the 
narrow defile of Mittewald, where the French were defeated in 1809. 

The lower end of the defile, called the Brixener Klause, near 
Vnterau (2460 ft.) , is closed by the (47i/ 2 M.) Franzensfeste, a 
strong fortress constructed in 1833. The station {Rail. Restaurant, 
with rooms to let, D. 1 fl. 20 kr., R. 1 fl.) lies at some distance 
from the fortifications. The Pusterthal line (for Carinthia) here 
branches off to the left. The vegetation now assumes a more south- 
ern character, vineyards and chestnuts gradually appearing. 

56!/2 M. Brixen, Ital. Bressanone (1830 ft. ; Elephant; Stern), 
was for nine centuries the capital of an ecclesiastical principality, 
which was dissolved in 1803, and is still an episcopal residence. 
Most of the churches date from the 18th cent., and are unimportant. 
At the S.W. end of the town is the Episcopal Palace, with a large 

The train next crosses the Eisak by an iron bridge ; on the right, 
above, lies Tschotsch ; on the left, the pleasant village of Albeins. 

61^2 M. Klausen (1675ft.; Lamm), consisting of a single narrow 
street, is situated in a defile, as its name imparts. The Benedictine 
monastery of Seben, on the right, commands a very striking view. It 
was once a Roman fort under the name of Sabiona, and afterwards 
an episcopal residence down to the 10th century. 

Below Klausen the valley contracts. The line skirts precipitous 
porphyry cliffs. — 66i/ 2 M. Waidbruck (1520 ft.), at the mouth 
of the Grbdener Thai. On the left, high above, rises the Trosl- 
burg, the property of Count Wolkenstein. 

The train crosses the Grodenerbach , and then the Eisak. — 
71 M. Atzwang (1245 ft.) , at the mouth of the Finsterbach. The 
train again crosses the Eisak, in a narrow valley enclosed by abrupt 
porphyry rocks. Several tunnels. 76 M. Blumau, at the mouth of 
the Tierser Thai. On the right bank are the vine-clad slopes of the 
Botzener Leitach; another tunnel is passed through, and the Eisak is 
crossed near the village of Kardaun, at the opening of the Eggen- 
thal. The train now enters the wide basin of Botzen, a district of 
luxuriant fertility. 

80 M. Botzeu, or Bozen , Ital. Bolzano (850 ft. ; Kaiserkrone, 
in the Musterplatz ; Victoria, near the station; Oreif; Europa; 
Mondschein; Erzherzog Heinrich ; Stiegl) , with 10,600 inhab., the 
most important commercial town in Tyrol, is beautifully situat- 
ed at the confluence of the Eisak and the Talfer, which descends 
from the Sarnthal on the N. The background towards the E. is form- 
ed by the strikingly picturesque dolomite mountains of the Val di 
Fassa; to theW. rises the long porphyry ridge of the Mendel. The 

to Verona. TRENT. 0. Route. 47 

Gothic Parish Church of the 14th and 15th cent, has a portal with 
two lions of red marble, in the Lombard style. Beautiful open tower, 
completed in 1519. — The Calvarienberg (25 min. walk; beyond 
the Eisak bridge cross the railway to the right) commands a fine 
view of the town and environs. — Gries (Hotel- Pens ion Austria; 
Bail; Bellevue, etc.), ^M. from the station, in a sheltered situation 
on the right bank of the Talfer, at the foot of the Guntschnaberg, is 
a favourite winter-resort for invalids. 

From Botzen a branch-line diverges to (20 M.} Meran (l'/s-2 hrs. ; 
1st cl., i fl. 64 kr. ; 3rd cl., 98 kr.). See Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

Beyond Botzen the train crosses the Eisak, which falls into the 
Etsch (or Adiye~) 4 M. below the town. The latter becomes navigable 
at (87 M.) Branzoll (Ital. Bronzolld). In the distance, to the right, 
rises the dilapidated castle of Sigmundskron, and the wooded range 
of the Mittelberg, which separates the vine-covered plain of Eppan 
from the valley of the Adige. Beyond (89 M) Auer (Ital. Ora), near 
Omund, the train crosses the river ; to the right, on the hill, lies 
Kaltern, with its famous vineyards. — 94 M. Neumarkt, Ital. Egna. 
Roads to the Fleimserthal diverge at Auer and Neumarkt. On the 
slopes to the right lie Tramin, Kurtatsch, and Margreid. — 99 M. 
Saturn, commanded by a ruined castle on an apparently inac- 
cessible rock. 

104 M. S. Michele , or Walsch- Michael , with a handsome old 
Augustinian monastery (suppressed) , is the station for the Val 
di Non. The train again crosses the Adige. — IO8Y2 M. Lavis on 
the Avisio, which here descends from the Val Cembra. This im- 
petuous torrent with its different ramifications is crossed above its 
junction with the Adige by a bridge 1000 yds. in length. 

115 M. Trent. — "Hotel Trento (PI. a), near the station, R., L., & 
A. l'/2-2 fl. In the town: *Europa (PI. t>). Of the second class: Aquii-a 
Bianua, near the castle; Agnello d'Oro. — Cafes: "AW /sola Nuova, at 
the station; "Europa; Specchi. 

Trent (685 ft.), or Trento, Lat. Tridentum, with 19,600 in- 
hab., formerly the wealthiest and most important town in Tyrol, 
founded according to tradition by the Etruscans, and mentioned by 
Strabo , Pliny, and Ptolemy, possesses numerous towers, palaces of 
marble, dilapidated castles, and broad streets, and bears the im- 
press of an important Italian town. The Piazza del Duomo in par- 
ticular presents a very imposing appearance. 

The *Cathedral, founded in 1048, begun in its present form in 
1212, and completed at the beginning of the 15th cent., is a 
Romanesque church surmounted by a dome. The N. portal, as at 
Botzen (see above), is adorned with a pair of lions. In the S. trans- 
ept are several old monuments, half-faded frescoes, and on the wall 
the porphyry tombstone of the Venetian general Sanseverino, 
whom the citizens of Trent defeated at Galliano (p. 49) in 1487. 
In the Piazza of the cathedral, which is embellished with a Fountain, 
rises the old Torre di Piazza. 

48 Route 6. 


From Innsbruck 

S. Maria Maggiore, where the celebrated Council of Trent sat 
in 1545-63 , contains a picture , on the N. wall of the choir, with 
portraits of the members of the council , and an excellent organ 
dating from 1534. Outside the church, adjoining the S. side of 
the choir, is a column dedicated to the Virgin , erected in 1845 on 
the 300th anniversary of the meeting of the Council. 

The Museum, in the Via Larga, near the cathedral, contains a 
collection of bronzes and other antiquities from S. Tyrol. 

Among the numerous old palaces, the painted facades of which 
ill conceal the poverty within, may be mentioned Palazzo Zambelli, 
opposite the Hotel Europa, dating from the 16th cent, (fine view 
from the garden), and Palazzo Tabarelli, in the Via S. Salvatore, 
said to have been built from designs by Bramante. 

To the E. of the town, and N. of the large Piazza d'Armi, is 
situated the extensive chateau of Buon Consiglio, formerly the seat 
of the Prince-Bishops of Trent, and now a barrack, which contains 
remains of ancient frescoes (accessible with permission of the com- 
mandant of the town, whose ofrice is at the back of the cathedral). 

to Verona. MORI. 6. Route. 49 

The colossal circular Torre di Augusto is supposed to date from 
the time of the Romans. — The rocky eminence of Dos Trento 
(950 ft.), on the right bank of the Adige, and the terrace of the 
Capuchin Church on the E. side of the town afford fine views. 

Fkom Trent to Bassano by the Val Sugana, 57 M. Diligence daily 
in 11-12 hrs. (fare 4 fl.). — This direct route to Venice (although not the 
most expeditious) traverses the beautiful Venetian Mountains. The road, 
which ascends immediately beyond Trent, enters the narrow valley of the 
Fersina, and is partially hewn in the rocks or supported by buttresses of 
masonry. The narrowest part is defended by an Austrian fortification. 
About 3 /4 hr. from Trent, in a rocky gorge to the right, is the beautiful 
"Fall of the Fersina (accessible from the garden of the Osteria 'alia Gran 
Cascata 1 by a passage partly cut in the rock ; 30 kr.). 

7'/2 M. Pergine (1580 ft.; HStel Voltolini), a considerable market- 
town, commanded by the handsome castle of that name. The road now 
crosses a range of hills. Retrospect to the left of the castle of Pergine, 
to the right of a small portion of the Lake of Caldonazzo. The small 
Lago di Levico is then skirted to (1372 M.) Levico, a watering-place with 
mineral bath3, frequented by Italians from May to September. The Val 
Sugana, watered by the Brenla, begins here, its capital being — 

21 M. Borgo (1230 ft. ; Hdtel Val Sugana ; Croce), on the N. side of which 
rises the ruined castle of Telvana , with the remains of a second castle 
high above it. Below the town is the beautiful chateau of Ivano , be- 
longing to Count Wolkenstein-Trostburg. 

Near (10 M.) Origno the valley of Tesino opens to the N., watered by 
the Origno. Beyond G-rigno the valley is confined between lofty cliffs which 
barely leave room for the road. The Austrian custom-house is at (3 M.) 
Tezze, the Italian 3 /4 M. beyond it. In a rocky cavity beyond (2 l /t M.) — 

38 JI. Primolano (Posta, poor) is situated the ruined castle of Covelo, 
a mediaeval stronghold. About 1 M. farther the Cismone descends from the 
Val Primiero. 7 M. Valstagna is inhabited chiefly by straw-hat makers. 

Near (5 M.) Solagna the ravine of the Brenla expands. About l'/2 M. 
farther the road turns a corner, and a view is obtained of a broad plain 
with large olive-plantations in which lies the picturesque town of — 

57 M. Bassano, see p. 230. 

Beyond Trent, on the right bank of the Adige, is the village of 
Sardagna, with a considerable waterfall. 117 M. Matarello. On 
a height near (123 M.) Calliano rises the extensive castle of Be- 
seno, the property of Count Trapp. ■ — 129 M. Roveredo (680 ft. ; 
Cervo; Olivo ; Corona), a town with 8900 inhab., is noted for its 
silk-culture. The principal building is the old Castello in the Piazza 
del Podesta. — Road to Torre and Schio, see p. 222. 

The lower part of the valley of the Adige, down to the Italian 
frontier, is called the Val Lagarina. On the right bank lies Isera, 
with numerous villas, and a waterfall. On the left bank, to the E. 
of the railway, near Lizzana, is a castle, which about the year 1302 
was visited by Dante when banished from Florence. 

132 M. Mori [Railway Hotel, R. from 80 kr.). 

Fkom Mori to Riva on the Lago di Garda , lO'/j M. Omnibus twice 
daily in 2 3 /t hrs., starting from the station, 1 fl. ; one-horse carriage 4, two 
horse V/2 fl- The road, which in suitable weather will reward even the 
pedestrian, crosses the Adige to Ravazzone and the straggling village of (2 M.) 
Mori (605 ft.). It then traverses the broad green valley to (3 M.) Loppio, 
passes the little Lago di Loppio (G65 ft.) with its rocky island, and ascends 
in windings among rocky debris to the (IV4 M.) culminating point of the 
route (1050 ft.). We now descend to P/i M.) Nago, a village situated on 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. 4 

50 Route 6. ALA. 

the brink of a ravine, with the ruins of the castle of Peneda on a barren 
rock to the left. (A direct road to Areo here diverges to the right, see 
p. 195.) Below the village the road leads through a fortified gateway, im- 
mediately beyond which we enjoy an exquisite "'View of the blue Lago di 
Garda, in its entire expanse. The road descends rapidly to O/2 M.) the 
village of Torbole pBertolini), charmingly situated, beyond which it tra- 
verses the broad valley of the Sarca, crosses that river, and leads past 
the base of the precipitous Monte Brione (p. 195), with the Fort S. Nic- 
colb, to (3 M.) Riva (p. 194). 

Near 8. Marco the line intersects the traces of a vast landslip, 
which is said to have buried a town here in 833, and is described 
by Dante [Inferno xii. 4-9). At (136 M.) Serravalle , a fort which 
once guarded the defile, the valley contracts. 

141 M. Ala (415 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; Posta), with 3800 in- 
hab., possesses velvet-manufactories which once enjoyed a high re- 
putation, and is the seat of the Italian and Austrian custom-house 
authorities. Those who have forwarded luggage by this route to 
or from Italy should take the precaution to enquire for it at the 
custom-house here. — Avio is the last station in the Austrian 
dominions. The village, with a decayed chateau of Count Castel- 
barco, lies on the right bank of the Adige. 

149 M. Peri is the first Italian station. The Monte Baldo (7280 
ft.) on the W. separates the valley of the Adige from the Lago di 
Garda. 148 M. Ceraino. The train now enters the Chiusa di Ve- 
rona, a rocky defile celebrated in mediseval warfare. To the left is 
a new fort, and farther on are the works of Ineanale, commanding 
the pass. On an eminence on the right bank lies Rivoli, which was 
stormed several times by the French in 1796 and 1797 under Mas- 
se'na, and afterwards gave him his ducal title. 

The train passes Domegliara, Pescantina, and Parona, crosses the 
Adige, and reaches the Verona and Milan line at S. Lucia. 

At Verona (see p. 201) it first stops at (164i/ 2 M.) the Stazione 
Porta Nuova and then at the (166 M.) Stazione Porta Vescovo. 

7. From Vienna to Venice via, Pontebba. 

398 M. Railway in I6V2-241/2 hrs. (fares 72 fr. 40, 53 fr. 20, 36 fr. 25 c. ; 
express 84 fr. 45, 61 fr. 95 e. in gold). 50 lbs. of luggage free, provided it is 
at the station at least '/;> hr. before the train starts, otherwise the whole 
of it is liable to be charged for. — The entire journey lies in most pictur- 
esque and sometimes grand scenery, especialJy the Semmering line be- 
tween Gloggnitz and Bruck, and the Pontebba line between Tarvis and 

Vienna, see Baedeker's Southern Germany 4' Austria. The line 
runs at a considerable height, affording an extensive view to the E. as 
far as theLeitha Mts., and to the W. overlooking the city, the suburbs 
of which extend as far as stat. Meidling. 3 M. Hetzendorf, with an 
imperial chateau. On the hills to the right, near (8 M.) Brunn, are 
several ruins. — Near (Q l /2 M.) Modling, the Briihl, a picturesque 
rocky valley, opens on the W. , and a branch-line diverges to the 
E. to the imperial chateau and park of Laxenburg. Stations Gunt- 

SEMMERING. 7. Route. 51 

ramsdorf and Gumpoldskirchen, famous for its wines. A short tun- 
nel is passed. — 17 M. Baden (695 ft.), with handsome villas, cel- 
ebrated for its warm mineral springs , the Roman Thermae Panno- 
nicae. Beautiful environs. — 19 M. Vbslau (800ft.), which yields 
the best Austrian wine, is also frequented as a watering-place. The 
next stations are Leobersdorf, Felixdorf, and Theresienfeld. 

31 M. Neustadt, or Wiener- Neustadt (930 ft. ; Hlrsch; Kreuz), 
with 23,468 inhab., is an important manufacturing town. On the E. 
side lies the old ducal and afterwards imperial Castle, converted 
in 1752 into a military academy. 

On the right beyond Neustadt the Schneeberg (6810 ft.) is visible 
almost from base to summit; on the left rises the Leitha range. On 
a hill to the left, in the distance , stands the well - preserved 
castle of Seebenstein, the property of Prince Liechtenstein. — 35 M. 
St. Egyden ; 40 M. Neunkirchen, a manufacturing place ; then Ter- 
nitz and Potschach. On the height to the left, near Gloggnitz, rises 
the castle of Wartenstein. Schloss Gloggnitz on the hill, with its 
numerous windows, was a Benedictine Abbey down to 1803. 

At (47 M.) Gloggnitz (1430 ft. ; Alpenhorn; Adler) begins the 
imposing *Semmering Railway, one of the most interesting lines 
in Europe (best views on the left) , completed in 1853. In the 
valley flows the green Schwarzau, on which is the large paper- 
manufactory of Schloglrnuhl. On the left the three-peaked Sonn- 
wendstein ; to the W. in the background the Raxalp. The line 
describes a wide circuit round the N. side of the valley to (55 M.) 
Payerbach (1510 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant, with rooms), and crosses the 
Valley of Reichenau by a viaduct with 13 arches, 300 yds. long and 
60 ft. high. The train now ascends rapidly on the S. slope of the 
valley (gradient 1 : 40). Beyond two short tunnels, it skirts the 
Gotschakogel , and beyond two more tunnels reaches (61 J/2 M.) 
Klamm (2255 ft.), with a half-ruined castle of Prince Liechtenstein, 
on an abrupt rocky pinnacle. Far below runs the old Semmering 
road; several factories, and the white houses of Schottwien, nest- 
ling in a narrow gorge, are visible. The train now skirts the Wein- 
zettelwand by a long gallery and reaches (66 M.) Breitenstein (2540 
ft.). Two more tunnels are traversed, and the ravines of the Kalte 
Rinne and the TJntere Adlitzgraben crossed by lofty viaducts. After 
three more tunnels the train reaches — 

71 M. Semmering (2840 ft. ; *H6tel Semmering, a large new 
establishment 1 M. to the N. E.). In order to avoid the remain- 
ing part (276 ft.) of the ascent, the train penetrates the highest part 
of the Semmering, the boundary between Austria and Styria, by 
a tunnel nearly 1 M. in length , and theu descends rapidly on the 
N. slope of the peaceful dale of the Frbschnitz to (78 M.) Spital and 
(82'/2 M.)Murzzuschlag (2200 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant, R.l fl. 20 kr.), 
an old town on the Murz, frequented as a summer-resort, with a 
Kurhaus and shady promenades. 


r>2 Route. 7. BRUCK. From Vienna 

The train now follows the picturesque , pine-clad valley of the 
Miirz, containing numerous forges. 87 '/ 2 M. Langenwang ; 90 M. 
Krieglach ; 92 M. Mitterdorf, with a large gun-manufactory. On the 
right rises the chateau of Puchl, with its four towers, and beyond, 
the ruins of Lichtenegg. The train makes a wide sweep round the 
Wartberg-Kogel, crossing the Miirz twice, and reaches (97 M.) 
Kindberg , with a castle of Count Attems. • — 102 M. Martin ; 
106 M. Kapfenberg, at the entrance of the Thorl-Thal, 10 min. from 
Bad Steinerhof, a watering-place frequented for pectoral diseases. 

108 M. Bruck (1590 ft. ; Post), a small town at the confluence 
of the Miirz and Mur, with an old castle, is the junction of the 
line to Gratz and Trieste (see Baedeker's Southern Germany). On a 
rocky height to the N. of the station is the ruined castle of Landskron. 

The 'Kronpeinz Rudolf Line', which we now follow, diverges 
to the right from the South Railway, crosses the Mur by a long 
iron bridge, and ascends the narrow valley of that river. Beyond 
(116 M.) Niklasdorf the train again crosses the Mur and reaches — 

118i/ 2 M. Leoben (1745 ft.; Post; Mohr ; Adlef), the capital 
of Upper Styria and the seat of the government mining authorities. 
Pop. 5500. The negociations between Napoleon and the Austrians 
preliminary to the Peace of Campo Formio took place at Leoben in 
1797 (comp. p. 285). ■ — The train describes a wide circuit round 
the town, and stops at the (11972 M.) Rudolfbahn Station, to the 
S. of the suburb of Waasen. It then follows the Mur, passing the 
chateau of Goss on the left. 

126 M. St. Michael (1950 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), at the mouth of 
the Liesing-Thal, is the junction for St. Valentin and Linz. Several 
unimportant stations. — 140 M. Knittelfeld (2110 ft.), a prettily 
situated little town, lies at the mouth of the Ingering-Thal. 

14972 M. Judenburg (2380 ft.; Post or Krone; Brand), an an- 
cient town at the base of the Seethal Alps, I72 M. from the railway. 
Extensive foundries. — 153 M. Thalheim ; 158 M. St. Georgen; 161 M. 
Unzmarkt, a village on the right bank of the Mur. On the opposite 
bank rises the ruin of Frauenburg, once the seat of the minnesinger 
Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Beyond (16572 M.) Scheifling, with the 
chateau of Schrattenberg , belonging to Prince Schwarzenberg, the 
train quits the valley of the Mur, and ascends to (17072 M.) St. Lam- 
brecht (2900 ft.), on the watershed between the Drave and the Mur. 
It then descends the picturesque valley of the Olsa, passing (173 M.) 
Neumarkt and the small baths of (17772 M.) Einbd. 

183 72 M. Friesach (2090 ft. Pritmig ; Post; Mohr), an ancient 
town, still surrounded with walls and moats, and commanded by 
several ruined castles. Gothic Parish Church of the 15th cent. ; Do- 
minican Church in the transition style of the 13th century. 

The train now enters the Krappfeld, the fertile plain of the 
Gurk ; to the E. is the Saualpe , to the S. rise the Karawanken. 
187 M. Hirt. Near (190 M.) Treibach are extensive iron-works. 

to Venire. VILLACH. 7. Route. 5.? 

199 M. Launsdorf (1695 ft. ; Hail. Restaurant). The most inter- 
esting of the numerous ancestral castles of the Carinthian nobles 
which abound in this district is *Hohen-Osterwitz, the property of 
the Khevenhiiller family, situated 2 M. to the S.W., on a rock 
920 ft. high. — From (203 M.) Qlandorf (*Rail. Restaurant) a 
branch-line diverges to Klagenfurt. 

203'/2 M. St. Veit (1560 ft. ; Stern; Rossi), an ancient town with 
2300 inhab., was the capital of Oarinthia and the residence of the 
dukes down to 1519. The town-hall is embellished with curious 
reliefs. Gothic church of the 15th century. 

The line continues to ascend the pretty valley of the Glan. 
208!/ 2 M. Feistritz-Pulst. On a height to the right stands the ruin 
ofLiebenfels, on the left the ruined castles of Karlsberg and Hardegg. 
213 M. Glanegg is also commanded by an old castle. The train now 
traverses a narrow wooded part of the valley, then quits the Glan, 
crosses a low ridge , and enters the broad valley of the Tiebel. 
219 M. Feldkirchen (Rauter), a considerable village. The train 
then approaches the Ossiacher See (1600 ft.), a lake 6 M. in length, 
on the N. bank of which it runs at the base of the Oerlitzen-Alp 
(6250 ft.). 224 M. Ossiach. Opposite (228 M.) Sattendorf is the 
Kurhaus Annenheim, a favourite summer-resort. The extensive 
ruin of Landskron, perched on a projecting buttress at the S.W. end 
of the lake, now comes into view. The train turns to the S. and 
reaches — 

232 1/ 2 M. Villach (1595 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; Post; Mosser, 
Tarmann, both near the station), an old town on the Drave, with 
5400 inhab., the junction of the lines to Marburg and Franzens- 
feste, picturesquely situated in a fertile basin at the base of the 
Dobratsch (7110 ft.). The Gothic Parish Church (16th cent.) affords 
a line view of the environs and of the lofty Karawanken. 

The train skirts the town towards the S., and crosses the Drave 
by a handsome iron bridge. — 235 M. -Bad Villach, with warm 
sulphur springs and a well-equipped bath-house. The train now 
crosses the Gail and reaches (237!/ 2 M.) Firnitz, opposite which 
lies Federaun, with a lofty shot-tower. — 243 M. Arnoldstein ; 
246'/2 M. Thbrl-Maglem. The train then runs along the left side 
of the deeply furrowed Gailitz Valley, passes through two tunnels, 
and reaches — 

250 M. Tarvis (2410 ft. ; Rail. Hotel 4 Restaurant), where the 
railway from Laibach joins ours on the left. Tarvis, the chief place 
in the Kanal Valley and a popular summer-resort, consists of TJnter- 
Tarvis, in the floor of the valley, '/ 2 M. from the the station, and 
Ober-Tarvis, charmingly situated on the hillside, 3 / 4 M. farther on, 
with a small station of its own, at which the slow trains stop. 

Beyond Ober-Tarvis the line gradually ascends. To the left 
rises the Luschariberg (5880 ft.) , with a much - frequented pil- 
grimage-church. — 255 M. Snifnilz (2615 ft.), on the watershed 

54 Routt 7. PONTEBBA. 

between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. The train then descends 
along the Fella, -which rises a little to the N. of this point, and 
passes the mouth of the grand Seisera valley. In the background 
rises the jagged Wischberg. — 258!/ 2 M. Vggowitz. Near the pictur- 
esque Fort Malborget the Fella is crossed. Beyond (261 M.) Mal- 
borget the train runs through a rocky ravine, at the end of 'which 
lie the small sulphur-baths of (265 M.) Lussnitz. Farther on the 
train again crosses the Fella and penetrates the loose slopes of the 
Planja-Graben by a vaulted cutting. It then passes Leopoldskirchen 
on the left, and crosses the Vogelbach. 

270 1 /2 M. Pontafel (1870 ft. ; Railway Restaurant), the Austrian 
frontier- station, where the luggage of passengers arriving from Italy 
is examined. Pontafel is separated by the rushing Pontebbana from — 

271 M. Pontebba (Railway Restaurant), the first village in 
Italy, with the Italian custom-house (luggage examined). The next 
part of the railway, traversing the wild ravine of the Fella (*Valle 
del Ferro), is remarkable both for the grandeur of the scenery and 
for the boldness displayed in the construction of the line. The train 
crosses the turbulent Fella several times, and passes through numer- 
ous tunnels (24 between Pontebba and Stazione per la Carnia) and 
across numerous viaducts. — 278 M. Dogna, at the mouth of the val- 
ley of that name, at the head of which rises the grand pyramid of the 
Montasio (9030 ft.). — 279 M. Chiusaforte, at the entrance of the 
picturesque Raccolana Valley. At (284 M.) Resiutta the train crosses 
the Resia. Below (286 M.) Moggio the valley of the Fella expands. 
The bottom of the valley is covered with rubble and intersected by- 
numerous small streams. At (289 M.) Stazione per la Carnia the 
road to the upper Val Tagliamento diverges to the right. A little 
lower down the Fella flows into the Tagliamento, which here waters 
an extensive plain. 

292 M. Venzone , an ancient walled town on the Tagliamento. 
The train traverses the marshy valley of the Tagliamento by an im- 
posing viaduct, l li M. in length, and then quits the basin of that 
river, which flows towards the S.W. into the Adriatic Sea. — 
296 M. Oemona-Ospedaletto ; 300 M. Magnano-Artegna; 302^2 M - 
Tarcento; 305 M. Tricesimo ; 309 M. Reana del Rojale; 315 M. 
Vdine, see p. 285. 

From Udine to (398 M.) Venice, see pp. 285-283. 

II. Piedmont. 

8. Turin 57 

1. The Superga. Moncalieri. Stupinigi 70 

2. From Turin to Lanzo 70 

3. From Turin to the Waldensian Valleys 70 

9. From Turin to Aosta 70 

10. From Turin to Milan via Novara 73 

1. From Santhia to Biella 74 

2. From Vercelli to Alessandria 74 

11. From Bellinzona to Genoa 76 

From Milan to Vigevano and Mortara (Genoa) .... 77 

12. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria 78 

From Tortona to Novi 78 

13. From Turin to Genoa 79 

a. Via Alessandria 79 

1. From Asti to Mortara (Milan) 79 

2. From Alessandria to Savona 80 

b. Via Bra and Savona 81 

1. Carignano 81 

2. From Carmagnola to Cuneo. Saluzzo 81 

3. From Bra to Alessandria 81 

4. From Carrii to Mondovi and to Fossano 82 

This district 'at the foot of the mountains 1 , end ised on three sides 
by the Alps and Apennines, and separated from Lombardy by the Ticino, 
embraces, according to the present division, the provinces of Turin, No- 
vara, Cuneo, and Alessandria, with 3,233,000 inhab., and an area of about 
11,400 sq. M. It consists of lowlands flanking the banks of the Po and 
its tributaries, which yield rice and maize, and of highlands where ex- 
cellent wine and silk are produced, and lastly of a bleaker mountain 
region of forests and pastures. The earliest Inhabitants were Celtic and 
Ligurian tribes, who were but slowly influenced by Roman culture; and 
it was not till the reign of Augustus that the subjugation of the higher 
valleys was completed. The Dialect of the people still retains traces of 
their ancient affinity with the French ; thus, pieuve, instead of the Italian 
piovere , om for uomo, coeur for cuore, sita for citta, rason for ragione, 
plassa tor piazza. This patois is universally spoken, even by the upper 
classes, but is unintelligible to strangers. Throughout Piedmont, however, 
French is very generally spoken. 

The Histokt of the country is closely interwoven with that of its 
dynasty. The Bouse of Savoy (or Casa Sabauda) , a family of German 
origin, professing even to trace their descent from the Saxon Duke 
Wittekind, the opponent of Charlemagne, first became conspicuous among 
the nobles of Upper Burgundy about the year 1000. Humbert I. (d. 
1056) is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty. In 1101 his 
descendants were created imperial counts of Savoy by Henry IV., and by 
judiciously espousing the cause of the pope and the emperor alternately, 
they gradually succeeded in extending their supremacy over Turin, Aosta, 
Susa, Ivrea, and Nice. In consequence of a law passed by Amadeus V., 
the Great, in 1367, which settled the succession on the male line in the order 
of primogeniture, and constituted Chambe'ry the seat of government, the 
subdivisions of the country were at length united. In 1416, during the 
reign of Amadeus VIII., the counts became Dukes of Savoy. Situated 



between the two great mediaeval powers of France on one side, and 
Austria and Spain on the other, the princes of Savoy frequently changed 
sides, and although sometimes overtaken by terrible disasters , they con- 
trived to maintain, and even to extend their territory. At one period 
the greater part of the Duchy was annexed to France , bvit Emmanuel 
Philibert ('Testa di Ferro', 1553-80) restored it to its original extent, being, 
as regards internal organisation also , its second founder. Under his son 
Charles Emmanuel I. (1580-1630) the Duchy again became dependent on 
France. From the sons of this prince is descended the elder branch of 
the family , which became extinct in 1831 , and the younger Carignano 
line, which succeeded to the throne in the person of Carlo Alberto. The 
following dukes were Vittorio Amadeo I. (1630-37), Francesco Oiacinto 
(1637-38), Carlo Emanuele II. (1638-75), and Vittorio Amadeo II. (1675- 
1730). The last of these , having boldly allied himself with Austria dur- 
ing the Spanish War of Succession , managed to throw off the French 
suzerainty (1703) ; he obtained Sicily as his reward, which island, however, 
he was afterwards obliged to exchange for Sardinia (1720), and in 1713 
assumed the title of King, which was subsequently coupled with the 
name of the latter island. His successors were Carlo Emanuele III. 
(1730-73), and Vittorio Amadeo III. (1773-96). After the battle of Turin the 
Piedmontese princes directed their attention to Prussia , which served as 
a model for the organisation of their kingdom. In both countries the 
military and feudal element preponderated, and both were obliged to 
succumb to the new powers evolved by the French revolution. Carlo 
Emanuele IV. (1796-1802) was deprived of all his continental possessions 
by the French in 1798, and restricted to the island of Sardinia, which 
was protected by the English fleet. Vittorio Emanuele I. (1802-21) was at 
length reinstated in his dominions, with the addition of Genoa, by the 
Congress of Vienna. The Napoleonic period had swept away the feudal 
institutions of Piedmont, and had bequeathed in their stead many of the 
benefits of modern legislation, and high military renown. It is therefore 
intelligible that the clerical reaction, which set in with the king's return, 
gave rise to an insurrection which caused the king to abdicate, and 
which had to be quelled by Austrian troops. His brother Carlo Felice 
(1821-31) adhered faithfully to Jesuitical principles, and lived on the 
whole in accordance with his motto, 'Non sono re per essere seccato'. 
The older line of the House of Savoy became extinct with this prince, and 
was succeeded by the collateral line of Carignano (p. 81 ; 27th April, 1831). 
Carlo Alberto (b. 1798), who had been educated at a French military 
school, and had headed the insurrection of 1821, was protected by France 
and Russia against the attempts of Austria to deprive him of his claims 
to the throne. His own experiences , and the force of circumstances, 
rendered him an implacable enemy of Austria. With him began the 
national development of Piedmont, although his efforts were not always 
consistent. The liberals called him the 'Re Tentenna' (the vacillating), 
while in 1843 he himself described his position as being ' between the 
daggers of the Carbonari and the chocolate of the Jesuits'. On 6th 
Jan. 1848 Count Cavour made the first public demand for the establish- 
ment of a constitution , and on the 7th Feb. the king , half in despair, 
yielded to the popular desires. The insurrection in Lombardy at length 
induced him to become the champion of national independence, and to 
give vent to his old enmity against Austria (23rd March), but one year 
later his career terminated with his defeat at Novara (23rd March, 1849). 
He then abdicated and retired to Oporto, where he died in a few months 
(26th July). It was reserved for his son Vittorio Emanuele II. (b. 1820, 
d. 9th Jan. 1878) finally to give effect to the national wishes of Italy. 


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8. Turin, Ital. Torino. 

Arrival. The principal railway-station at Turin is the Stazione Cen- 
trale , or di Porta JYuova (PI. E, 4, 5), a handsome edifice with waiting- 
rooms adorned with frescoes , and the terminus of all the lines ("Kail. 
Restaurant). — Travellers to Milan may take the train at the Stazione di 
Porta Susa (PL C, 3, 4), at the end of the Via della Cernaia, the first 
stopping-place of all the trains of the Novara-Milan line (omnibuses and 
carriages meet every train), or at the Stazione Succursale , on the left 
bank of the Dora. — Station of the branch-line to Rivoli in the Piazza 
dello Statuto (PI. C, 2); of that to Cirie-Lanzo between the Piazza Ema- 
nuele Filiberto and the Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1). 

Hotels. *Europa (PI. a; E, 2; proprietor P. Borgo), Piazza Castello 19 ; 
"'Grand Hotel de Turin (PI. b; E, 4, 5; propr. C. Kraft), opposite the 
central station; "Hotel de la Ligurie (PI. c ; F, 4), Via Carlo Alberto; 
"Hotel Feder (PI. d; F, 3; propr. L. Rueck), Via S. Francesco di Paola 8; 
Hotel d'Angleterre & Trombetta (PI. e; E, 3), Via Roma 29, Piazza 
S. Carlo; Grand Hotel d'Angleterre (PI. f; E, 3, 4), Via Roma 31, and 
Via Cavour 2. All these are of the first class, with similar charges : R. 
from 2V2, B. l'/2-2, D. generally at 5 o'clock 4-5, L. 3 / 4 -l, A. 1, omnibus 
'/■i-l'A f r - — The following are second class and more in the Italian style: 
Albergo Centrale (PI. g; E, 2), Via delle Finanze, R. & L. 2>/2, D. with 
wine 4 fr.; Bonne Femme (PI. h; E, 2), Via Barbaroux, R. 2, L. !/ 2 , 
A. <y 4 , D. 2 l /2, B. VU, omn. 3 / 4 fr., these two well spoken of. Hotel Suisse 
(PI. i ; E, 4), Via Sacchi 2, near the central station, moderate, well spoken 
of; Londra & Caccia Reale (PI. k ; E, 2), Piazza Castello 18, commended ; 
Hotel de France et de la Concorde (PI. 1; F, 2,3), Via di Po 20; Tre 
Corone (PI. m ; E, 2), Via S. Tommaso 13 ; Dogana Vecchia (PI. n ; E, 2), 
Via Corte d'Appello 4, adjoining the Palazzo di Citta, R., L., &A. 1 x ji, B. 
1 fr., omn. 60 c, well spoken of. — The Grissini, a kind of bread in 
long, thin, and crisp sticks, are a speciality of the place. The Piedmontese 
wines have a high repute. The best are Barolo, Nebiolo, Grignolino, and 
Barbera; sparkling wine: Asti spumante. 

Restaurants. "Cambio, Piazza Carignano 2, much frequented in the 
morning, best Italian wines; "Paris, Via di Po 21; Antica Verna, Via 
Roma 13; Trattoria della Posla, Piazza Carlo Alberto; Meridiana, Galleria 
Geisser, Via S. Teresa 6 (Vienna beer); Due Indie, Via Vasco 4. — Vermont 
di Torino (famous), best at Carpano's, Piazza Castello 18. 

Cafes. •Cafe' de Paris, Via di Po 21; Caffe di Londra, Via di Po 
(well supplied with newspapers) ; Nazionale , Via di Po 20 ; Madera, Via 
Lagrange 10; "Romano, by the Galleria dell' Industria Subalpina, in the 
Piazza Castello (cafe-chantant in the evening); Caffe della Borsa , Via 
Roma 25 (newspapers); Svizzero, Piazza Castello; Liguria, Corso Vitt. 
Em. II., near the station (concerts) — Confectioners. Bass, Baratti <k Milano, 
both in the Piazza Castello, S. side; Stratta, Piazza S. Carlo 7. Chocolate: 
Moriondo <Sc Gariglio, Piazza S. Carlo 6. — Beer. In the restaurant of the 
Bdt. d'Angleterre (see above) and at the above-mentioned Caffe Romano; 
Dreher, Piazza Carignano (Vienna beer); in the Birreria della Bona, Via 
dell' Accademia delle Scienze; in the Birreria, Via Garibaldi 5; in the 
Galleria dell' Industria Subalpina (p. 59) ; Lumpp, Via Alfieri. 

Cabs (Citladine): per drive (corsa) 1 fr., at night (12-6 a.m.) 1 fr. 20 c. ; 
first 1/2 hr. 1 fr., first hour (ora) 1 fr. 50 c, each following 1/2 hr. 75 c, 
at night I1/2, 2, and 1 fr.; each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse carriage 50 c. 
more in each case. 

Horse- Tramways (fare 10 c.) traverse the streets in many different 
directions (see Plan). The chief centres are Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2), 
Piazza Emanuele Umberto (PL D, E, 1) , Piazza dello Statuto (PI. C, 2), 
Piazza S. Martino (PL C, 3), and Piazza Solferino (PL D, E, 3). 

Steam Tramways. From the Piazza Castello (PL E, F, 2): 1. To 
Madonna del Pilone, Sassi (cable-tramway to the Superga, p. 70), S. Mauro, 
Gassino, Chivasso (p. 73), and Brwasco; — 2. To Moncalieri (p. 70) and 
Poirino. — From the Via Kizza (PL F, 6) to Carignano (p. 81), with a 
branch to Carmagnola (p. 81) and Saluzzo (p. 81) — From the Via Sacchi 

58 Route 8. TURIN. Theatres. 

(PI. E, 5, 6): 1. To Villa Stupinigi (p. 70) and Vinovo; — 2. To Orbassano 
and Giaveno (with a branch to Piossasco). — From the Piazza Emaneele 
Filiberto (PI. D, E, 1): 1. By the royal park and the Abbadia di Slura 
to Sellimo Torinese; — 2. To Leyni and Volpiano. — From the Piazza 
dello Statuto (PI. C, 2) to Rivoli and to the Tesoriera. — From the Via 
Cibeakio (PI. B, 2) to Pianezza and Druent. 

British Vice-Consulate, Via Provvidenza 42. — United States Vice-Con- 
sulate, Via Vauchiglia 11. 

General Post Office (PI. 45; F, 3; for paste restcmte letters, etc.), Via 
Principe Amedeo 10. Telegraph Office, same street, 8. 

Booksellers. Loescher, Via di Po 19; Rosenberg <t Sellier, Via Bogino 3; 
Casanova, Via Accademia delle Scienze; L. Roux & Co., in the Galleria 
Subalpina (p. 59); Brero, Via di Po 11. 

Goods-Agents, Fratelli Girard, Via Cernaia 14 (PI. C, D, 3). 

Bankers. Treves <t Co., Kiister & Co., Via Provvidenza. 

Physician. Dr. J. Conti, Corso Valdocco 1 (speaks English). — Chemist, 
E. Fontana, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 76. 

Military Music in the Piazza Castello every afternoon ; on Sundays 
12-2, in summer in the Giardino Reale , in winter in the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele; in the old Piazza d'Armi in summer during the Corso. — 
The favourite promenade of the Turinese is in the avenues of the Piazza 

Baths. Via Provvidenza 40; Bagni di S. Carlo, Via Roma 22; Bagni 
di S. Giuseppe, Via S. Teresa 21; Bagni Cavour, Via Lagrange 22. Bath 
l>/4-l'/2fr., with fee of 20c. — Swimming Bath (scuola di nuoto) above the 
old bridge over the Po (PI. G, 3; 60 c.). 

Theatres. Tealro Regio (PI. 52), Piazza Castello, for operas and ballets, 
with seats for 2500, generally open during Lent and the Carnival only 
(admission 3 fr., reserved seats 6 fr.); Vittorio Emanuele (PI. 55), Via Ros- 
sini 13, for operas, ballets, and equestrian performances, the largest in 
the city ; Alfieri, Piazza Solferino, for operettas; Carignano (PI. 49), in the 
Piazza of that name, for Italian comedies and (in autumn) operas ; Rossini 
(PI. 53), Via di Po 24, for plays in the Piedmontese dialect; Balbo, Via 
Andria Doria, for farces, etc. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel de Turin at 11 a.m. 
Chaplain, Rev. J. B. Barter, Via Assietta 21. — Protestant Service in the 
Tempio Valdese on Sundays, in French at 11, in Italian at 3 clock. — Free 
Italian Church (Rev. Sign. Bracchetto), Via Maria Vittoria 27, first floor. 

Principal Attractions : Armoury (p. 60), Picture Gallery (p. 62) and 
Museum of Antiquities (p. 61), Museo Civico (p. 6S), monuments in the 
cathedral (p. 64), view from the Capuchin monastery (p. G9). 

Turin (785 ft.) , Ital. Torino , the ancient Taurasia, capital of 
the Taurini , a Ligurian-Celtic tribe , destroyed by Hannibal B.C. 
218, afterwards the Roman Augusta Taurinorum, was the capital 
of the County of Piedmont in the middle ages, and in 1418 became 
subject to the Dukes of Savoy, who frequently resided here. From 
1859 to 1865 it was the capital of Italy and residence of the king. 
The seat of a university and of a military academy , and head- 
quarters of the 1st Italian Corps d'Armee, this great city lies in an 
extensive plain on the Po , which receives the waters of the Dora 
Riparia below the city. The plain of the Po is bounded on the 
W by the Oraian and Cottian Alps , and on the E. by a range 
of hills rising on the right bank, opposite the city (hill of the Ca- 
puchins, p. 69; Superga, p. 70). Turin was the chief centre of 
those national struggles which led to the unification of Italy. The 
removal of the seat of government to Florence seriously impaired 
the prosperity of the citizens for a time, but they have long since 

Palazzo Madama. TURIN. &. Route. 59 

recovered their losses. The rapidly increasing population now 
numbers upwards of 300,000, including suburbs. 

Turin is conspicuous among the cities of Italy for the regularity of 
its construction. Its plan presents rectangular blocks of houses (Isole), long, 
broad, straight streets (Vie), spacious squares, and numerous gardens. 
Its history explains this. The plan of the old town, with slight varia- 
tions , is ascertained to be the same as that of the colony founded by the 
Emperor Augustus. It formed a rectangle of 2210 ft. in length, and 
137(5 ft. in breadth, and is now intersected by the Via Garibaldi, which 
runs between the Piazza Castello and the Via della Consolata. It had 
four principal gates, of which the Porta Palalina, to the N. (in the Pa- 
lazzo delle Torri, p. 65), still exists. The whole town was comprised 
within this circumference until in the 17th cent. , under the princes of 
Savoy, a systematic extension of the city was begun in accordance with 
the original plan. The fortifications constructed by Francis I. in 1536, 
and finally the siege of 1706 cleared away most of the old buildings, and 
gave the town its present appearance. The fortifications were demolished 
by the French in 1801, and the citadel had to give place to the railway 
in 1857. 

The spacious Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2) forms the centre 
of the town. From this point the busiest streets diverge : Via Roma, 
Via Garibaldi , Via dell' Accademia delle Scienze, and the broad 
and handsome Via di Po , leading to the bridge over the Po , and 
flanked by arcades (Portici) , containing shops , the handsomest of 
which are near the Piazza Castello. The University in the Via di 
Po , see p. 67. — In the S.E. angle of the Piazza Castello is the 
Qalleria dell' Industria Subalpina, containing cafes, a birreria, and 
concert-rooms. The other end of this arcade is in the Piazza Carlo 
Alberto (p. 61). 

The Palazzo Madama (PI. 39 ; E, 2), the ancient castle, a lofty 
and cumbrous pile in the centre of the Piazza Castello , is the only 
mediaeval structure of which Turin boasts , and was erected by 
William of Monferrat, when master of the town towards the end of 
the 13th century. It owes its present name to Maria, mother of King 
Victor Amadeus II. , who as Dowager Duchess ('Madama ReaW j 
occupied the building, and embellished it in 1718 by the addition 
of a handsome double flight of steps and the facade with marble 
columns on the W. side, from a design by Juvara. The two original 
towers on the E. side are still standing; two others on the W. side, 
one of which contains an observatory, are concealed by the facade. 
Down to 1865 the Palazzo Madama was the seat of the Italian sen- 
ate, and it now contains several institutions. — In front of the 
Palace stands a Monument to the Sardinian Army (PI. 24) by Vine. 
Vela, erected by the Milanese in 1859. 

At the N.W. corner of this piazza is the church of 8. Lorenzo, 
with a peculiar dome , and destitute of facade , by Guarini , com- 
pleted in 1687. 

On the N. side of the Piazza Castello rises the Palazzo Beale, 
or Royal Palace (PI. 43 ; E, 2), begun in 1660, externally a plain 
brick edifice. The palace-yard is separated from the Piazza by a 
gate, the pillars of which are adorned with two groups in bronze of 

60 Route 8. TURIN. Palazzo Reale. 

Castor and Pollux, designed by Abbondio Sangiorgio in 1842. To 
the left in the hall of the palace (admission free) , in a niche near 
the staircase , is an equestrian statue of Duke Victor Amadeus I. 
(d. 1637); the statue is of bronze, the horse in marble; below the 
latter are two slaves. The handsome staircase is embellished with 
statues of Emmanuel Philibert by Varni, and Carlo Alberto by Vela. 
The royal apartments , sumptuously fitted up , are shown , in the 
absence of the king, on Sun. and Thurs. , 12-4, by permesso, 
obtained at No. 1 Piazza S. Giovanni (PI. 10 ; B, 2). 

The S.E. wing (Galleria Beaumont) contains the *Royal Ar- 
moury (Armerta Reale; PI. 4; E, 2; entered from the arcade of 
the Prefettura, PI. 46 ; E, F, 2, first door to the left; open 11-3 
o'clock, admission free). The collection is very choice. 

In the centre of Room I. are a bronze statuette of Napoleon I., the 
sword he wore at the battle of Marengo , a quadrant he used when a 
young officer, two French regimental eagles, and two kettle-drums cap- 
tured at the battle of Turin in 1706. Numerous models of modern 
weapons; in a cabinet near the window, Prussian helmets; then Japanese 
and Indian weapons and armour. A cabinet on the right contains gifts 
presented to Victor Emmanuel by Italian towns, a sword presented by Rome 
in 1859, a gilded wreath of laurel by Turin 1860, and a sword in 1865, 
on the occasion of the Dante Festival; in the centre, the favourite horse 
of Charles Albert; Piedmontese flags from the wars of 1848-49 over the 
cabinets. In a cabinet to the left of the entrance is a tiny MS. of the Koran, 
in tolerable preservation. — The long Hall contains, on the right, a gigantic 
suit of armour worn at the Battle of Pavia by an equerry of Francis I. of 
France ; beyond it, in front of the chimney-piece, a choice and very valuable 
collection of 32 battle-axes, a sword executed by Benvenuto Cellini (t), and 
some finely ornamented helmets of the 15th and 16th centuries. Under glass, 
a "Shield by Benvenuto Cellini (?), embossed, and inlaid with gilding, re- 
presenting scenes from the war of Marius against Jugurtha. The finest 
suits of armour are those of the Brescian family Martinengo, three on 
the left and one on the right. Adjacent is an ancient rostrum in the form 
of a boar's head, found in the harbour at Genoa. At the end of the hall 
are the armour of Prince Eugene, the saddle of Emp. Charles V. in red 
velvet, and the beautiful armour of Duke Emmanuel Philibert. On the 
right, under glass, we observe the sword of St. Maurice, the scimitar of 
Tippoo Sahib, etc. In the cabinet A are Roman weapons, helmets, and 
the eagle of a legion. In the cabinet F, at the top, the sword of the Im- 
perial General Johann v. Werth (d. 1652), bearing a German inscription 
in verse. 

On the floor below is the Rotal Library of 60,000 vols, (shown only on 
application to the librarian), containing valuable geographical, historical, 
and genealogical works , miniatures of the 15th and 16th cent., drawings 
by Leonardo da Vinci (portrait of himself), Fra Bartolommeo , etc. — A 
staircase ascends hence to the valuable Collection of Coins, trinkets, enam- 
els, carved ivory, etc., in a small room adjoining the Armoury. 

The Palace Garden (^Qiardino Reale; Pl.E, F,2), entered from 
the arcade opposite the Palazzo Madama, is open, during the absence 
of the king, on Sundays and festivals, between 1st May and 1st Oct., 
11-2 o'clock (military music). Fine view of the Superga. — The 
Cathedral adjoins the palace on the W. (see p. 64). 

In the Piazza Carignano , a little to the S. of the Piazza 
Castello, rises the Palazzo Carignano (PI. 36 ; F, 3), with a curious 
brick facade, erected by Guarini in 1680. An inscription informs 

Academy. TURIN. 8. Route. 61 

us that King Victor Emmanuel II. was born here in 1820. The Sar- 
dinian Chamber of Deputies met here from 1848 to 1860, and the 
Italian Parliament from 1860 to 1865. The handsome facade at 
the back, in the Piazza Carlo Alberto, was added in 1871 by 
Bollati and Ferri. 

The rooms used by the parliament are now devoted to the Natural 
History Collections formerly in the Academy (open to the public every 
week-day 1-4, in winter 1-3). The collection is divided into the Zoolo- 
gical and Comparative Anatomy Section and the Palaeontological, Geological, 
and Mineralogical Section. The former contains a fine array of birds 
and insects , and a collection of the vertebrates of Italy arranged in a 
separate gallery. The paleeontological division contains a fine collection 
of fossil mollusca from the tertiary formations , and the skeletons of a 
gigantic armadillo (Glyptodon Clavipes) from Rio de la Plata, a Tetra- 
lophodon Avernensis, a Megatherium Cuvieri, and other antediluvian animals. 

In the Piazza Carignano , in front of the palace , stands the 
finely-executed marble *Statue of the philosopher and patriot Vin- 
cenzo Oioberti (PI. 29 ; d. 1848), by Albertoni, erected in 1859. 

The Piazza Carlo Alberto (B. side of Palazzo Carignano) 
contains a bronze monument of King Charles Albert (PL 27), 
designed by Marocchetti. The pedestal stands on four steps of 
Scottish granite ; at the corners are four colossal statues of Sardin- 
ian soldiers; above are four female figures, representing Martyr- 
dom, Freedom, Justice, and Independence. The Piazza Carlo Al- 
berto is connected with the Piazza Castello by the Galloria Sub- 
alpina (p. 59). 

In the vicinity, at the corner of the Piazza Carignano and the 
Via dell' Accademia No. 4, is the Palazzo dell' Accademia delle 
Scienze (PL 3; E, 3), containing a picture-gallery and museums 
of natural history and antiquities. The building, formerly the 
Jesuit College, was erected by Guarini in 1674. On the Ground- 
Floor, to the right, are Egyptian, Roman , and Greek sculptures ; 
on the First Floor smaller antiquities ; on the Second Floor 
(98 steps), the picture-gallery. These collections are open daily 
9-4 (in winter 10-4), adm. to each 1 fr. ; on Sundays and holidays 
12-3, gratis. 

Museum of Antiquities (Mnseo Egizio e di Antichita Greco-Romane). — 
Halls I. & II.: Egyptian statues and late Greek works found in Egypt; 
in the centre of the room -Mosaics found at Stampacci in Sardinia , re- 
presenting Orpheus with his lyre, and a lion, goat, and ass, probably the 
animals listening to him; large Egyptian sphynxes, figures of idols and 
kings, sarcophagi, reliefs. The finest figures are the colossal statue of 
Seti II., in red sandstone; the red granite statue of Amenophis II.; a 
smaller statue of the same monarch in black granite; a small white figure 
of Amosis ; and the black "Statue of Ramses II. (Sesostris), above which 
is an inscription in honour of the celebrated French Egyptologist Cham- 
pollion. — We now enter the I. Gallery to the left. Statues of Jupiter, 
Marsyas, and Olympus, Youth (restored as Mercury), Hercules killing the 
snakes, good torso, on the left four figures placed round a column, bearing 
the name of Protys the sculptor. Minerva , over life-size. Amazon (in 
green basalt; freely restored). Inscriptions. 

The Small Antiquities on the First Floor consist of mummies, papyrus 
writings, scarabees , trinkets, vases, and porcelain statuettes and terra- 

62 Route S. TURIN. Picture Gallery. 

cottas, many of which are GrEeco-Roman. The 2nd Room on the right 
contains a papyrus with fragments of the annals of Manetho (a list of the 
kings of Egypt down to the 19th dynasty), discovered by Champollion; 
the 'Book of the Dead', edited by Lepsius ; the Tabula Isiaca found in the 
pontificate of Paul III., etc. — A room to the left contains inscriptions 
and statuettes. — We now turn to the left into a room containing Cyprian 
antiquities , several interesting Etruscan cinerary urns with traces of 
painting, and (at the door) two Assyrian reliefs, the heads of a king and 
a eunuch. 

Beyond, on the left, is a room devoted to Roman Sculptures: in 
the middle, heads of poets and philosophers; along the longer wall, 
busts of emperors ; in the corner to the left , colossal head of a goddess, 
fine "Head of Venus (bust modern), head of Antinous, fragments of a fine 
relief of a youth in a chariot with four horses, probably a Greek work, etc. 

— A room on the right contains the Grseco-Etruscan Vases ; by the window- 
wall are two complete tombs found between Turin and Milan, and early 
Italian vessels. In the next room are Bronzes and a few reliefs in silver. 
In front of the wall-presses are a tripod and a "Silenus, found near Turin, 
head of Caligula, and "Minerva, found in the Versa near Stradella in 1828. 

— The room in the middle contains terracottas and "Glass. 

The *Picture Gallery ( Pinacoteca) , on the second floor, is 
important for the study of Macrlno d'Alba (1460-1510) and his 
pupil Deferrari da Chivasso , and of Oaudenzio Ferrari (1484- 
1549), who was inspired by Leonardo and influenced by theUmbrian 
school (Nos. 49 and 54). Sodoma (1480-1549), who originally be- 
longed to the Lombard school, is well represented by three pictures. 
Lorenzo di CVedrs(1459-1537)Madonna, No. 356, of his best period, 
shows that he was influenced by Leonardo. Among numerous and 
important works of the old Netherlandish school are : 359. Petrus 
Cristus; 358. Memling ; 340. Sketch by Rubens; 338, 351, 363, 
384. by Van Dyck. (Catalogue li/ 4 ft-) 

I. Room. Princes of the House of Savoy and battle-pieces. Beginning 
on the right : ten of the battles fought by Prince Eugene , by Hughten- 
burg; thirteen portraits of members of the House of Savoy; 28. Horace 
Vernet, King Charles Albert; 29, 31. French School; 26, 30. Dut<;h School; 
4. Van Schuppen, Prince Eugene on horseback. 

II. Room. 42. Defendente Deferrari, Madonna with SS. George and 
Barbara and Charles III. of Savoy (ancient frame) ; "49. Gaud. Ferrari, St. 
Peter and donor; 50. Sodoma, Holy Family; 50 bis. Macrino d^Alba, Ma- 
donna and saints (1498) ; Gaudenzio Ferrari , 52. Madonna and St. Elisa- 
beth, 53. God the Father, '54. Descent from the Cross, 57. Joachim driven 
from the Temple, 58. Visitation ; 784. Barnaba da Modena, Madonna (1370). 

III. Room. "55. Sodoma, Madonna and SS. Jerome, John, Lucia, and 
Catharine. — IV. Room : 90. Landscape by Massimo a^Azeglio. 

V. Room. 93. Fra Angelico da Fiesole, Madonna; 94, 96. Adoring 
angels, by the same ; 97. Pietro Pollajuolo, Tobias and the angel ; 98. School 
of Sandro Botticelli, Same subject; "101. Ft: Francia, Entombment (1515) ; 
106. Bugiardini, Holy Family; 108. Garofalo, The boy Jesus in the Temple; 
108 bis. After Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II. in the Palazzo Pitti at 
Florence; 114. Gian Pielrino, SS. Catharine and Peter Martyr; 118. Giro- 
lamo Savoldo, Holy Family; 121. Franciabigio, Annunciation; 122. Franc. 
Penni, Good copy (1518) of Raphael's Entombment in the Palazzo Borghese 
at Rome ; 127 bis. Clovio, 'II Santissimo Sudario' (comp. p. 64) _; 127, 128. 
Bronzino, Portraits of Eleonora da Toledo and her husband Cosimo I. de' 
Medici ; 129. After Titian, an old copy, Pope Paul III. ; 779. Giov. Bellini, 
Madonna; 780. Bart. Vivarini, Madonna; 828. Timoleo Viti, Madonna (1619). 

VI. Room. 132. Bonifacio, Holy Family; 137, 138, 142, 143. Andrea 
Schiavone, Mythological scenes; 157. P. Veronese, The Queen of Sheba before 
Solomon; 160. Agostino Carraeci, Landscape; "161. Caravaggio, Musician. 

Pkiure Gallery. TURIN. 8. Route. 63 

VII. Room. 163. Guido Rent, John the Baptist; 167. Jacopo da Ponle, 
Cupid at the forge; 174. Spagnoletto, St. Jerome; 182. P. Veronese, Find- 
ing of Moses. 

VIII. Room. Porcelain-paintings by Constanlin of Geneva, copied from 
celebrated originals; Luca della Robbia, Adoration of the Infant Saviour. 

IX. Room. Fruit and flower-pieces; 220. by Snyders, 225. by Fyt, 228. 
by Be Heem. — Then a corridor with inferior works. 

X. Room. 234. P. Veronese, Mary Magdalene washing the Saviour's 
feet ; 236. Guido Reni, Group of Cupids ; 237, 238. Poussin, Waterfall, Cas- 
cades of Tivoli ; "239, 242. Guercino, S. Francesca, Ecce Homo ; 244. Oraziu 
Gentileschi, Annunciation ; 251. Strozzi (or Ribera), Homer ; 823. P. Vero- 
nese, Danae. 

XI. Room. 257, 258. Sassoferralo , Madonnas, the first called 'della 
Rosa' ; 263. Albani, Salmacis ; 260, 264, 271, 274. Albani, The four Elements ; 
287. Gius. Crespi, St. Nepomuk in the confessional ; 276. Carlo Bold, Ma- 
donna ; 283, 288. Bernardino Bellolto, Views of Turin ; 295. Maratta , Ma- 
donna; 299, 300. Angelica Kaufmann, Sibyls. 

XII. Room. Netherlands and German school : 306. Engelbrechlsen, 
Passion ; 309. Adoration of the Magi in the style of Hieron. Bosch (15th 
cent.) ; 313. Van Eyck (?), St. Francis ; :;: 312 , 320. Rogier van der Weyden, 
Madonna and St. Elizabeth, with portrait of the donor; 319. Bruyn, Por- 
trait of Calvin (?) ; 322. Paul Bril, Landscape ; 325. Gollz, Warriors ; "338. 

Van Byck, Children of Charles I. of England ; "340. Rubens , Sketch of his 
apotheosis of Henry IV. in the Uffizi; "351. Van Byck, Princess Clara Eu- 
genia of Spain. 

XIII. Room : Gems of the collection. "356. Lorenzo di Credi , Ma- 
donna; "357. Guercino, Madonna; "358. Hans Memling , Seven Sorrows 
of Mary , the counterpart of the Seven Joys of Mary at Munich , a chro- 
nological composition of a kind much in vogue among northern ar- 
tists; 359. Petrus Gristus, Madonna; "361. JSaenredam, Interior of a church, 
the figures by A. van Ostade; "363. Van Byck, Prince Thomas of Savoy, 
a fine portrait; 366. Wouwerman, Cavalry attacking a bridge; 368. B. Te- 
niers, Musician; 369. Sandro Botticelli, Triumph of Chastity; 371. Gaud. 
Ferrari, Crucifixion (an early work in distemper) ; "373. Raphael, Madonna 
della Tenda (a very fine picture, but the original is at Munich) ; 374. 5. 
Botticelli, Madonna; "375. Besiderio da Settignano . Madonna (relief in 
marble); "376. Sodoma, Lucretia; '377. Paul Potter (1649), Cattle grazing ; 
377 bis. Rembrandt , Old man asleep (an early work) ; 378. Jan Brueghel, 
Landscape; 379. Frans van Mieris, Portrait of himself ; 382. G. Flin'.k, Por- 
trait; "384. Van Byck, Holy Family, the finest work of this master in Italy, 
painted under the influence of Titian ; 385. Honthorst , Samson overcome 
by the Philistines ; 386. H. Holbein, Portrait of Erasmus ; 389. /. Ruysdael, 
Landscape; 391. Gerard Bou, Girl plucking grapes; 392. Velazquez, Philip IV. 
of Spain; 393. Rubens (1), Holy Family; 394. C. Netscher, Scissors-grinder. 

XIV. Room. 398. Sallaert, Procession; 410. Floris, Adoration of the 
Magi; 417. School of Rubens, Soldier and girl; 420. Wouwerman, Horse - 
market; 435. Gerard Bou, Portrait; "428. B. Teniers , Card-players j 441. 
B. Fabritius, Domestic scene; 458. Schalcken, Old woman; 434bis. /. 
Ruysdael, Landscape. 

XV. Room. 478, 483. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes; 481. Bourguignon, 
Battle; 494. P. Mignard, Louis XIV. 

Opposite the Academy, to the W., is the large church of 8. 
Filippo (PI. 16), erected by Guarini in 1679, and restored by 
Juvara in 1714. The portico in front is a later addition. The church 
contains pictures by Guercino, Solimena, and others. 

The neighbouring Piazza S. Carlo (PI. E, 3), 587 ft. long, 
and 264 ft. wide , is embellished with an equestrian *Statue of 
Duke Emmanuel Philibert (PI. 28), in bronze, designed by Maroc- 
chetti (1838). The relief on the W. side represents the Battle of 

64 Route 8. TURIN. Cathedral. 

St. Quentin ; that on the E. side the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis 
(1559), by which the duchy -was restored to the House of Savoy; 
the duke as 'pacem redditurus 1 is in the act of sheathing his sword. 
• — The two churches on the S. side of the piazza are S. Carlo 
(PI. 9) and S. Cristina, both founded at the beginning of the 17th 
cent. , with facades of later date: that of S. Cristina by Juvara 
(1718); that of S. Carlo, in Baveno granite, an imitation of Juvara's, 
added in 1836. S. Carlo contains a monument of the condottiere 
Francesco Maria Broglia , ancestor of the French family of Broglie. 
The high-altarpiece is by Morazzone. 

The Via Roma leads from Piazza S. Carlo to (N.) Piazza Castello 
(p. 59) , and (S.) to Piazza Carlo Felice (p. 66) and the railway- 
station ; to the E. the Via Maria Vittoria, with the Pal. delta Cisterna 
(at the corner of the Via Carlo Alberto), residence of Prince Amedeo 
of Savoy , leads to Piazza Carlo Emanuele. — In the Via dell' 
Ospedale is the Exchange (PI. 6 ; F, 3), and adjoining it, a Museo 
Industriale Italiano (PI. 34 ; adm. on Sun. Wfe-A:, gratis ; on other 
days, 9-11 and 2-4, on application at the secretary's office). 
Farther on is the large Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista (PI. 35 ; F, 3). 

In the centre of the Piazza Carlo Emanuklb II. (PI. F, 3), 
commonly called the 'Piazza Carlina', rises the imposing *Monument 
of Cavour (PI. 26), 46 ft. high, by Dupre, erected in 1873. Grateful 
Italy presents the civic crown to the creator of Italian unity, who 
holds a scroll in his left hand with the famous words 'libera chiesa 
in libero stato'. The pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures of 
Justice, Duty, Policy, and Independence ; the reliefs represent the 
return of the Sardinian troops from the Crimea , and the Paris 
Congress. For this fine work the sculptor was paid upwards of 
30,000 I. — Via Cavour, No. 8, at the corner of the Via Lagrange, 
is the house (PI. 7) in which Count Camillo Cavour was born in 
1810 (d. 1861), with a memorial tablet. 

Adjoining the Pal. Reale (p. 59) on the W. is the Cathedral 
(<S. Giovanni Battista; PI. 10; E, 2), erected on the site of three 
earlier churches in 1492-98 by Meo del Caprino (of Florence , from 
Baccio Pintelli's design?) in the Renaissance style, with marble 

The Interior consists of nave , aisles , and transept , with octagonal 
dome. Over the W. Portal is a copy of Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 140). 
Over the second altar on the right are small pictures , blackened with 
age, by Deferrari (not Diirer). Frescoes on the ceiling modern. The seats 
of the royal family are to the left of the high-altar. 

Behind the high-altar is the Cappella del Santissimo Sudario (open 
during morning mass till 9 o'clock; reached by 37 steps to the right of 
the high-altar) , constructed in the 17th cent, by the Theatine monk 
Guarini. It is a lofty circular chapel of dark brown marble, contrasting 
strongly with the white monuments, separated from the choir by a glass 
partition, and covered with a curiously shaped dome. This is the burial- 
chapel of the Dukes of Savoy, and was embellished by King Charles 
Albert in 1842 with statues in white marble and symbolical figures to the 

Palazzo di Citta. TURIN. 8. Route. 65 

memory of illustrious members of his family: (r.) Emmanuel Philibert 
(d. 1580) , 'restitutor imperii' , by Marchesi ; Prince Thomas (d. 1656), 
'qui magno animo italicam libertatem armis adseruit nee prius dimi- 
care destitit quam vivere' , by Gaggini; Charles Emmanuel II. (d. 1675), 
by Fraecaroli; Amadeus VIII. (d. 1451), by Cacciatori. The chapel also 
contains a marble monument of Queen Maria Adelaide (d. 1855) , consort 
of Victor Emmanuel , by Eevelli. The peculiar light from above en- 
hances the effect. In a kind of urn over the altar is preserved the San- 
tissimo Sudario, or part of the linen cloth in which the body of the Sav- 
iour is said to have been wrapped. — The door in the centre leads to the 
upper corridors of the royal palace, which form a public thoroughfare. 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we pass through the Via della 
Basilica to the Via. Porta Palatina , which leads to the Palazzo 
delle Torri (PI. 44 ; E, 2) , a Roman gateway with two mediaeval 
towers (or, according to others, a Lombard building of the 8th cent.), 
now fitted up as a drawing-school. In the street, not far from the 
cathedral, is the church of Corpus Domini (PI. 12; E, 2), erected 
in 1607 by Vitozzi, on the site of, and named after, a chapel built 
in 1543 to commemorate a miracle of the Host (1521). — In 
the adjacent church of S. Spirito , dating from 1610, Rousseau, 
an exile from Geneva, at the age of 16, became a Roman Catholic 
in 1728, but he again professed Calvinism at Geneva in 1754. 

The Palazzo di Citta (PI. 37 ; E, 2) , or town-hall, containing 
a library , was erected in 1659. The Piazza in front is adorned 
with a monument to Amadeus VI. (PI. 25), the 'conte verde', con- 
queror of the Turks and restorer of the imperial throne of Greece 
(d. 1383), a bronze group designed by Palagi in 1853. The marble 
statues in front of the Palazzo of (1.) Prince Eugene (p. 56; d. 
1736) and (r.) Prince Ferdinand (d. 1855), Duke of Genoa and 
brother of Victor Emmanuel II., were erected in 1858 ; that of King 
Charles Albert (d. 1849), by Cauda, in the colonnade to the left, 
was erected in 1859 ; that of King Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878), 
by Vela, to the right, in 1860. Opposite these statues are memorial 
tablets referring to the events of their reigns. 

The Via Milano leads hence to the N. to the church of 8. Domen- 
ico (14th cent. ; containing a Madonna and St. Dominic by Guer- 
cino) , and the Via Corte d'Appello to the W. to Piazza Savoia 
(PI. D, 2), in which rises an obelisk (PI. 32), 75 ft. in height, 
commemorating the abolition of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the 
minister Siccardi in 1850. 

The Via della Consolata leads hence to the church of — 

La Consolata (PI. 11; D, 2), formed by the union of three 
churches, now a building in the 'baroque' style, erected by Ouarini 
in 1679, and decorated by Juvara in 1714. The chapel to the left 
below the dome contains kneeling statues in marble of Maria 
Theresa, Queen of Charles Albert, and Maria Adelaide, Queen of 
Victor Emmanuel (both of whom died in 1855), by Vela, erected 
in 1861. The church contains a highly revered Madonna. The 
passage to the right is hung with votive pictures. The campanile 
belonged to the convent of S. Andrea (9th century). — The column 

66 Route 8. TURIN. Citadel Gardens. 

of the Madonna in the adjoining piazza, erected in 1835, commem- 
orates the cessation of the cholera. 

A little to the N. E . , and intersected hy the Corso Regina Marghe- 
rita, lies the Piazza Emanuele Filiberto (PI. D, E, 1), adjoined 
on the S. hy Piazza Milano, and on the N. hy Piazza dei Molini. 
To the N. of the latter runs the Via al Ponte Mosca, with the 
station of the Cirie-Lanzo railway (p. 70) on the left, and on the 
right the new church of S. Gioachino, a basilica in the Lombard 
style, with a campanile 150 ft. high, designed by Count Ceppi. — 
The street then crosses the Dora Riparia by the Ponte Mosca, a 
handsome bridge of one arch, constructed in 1830, and named after 
its builder. Fine view of the Superga and of the Graian Alps over- 
topped by the Grand Paradis. 

From Piazza Castello the Via Garibaldi leads to the Piazza 
dello Statuto (PI. , 2) , with the huge Mont Cenis Tunnel 
Monument, hy Tabacchi : the Genius of Science soars above a pile 
of granite rocks, on which lie the stupefied and conquered giants 
of the mountain. On a tablet are the names of the engineers, 
Sommeiller, Graitoni, and Grandis. 

From the Via Garibaldi we proceed to the S. by the Corso Sic- 
cardi to the Giardino della Citadella (PI. D, 2, 3), where statues 
were erected in 1871 to Brofferio (d. 1866), poet and orator, and 
opposite , in 1873 , to the jurist J. B. Cassinis. — Farther on, at 
the corner of the Via della Cernaia , in front of the former citadel, 
is a monument by Gius. Cassano in memory of Pietro Micca (PI. 
D, 3), the heroic 'soldato minatore', who at the sacrifice of his 
own life saved the citadel of Turin, on 30th Aug., 1706, by 
springing a mine when the French grenadiers had already advanced 
to the very gates. Nearly opposite is a column hearing a bust of 
Al. Borella , the author , and in the Via della Cernaia rises the 
statue of General Alex. Lamarmora (d. 1855 in the Crimea) , hy 
Cassano. — A marble tablet above the gateway of the citadel com- 
memorates the Italian soldiers who fell in Africa in January, 1887. 

In the Piazza Soleerino (PI. D , E, 3) rises an equestrian 
statue of Duke Ferdinand of Genoa (p. 65), commanding general 
at the battle of Novara, hy Balzico ; and the gardens of the piazza 
contain monuments of General Gerbaix de Sonnaz, by Dini , and 
the historian Gius. La Farina, by Auteri-Pomar. 

In front of the imposing Central Station (p. 57; PL E, 4, 5) 
extends the Piazza Carlo Felice , with its tasteful gardens, 
adorned with a bronze statue of Massimo d'Azeglio, patriot, poet, 
and painter (d. 1866), by Balzico , erected in 1873. This piazza 
is adjoined by two smaller ones, the Piazza Paleocapa to the "W., 
with the statue of the minister of that name (PL 31), and the Piazza 
Lagrange, on the E., with the statue of L. Lagrange, the mathe- 
matician (d. 1813 at Paris; PL 30). 

University. TURIN. S. Route. 67 

In the Via dell' Arsenale, running N.W. from the Piazza Paleo- 
capa, stands the Arsenal (PI. 5; E, 4), occupying an entire block, 
and containing the Museo Nazionale d'Artiglieria (adm. daily ex- 
cept Sun.), a collection of cannons of every description from the 
14th cent, to the present day. — In the Via S. Secondo, the con- 
tinuation , to the S., of the Via dell' Arsenale , rises the church of 
S. Secondo, completed in 1882 in the Lombard style, with a cam- 
panile 170 ft. high. 

In the Via di Po (p. 51), which leads to the S.E. from Piazza 
Castello , on the left , is the University (PL 57 ; F, 2), erected in 
1713 from designs by the Genoese Ricca, with a handsome late- 
Renaissance court. It contains a Museo Lapidario of Roman anti- 
quities, chiefly inscriptions. Marble statues have been erected here 
to Carlo Emanuele III., and to Vittorio Amadeo II. (at the en- 
trance) , both by the brothers Collini ; to Prof. Riberi (d. 1861), 
by Albertoni; to Dr. L. Oallo (d. 1857), by Vela; to Prof. Timer- 
mans (d. 1875), by Tabacchi; and to Pescatore, the jurist, by Dini. 
On the corridor of the first floor are busts of celebrated professors 
and a large allegorical group presented by Victor Emmanuel I. The 
Library (open to the public daily , 8-6 in summer , and 9-4 and 
7-10 in winter ; closed in Sept. ; chief librarian, Comm. Gorresio) 
numbers 200,000 vols, and contains valuable Aldine editions and 
manuscripts from Bobbio. The University (founded in 1404) has at 
present 85 professors and 2300 students. 

No. 6, to the right in the Via dell' Accademia Albertina, is the 
Accademia Albertina delle Belle Arti (PL 1; F, 3 ; shown on week- 
days, 10-4, on payment of a fee), founded in 1652, and transferred 
hither in 1833. It contains a small collection of pictures, many 
being copies. Among the best are: 126. Quinten Massys, Head of 
Christ; 140, 141. Filippo Lippi, Four saints (wings of altar-piece) ; 
218. Oiovenone, Adoration of the Child. Also numerous *Cartoons 
by Oaudenzio Ferrari and Lanini , and a cartoon of the Madonna 
with St. Anna by Leonardo (copy of the picture in the Louvre). 

The Via Montebello , the next cross-street , leads to the so- 
called Mole Antonelliana (PL 22 b; G, 2), begun in 1863 as a 
synagogue by Antonelli (d. 1888) , left unfinished for eight years, 
and completed by the city in 1878-89 as a historical national-mu- 
seum, in memory of Victor Emmanuel II. It is a square building 
(44 yds. each way) resembling a tower, with a singular facade formed 
of several rows of columns. It is the loftiest structure in Europe 
after the Eiffel Tower, its height to the head of the gilded statue 
(11 ft. high) at the top being 538 ft. The dome is striking from its 
bold disregard of the ordinary technical rules of construction. The 
hall beneath the dome is 84 ft. square and upwards of 300 ft. high, 
and contains three galleries one above the other. 


68 Route 8. TURIN. Museo Civico. 

In the Via di Gaudenzio Ferrari , No. 1 , is the Museo Civico 
(PI. 33; F, 2), containing the civic collections (gratis on Sun. and 
Thurs., 12-3 ; on other days, fee 50 c). 

Ground Flook. Early sculptures, early mediaeval relief of the Ma- 
donna, coffin of the poet Vagnone (d. 1499) with reliefs of Orpheus and 
Perseus, terracottas, wood-carvings of the 16th cent., a copy of the Bucen- 
taur (p. 273). — Fikst Floor. Modern paintings and sculptures. Marble 
statues of Eve by Fa/itacchiotti and Dante by Vela. The realistic tendency 
of modern Italian art is well illustrated in the death agonies depicted in 
the Crucifixion of Eulalia by Franceschi and the 'Femme de Claude' by 
Mosso. Good water-colours by Bossoli, illustrating the events of 1859-61. 
Statuette by Balzico, the 'Plebiscite in Naples'. In the last room are a 
few old paintings by Bart. Vivarini, Bugiardini, Honthorst, and Victoors, 
and a marble bust of Sappho by Canova. — Second Floor. Rooms 12-14: 
Sculptures in wood, tapestry, bronze and iron work. Room 15: Modern 
wood and ivory carvings; six pieces of sculpture from the tomb of Gaston 
de Foix (p. 130), by Bambaja. R. 16 : Miniatures (missal of Cardinal della 
Rovere, 15th cent.), enamels, majolica. R. 17: Italian ceramic ware. RR. 18, 
19: Mementoes of Massimo d'Azeglio. R. 20: Interesting collection of 
stained glass. RR. 21, 22: Prehistoric and ethnographical collection. 

Several monuments adorn the squares in this new quarter. That 
of the Dictator of Venice, Daniele Manin (d. 1857), heyond the 
Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, by Vela, represents the Republic 
of Venice leaning on the medallion-portrait of Manin. Also sta- 
tues of Cesare Balbo (d. 1583), minister and historian, by Vela; 
of Bava, the Piedmontese general, byAlbertoni; of the Marquis 
Pes de Villamarina, the Sardinian statesman, in the adjoiningParc 
Cavour ; and, nearer the Piazza Maria Teresa (PI. G, 3), of Gen- 
eral Gugl. Pepe (d. 1853), the brave defender of Venice in 1849, 
by Butti. 

The Corso Lungo Po, adorned with a Monument of Garibaldi 
erected in 1887, leads from the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele up the 
river to the Chain Bridge (PI. G, 4), constructed in 1840. In the 
Via Mazzini, diverging to the right, rises the church of S. Massimo 
(PI. 15 ; F, G, 4), built in 1845-54, crowned with a dome. Facade 
adorned with statues of the Four Evangelists. Good modern fres- 
coes in the interior, and several statues by Albertoni. 

In the Corso Vitt. Emanuele II., which leads from the chain 
bridge to Piazza Carlo Felice, on the left, rises the new church of 
8. Giovanni Evangelista in the Romanesque style. A few paces 
beyond it is the Valdensian Church (Tempio Valdese; PI. 18; F, 4 ; 
see p. 70), the first Protestant church built at Turin since the 
establishment of religious toleration in 1848. 

Close by, at the corner of the Via S. Anselmo and the Via Pio 
Quinto, is the Synagogue (PI. 47; F, 4, 5), in the Moorish style, 
finished in 1884. — In the Piazza Saluzzo to the S.W. is the church 
of S. Pietro e Paolo, completed in 1865, with a Byzantine facade. 

A favourite promenade is the *Nuovo Giardino Pubblico (PI. G, 
4, 5), above the iron bridge on the left bank of the Po (Cafe). It 
comprises the Botanical Garden, and the royal chateau II Valentino, 
a turreted building of the 17th cent tiow occnniprl by the Poly- 

Cemetery. TURIN. 5. Route. 69 

technie School. On the S. side of the garden is a model of a Castle 
of the 15th cent. (adm. 50 c.) with its dependent village, erected 
for the exhibition of 1884 (restaurant). In the adjacent Corso 
Massimo d'Azeglio several scientific institutions connected with the 
university are in course of erection. 

Opposite the spacious Piazza Vittohio Emanuele(P1. G, 3), at 
the end of the Via di Po (p. 59), the Po is crossed by a Bridge of five 
arches, 155 yds. in length, begun under Napoleon and completed 
in the reign of Victor Emmanuel I. (Above the bridge are swimming- 
baths, p. 58.) 

Beyond the bridge, on the right bank of the river, a flight of 32 
steps ascends to the spacious dome-church of Gran Madre di Dio 
(PI. 14 ; H, 3), erected in 1818 in imitation of the Pantheon at 
Rome, to commemorate the return of King Victor Emmanuel I. in 
1814. The groups flanking the steps represent Faith and Charity. 
The lofty columns of the portico are monoliths of granite. — In 
front of the church rises a Monument of Victor Emmanuel I. (d. 
1824), by Gaggini. — A few hundred yards farther is the Villa 
delta Begina, now a school for the daughters of officers who have 
fallen in battle. To the S. of the Ponte Margherita (PI. H, 1) is a 
large building dedicated to the same object. 

The Via di Moncalieri, to the right, leads to a wooded hill on 
which rises the Capuchin Monastery, II Monte (PI. H, 3, 4 ; cable- 
tram). At the top is a well-equipped station of the Italian Alpine 
Club (open when the flag is flying ; adm. 25 c), commanding a noble 
*Survey of the river, city, plain, and the chain of the Alps in the 
background, prominent among which are (right) the snowy peaks 
of Monte Rosa (15,215 ft.), the Grand-Paradis (13,780 ft.), and 
Monte Levanna (11,975 ft.); towards the "W. are the valley of Susa 
(p. 26), the Sagra di S. Michele (p. 25) on a conspicuous hill 
(3110 ft.), above it the Roche-Melon (11,605 ft.) to the right of 
Mont Cenis, and farther to the S.W. Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). 
This hill of the Capuchins was always a point of great importance 
in the military history of Turin, and was fortified down to 1802. 
The morning is the best time to visit it. 

The Cemetery (Cimitero), l^/a M - t0 tne N - E - of Turin, on the 
Chivasso road (open 12-4 o'cl. in winter in fine weather ; in March 
and April 1-5; in summer 3-8; in Sept. and Oct. 2-4 only), is 
reached from the Ponte delle Benne by a shady avenue (steam 
tramway from Piazza Castello, see p. 57). The front part of the 
cemetery is enclosed by a wall with arches, while the more inter- 
esting portion beyond is surrounded by arcades covered with domes. 
In the front section, to the left by the wall, is the tomb of Silvio 
Pellico (d. 1854) ; in the other section we observe the names of 
many celebrated modern Italians, such as d'Azeglio, Bava, Brofferio, 
Oioberti, Pepe, and Pinelli. 

70 Route 8. TURIN. Superga. 

The "Superga, or Soperga (2145 ft.; eomp. Map, p. 57; tramway from 
Piazza Castello to the village of Sassi in i/ 2 hr. ; llience to the top by 
cable-tram in 20min.; no change of carriages in the case of treni diretti ; 
fares 2 fr. 60, 1 fr. 85 c), ia well worthy of a visit. The Superga, the royal 
burial-church, a handsome edifice with a portico, and crowned with a 
dome, is conspicuously situated on a hill to the E. of Turin. The church,' 
a votive offering dedicated by Victor Amadeus II., the first king of Sar- 
dinia, on the occasion of the emancipation of Turin in 1706 (p. 56), was 
erected in 1718-31 from designs by Juvara, and was consecrated in 1749. 
The interior (closed 12-2) contains a room hung with indifferent portraits 
of all the popes. Most interesting among the works of art is an Angel of 
Death with his sword, by Michael Angela, at the foot of the steps descend- 
ing to the burial-vault. Splendid view of Mont Cenis and Monte Rosa, 
especially from the dome, the ascent of which is recommended. Adjoin- 
ing Ihe church are a seminary for priests and a good trattoria. 

To the S. of Turin on the line to Genoa (R. 13a) lies Moncalieri 
(tramway, p. 57) , picturesquely situated on a chain of hills, and com- 
manding a superb view. On a height above the village is the royal C7i<£- 
leau, in which Victor Emmanuel I. died in 1823. The picture-gallery in 
the W. wing contains a series of large paintings illustrating the history of 
the House of Savoy. The last of the series, 'Delivery of the plebiscite of 
Tuscany by Baron Ricasoli in I860' is interesting from its numerous por- 
traits (fee 1/2- 1 fr-)- A horse-tramway runs to the chateau from the ter- 
minus of the steam-tramway. 

About 6 M. to the S. W. of Turin (tramway, p. 58) lies Stupinigi, a 
large royal hunting-chateau, erected from designs by Juvara in the reign 
of Charles Emmanuel III., with a beautiful and extensive park. (^Albergo 
del Gastel Vecchio, at the back of the chateau, moderate.) 

From Tukin to Lanzo, 20 M., railway in 1 hr. 20 min., starting from 
the Via al Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1; p. 66). — 4'/2 M. Venaria Reale, with ruins 
of a royal hunting-chateau destroyed by the French republicans, at the in- 
flux of the Ceronda into the Stura. The train crosses both streams and 
ascends the valley of the latter. 8 M. Canelle. 13 M. Cirie, with a Gothic 
church of the 13th century. — 20 M. Lanzo (Posta; Europa), prettily situated 
on a hill , with a ruined castle , and surrounded with villas , is the best 
starting-point for excursions in the Upper Valley of the Stura, in the valley 
of the Tesso, and to the loftily situated Santuario di S. Ignazio (3060 ft.; 
I1/2 hr.). The Ponte del Roc, which crosses the Stura near Lanzo with an 
arch of 120 ft. in length, was buiilt in 1378. — See C. Ratti's k Da Torino 
a Lanzo e per le Valli delta Stura y (Turin, 1883). 

From Turin to Torre Pellice, 34 x /2 M., railway in 2'/4 hrs. — The 
train diverges from the Genoa line (p. 79) at Sangone and turns to the 
S.W. — 15'/2 M. Airasca, whence a branch runs to Saluzzo (2272 M. ; pass- 
ing Moretta, p. 81). 171/2 M. Pinerola, Fr. Pignerol (Campana; Cannon 
d'Oro), a town with 16,000 inhab., an old cathedral, and a monument to 
Gen. Brignone by Tabacchi (tramways to Saluzzo, p. 81, and Fenestrelle). 
291/2 M. Bricherasio ; 33 M. Luserna.— 341/2 M. Torre Pellice, Fr. La Tour 
{Ours; Lion d'Or), the capital of the Waldensian Vallets {Vallies Vau- 
doises), adjoining the French frontier, home of those well-known Protestant 
communities (about 25,000 souls) who were formerly so cruelly persecuted 
and who have resided here for upwards of six centuries. 

9. From Turin to Aosta. 

8O1/2 M. Railway in 41/2-51/4 hrs. ; fares 11 fr. 30, 7 fr. 95, 5 fr. 10 c. 

From Turin to (18 M.) Chivasso, see p. 73 (carriages changed). 
Between the depressions of the lower mountains peep the snowy 
summits of the Grand-Paradis, and to the E., farther on, those 
of Monte Rosa. 

22 M. Montanaro, 25 M. Rodallo, 27 M. Caluso, 29 M. Candia, 
31 M. Mercenasco, a"' 1 r ^% M ~> sn™mhinn 

VERRES. 9. Route. 71 

39 M. Ivrea (780 ft. ; Scudo di Francia; Europa, in the Dora 
promenade ; Universe*), a town with 10,400 inhab., is picturesquely 
situated on the Dora Baltea (Fr. Doire), on the slope of a hill 
crowned with an extensive and well-preserved old Castle, with 
three lofty brick towers, now a prison. Adjacent is the Cathedral, 
a building of ancient origin, but frequently restored. An ancient 
sarcophagus adorns the adjoining Piazza. A monument was erected 
here in 1880 to Ettore Perrone, general and minister (d. 1848). 
Ivrea, the ancient Eporedia, was colonised by the Romans, B.C. 100, 
in order to command the Alpine routes over the Great and Little 
St. Bernard. Pleasant walk to the Madonna del Monte (pilgrimage- 
church) and the lake of S. Giuseppe with a ruined monastery (1 hr.). 

Steam-tramway from Ivrea in 2'/4 hrs. to Santhia (p. 74). 

Ivrea is one of the southern portals of the Alps. The fertile valley 
of the Dora, here IV2 M. in breadth, is flanked with mountains. 
41 M. Montalto; on a height to the right stands the well-preserved 
castle of that name ; other ruins crown the hills farther on. Vines 
clothe the slopes. 42'/2 M. Borgofranco, with arsenical springs; 
45M. Tavagnasco; 47 M. Quincinetto. 

49 M. Pont- Saint- Martin (1105 ft. ; Rosa), with a ruined castle, 
one of the most picturesque spots in the valley. The bold and slender 
bridge over the Lys, which descends from Monte Rosa, is Roman. 
Several forges are situated on the Dora. 

5OY2 M. Donnaz. The train now ascends a rocky defile and 
passes through a tunnel 660 yds. long under Fort Bard (1530 ft.) 
which was taken in 1052 by Count Amadeus of Savoy after a long 
siege, and in May, 1800, before the battle of Marengo, was gal- 
lantly defended by 400 Austrians, who kept the French army in 
check for a week. The train then crosses the Dora to (52!/ 2 M.) 
Hone-Bard , beautifully situated. On the left opens the Vol di 
Camporciero, or Champorcher, with its fine rocky peaks ; to the N. W. 
towers the Mont Luseney (11,505 ft.). 55 M. Arnaz. 

57 M. Verres (1205 ft. ; Ecu de France , or Poste; Couronne), 
with 1100 inhab. and an old castle, lies picturesquely at the en- 
trance of the Val Challant. To the right towers the rocky pyramid 
of the Becca di Vlou (9950 ft.). 

The valleys of Aosta and Susa (p. 26) were alternately occupied by 
the Franks and the Longobards, and belonged to the Franconian Empire, 
In consequence of which the French language still predominates in these 
Italian districts. The village of Bard (below the fort) is the point of 
transition from Italian to French, while at Verres the latter is spoken al- 
most exclusively. 

Above "Verre's the valley expands, but soon contracts again. Near 
(60!/2 M.) Montjovet appear on the right, high above us, the ex- 
tensive ruins of the chateau of Montjovet or St. Oermain. The train 
crosses the Dora by means of a long viaduct and enters the pictur- 
esque *Defile of Montjovet, the grandest part of the line, with a suc- 
cession of tunnels and buttresses of masonry , and the brawling 
Dora far below. On the right, at the end of the defile, lies — 

72 Route 9. AOSTA. 

63^2 M. -St. Vincent (Lion d'Or;Ecu de France), with a mineral 
spring and baths. Two tunnels. Loftily perched on the left is the 
old castle of Ussel. Then (li/ 2 M. farther) — 

65 M. Chatillon (1480 ft.). The little town (1810 ft. ; Hotel de 
Londres ; Ange), the capital of this district, with a handsome cha- 
teau of the old Counts of Challant, is beautifully situated 1 M. 
above the railway, at the entrance to the Val Tournanche. (Road to 
Val Tournanche, and bridle-path over the Theodule Pass to Zer- 
matt, see Baedeker's Switzerland.) 

The line crosses the Matmoire, or Marmore, descending from 
the Val Tournanche, traverses a deep cutting through a deposit of 
de'bris, threads two tunnels, and reaches (68 M.) Chambave, noted 
for its wine. To the "W. opens the view of the beautiful valley of 
Aosta, rich in fruit and surrounded by lofty mountains, with the 
three-peaked Rutor in the background. 

The line traverses a mass of debris at Diemoz (viaduct 107 yds. 
long), and crosses the Dora. To the left lies the picturesque chateau 
of Fenis, at the mouth of the Clavalite Valley, through which peeps 
the snowy peak of the Tersiva (11,525 ft.). The train now crosses 
the Dora to (7272 M.) Nus, with a ruined castle, at the mouth of the 
Val St. Barthelemy, and re-crosses the river twice. 7372 M. St. Mar- 
cel; 7572 M. Quart- Villefranche (with the chateau of Quart on a hill 
to the right, 2485 ft.). We then cross the Bagn'ere and the Bulkier. 

80 7 2 M. Aosta (1910 ft.; Hotel du Montblanc, at the "W. end 
of the town ; Couronne, in the market-place ; Restaurant Lanier, 
moderate, and Cafe National, both in the Hotel de Ville ; good bed- 
rooms at the omnibus-office in the market-place, R., L., & A. 
3 fr.), with 7300 inhab.. the Augusta Praetoria Salassorum of the 
Romans, lies at the confluence of the Bulkier and iheDoire or Dora 
Baltea. The valley was anciently inhabited by the Salassi, a Celtic 
race , who commanded the passage of the Great and the Little 
St. Bernard, the two chief routes from Italy to Gaul. They frequently 
harassed the Romans in various ways, and on one occasion plunder- 
ed the coffers of Caesar himself. After protracted struggles the tribe 
was finally extirpated by Augustus, who captured the survivors, 
36,000 in number, and sold them as slaves at Eporedia. He then 
founded Aosta to protect the roads , named it after himself, and 
garrisoned it with 3000 soldiers of the Praetorian cohorts. 

The antiquities which still remain testify to the ancient impor- 
tance of Aosta. The Town Walls, flanked with towers, forming a 
rectangle 790 yds. by 620 yds. , are preserved in their entire extent, 
and on the S.W. side the ancient facing and cornice are still in situ. 
The walls of the old Theatre and the arcades of the Amphitheatre 
are visible above the houses in the market-place. 

The principal street leads to the E., through the ancient *Porta 
Pretoria, to the (74 M.) handsome *Triumphai, Arch op Augustus, 
with its ten Corinthian pilasters. It then crosses theButhier, which 

CHIVASSO. 10. Route. 73 

has changed its channel, to the beautiful arch of the old Roman 
Bridge, now half-buried in the earth. 

In the suburbs lies the church of St. Oubs, the choir of which 
contains the tomb of Bishop Gallus (d. 546) and finely carved stalls 
of the 15th century. The old crypt is borne by Roman columns. 
The cloisters contain early-Romanesque columns (12th cent.), with 
interesting capitals. Near the church rises a Tower, built of Roman 
hewn stones in the 12th cent., opposite which are a sarcophagus 
and two ancient columns at the entrance of a chapel. In the same 
piazza is the Priory of St. Ours, a handsome building of the 15th 
cent., with terracotta ornamentation and an octagonal tower. The 
interior contains good wood-carvings and frescoes. 

The Cathedral owes its present form to the 14th century. 
Above the portal a painted terracotta relief; in the choir two mo- 
saics of the 10th cent, and early-Renaissance stalls. The treasury 
contains two shrines of the 13th and 15th cent. , a cameo of a 
Roman empress in a setting of the 13th cent., and a diptychon of 
the Consul Probus (406) with the Emp. Honorius. 

At the S. gate rises the tower of Bramafam (12th cent.), in 
which Count Challant is said to have starved his wife to death out 
of jealousy. By the "W. wall is the Tour du Lepreux, described in 
Xavier le Maistre's novel, in which a leper named Guasco (d. 
1803) and his sister Angelica (d. 1791) dragged out their miser- 
able existence. — Between the town and the station is an admirable 
bronze Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., in hunting costume, designed 
by Tortone, and dedicated 'au roi chasseur, 1886'. 

The "Becca di Nona (10,310 ft.), rising to the S. of Aosta, commands 
a superb view of the Alps. Ascent 6-7 hrs., with guide (10 fr.)- Two-thirds 
of the way up is the Alp Comboe (tavern) ; on the top is a refuge hut 
(Capanna Budden). — Excursions from Aosta to the Mont Blanc Group 
and the Oraian Alps, see Baedekers Switzerland. 

10. From Turin to Milan via No vara. 

937-2 M. Railway in 3'/4-5'A hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c. ; 
express 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 10 c). Glimpses of the Alps to the left. — Stations 
at Turin, see p. 57. 

The Dora Riparia is crossed, then the Stura between (5 M.) 
Succursale di Torino and (10^2 M.) Settimo Torinese (whence a rail- 
way runs N. to Rivarolo, with branches thence to Cuorgne and Cas- 
tellamonte). We cross the Oreo and the Malon. 15 M. Brandizzo. 

18 M. Chivasso (Alb. del Moro), near the influx of the Oreo into 
the Po. Branch-lines hence to Aosta (p. 72) and (30^2 M.) Casale 
(p. 74). Tramway to Turin, p. 57. A road leads from Chivasso to 
(2 M.) S. Genesio, with favourite sulphur-baths (Grand Hotel S. 
Genesio ; pension from 8 fr., 1st May to 1st Dec). 

20 M. Castelrosso; 22i/ 2 M. Torrazza di Verolan. Near (25 M.) 
Saluggia the train crosses the Dora Baltea (p. 71). 29^2 M. Livorno 
Vercellese ; 32 M. Bianze ; 35!/2 M. Tronzano. 

74 Route 10. VERCELLT. From Turin 

37 M. Santhih (Alb. del Pallone, mediocre). The church, re- 
stored in 1862, contains a picture by Gaud. Ferrari in ten sections. 
— Tramway to Ivrea (p. 71). 

Branch-Line to Biella, I8V2 M., in 1 hr. , by Salussola, Vergnasco, 
Sandigliano, and Candelo. — Biella (Testa Grigia; Alb. Centrale; Angela), 
an industrial town and seat of a bishop, possesses arcaded streets and a 
fine cathedral in a spacious Piazza, where the episcopal palace and a 
seminary are also situated. Monuments of Gen. Lamarmora and Quintino 
Sella, the statesman. The palaces of the old town, rising picturesquely on 
the hill, are now tenanted by the lower classes. About 3 M. to the N. lies 
Andorno (* Grand Bdtel; Engl. Ch. Serv. in summer), a favourite summer- 
resort, with two hydropathics, frequented of late by English and American 
visitors. Numerous pleasant excursions. Walkers may reach Zermatt (see 
Baedeker's Switzerland) hence in 2 days. Beyond Andorno P/2 M.) is Sa- 
gliano, with a monument to Pietro Micca (p. 66). To the N.W. of Biella 
(7'/2 M. ; omnibus) lies the famous pilgrimage-church of Madonna d' Oropa, 
near which is the finely situated Hydropathic Establishment of Dr. Mazzu- 
chetti (3600 ft. ; well spoken of), a pleasant retreat in warm weather. To 
the W. of Biella (7 M. ; new road) is the village of Graglia, with a pilgrim- 
age-church and a hydropathic ; fine view. (Carriage from Biela to Andorno 
4 fr., and back 8 fr. ; with two horses 8 or 15 fr. ; to Oropa or to Graglia 
6 or 12 fr. and 10 or 18 fr.). — Tramway to Cossalo. — Diligence from 
Biella twice daily in 2 l /2 hrs. to Piedicavallo (Alb. Mologna, well spoken 
of), whence the ascent of Mte. Bo (8530 ft. ; splendid view) by the new 
path takes 4'/2 hrs. (guide 5 fr.). 

The train skirts the high-road. 40y 2 M. S. Qermano. 

49^2 M. Vercelli (TreRe; Leone d'Oro), an episcopal town with 
20,200 (or, with suburbs, 29,000) inhabitants. From the station 
we see the imposing church of S. Andrea, founded in 1219, with 
a dome and W. towers like those of northern churches. Interior 
early-Gothic. The church of S. Cristoforo contains frescoes by G. 
Ferrari (*Madonna and donors in an orchard) and B. Lanini. S. Ca- 
terina, 8. Paolo, and the Oalleria dell' Instiluto di Belle Arti also 
contain works by Ferrari. The cathedral-library contains rare old 
MSS. A statue of Cauourwas erected in the market-place in 1864. 
To the S. of Vercelli lie the Campi Raudii, where Marius defeated 
the Cimbri in B.C. 101. — Tramway from Vercelli to Casale (see 
below) ; also N. to Aranco in the valley of the Sesia (p. 76) and 
to Biandrate and Fara (p. 76), and S. to Trino. 

Beanch-Line to Alessandria, 35 M., in 2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 35, 4fr. 45, 
2 fr. 85 c). Stations Asigliano, Pertengo, Rive, Balzola, beyond which the Po 
is crossed. — 14'/2 M. Casale (Alb. delV Angelo ; Leone d'Oro), the an- 
cient capital of the Duchy of Monferrato , which afterwards belonged to 
the Gonzagas. The interesting Romanesque Cathedral contains several 
good paintings (by G. Ferrari and others) , and sculptures by Lombard 
masters. The church of S. Domenico, in the Renaissance style, the Pa- 
lazzo di Cilia, with handsome colonnade, and other palaces are also note- 
worthy. The Ghibelline prince William of Montferrat is mentioned by 
Dante in his Purgatory (VII. 134). Casale is the junction of the Asti-Mor- 
tara line (p. 79) and of that to Chivasso (p. 73). It is also connected 
with Alessandria, with Vercelli (see above) , and with Orti Vignale by 
tramways. — Next stations Borgo S. Martino, Giarole, Valenza (p. 78), Val- 
madonna, and Alessandria (p. 79). — Feom Vercelli to Pavia, see p. 78. 

The train crosses the Sesia (p. 174); to the left rise the Alps, 
among which the magnificent Monte Rosa group is conspicuous. 
52>/ 2 M. Borgo Vercelli; 57 M. Ponzana. 

to Milan. 


10. Route. 75 

62'/ 2 M. Novara (*Rail. Restaurant; Alb. d' Italia, well spoken 
of; Tre Re; Roma; Hotel de Ville) , an episcopal town and for- 
merly a fortress, with 15,000 inhab., was the scene of a victory 
gained by the Austrians under Radetzky over the Piedmontese 
in 1849, which led to the abdication of Charles Albert. 

From the station we cross the Piazza Carlo Alberto to the Via 
Vittorio Emanuele, passing a Monument of Cavour , by Dini, and 
turn to the right to the church of S. Gaudenzio, erected about 1570, 
with a facade by Pellegrini and a dome 396 ft. high, added by An- 
tonelli (p. 67) in 1875-78. The church, which is without aisles, 
in imitation of S. Fedele at Milan, contains several good pictures by 
Gaud. Ferrari and is to be farther adorned, inside and out, with 78 
statues. The tower (300 steps) commands a very extensive prospect. 

The Cathedral, a Renaissance building upon old Roman foun- 
dations, connected with the Baptistery by an entrance-court, pre- 
sents a picturesque appearance. In front of the theatre is a marble 
statue of Charles Emmanuel III., by Marchesi. The Mercato , or 

Oozzano *^f Ar<ma 

76 Route 10. MAGENTA. 

Corn Exchange , near the Porta Torino , is a handsome building 
with colonnades. Between the Mercato and the Castello is a mon- 
ument to Victor Emmanuel II. In the Corso Garibaldi , near the 
Palazzo Civico , is a monument to Charles Albert. — Tramway to 
Vigevano (p. 77) and to Biandrate. 

From Novara to Vaeallo, 34 ] /2 M., railway in 2y2 hrs. Stations: 
Vignale (p. 29), S. Bernardino, Briona, Fara (tram to Vercelli, p. 74), 
Sizzano, Ohemme, Romagnano ; thence, on the left bank of the Sesia, to Prato 
Sesia, Grignasco, Valduggia, Bcrgo Sesia (opposite which lies Aranco, whence 
a tramway runs to Vercelli, p. 74: 30 M. in3'/ 2 hrs.; fares 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 
40 c), Isoletta- Vanzone, Quarona, Koccapielra, and Varallo (p. 174). 

From Novara to Busto-Arsizio, 17 M., railway in 3 I\ hr. (fares 2 fr. 
70, 1 fr. SO, 1 fr. 10 c). Stations Galliate, Turbigo,, Vanzaghello, 
and Busto-Arsizio, on the Milan and Laveno line (p. 164). 

From Xovara to Orta and Domo d'Ossola, see p. 29. 

At Novara the Turin and Milan line is crossed by that from 
Bellinzona to Genoa (R. 11). Carriages often changed at Novara. 

69 M. Trecate. Near S. Martino the line crosses the Ticino by 
a handsome stone bridge of eleven arches , which the Austrians 
partially destroyed before the battle of Magenta. 

Farther on we cross the Naviglio Grande , a canal connecting 
Milan with the Ticino and Lago Maggiore (comp. p. 128). On the 
right, near (77 M.) Magenta, stands a monument erected to Napo- 
leon III. in 1862 , to commemorate the victory of the French and 
Sardinians over the Austrians on 4th June, 1859, which compelled 
the latter to evacuate Lombardy. Opposite the station are numerous 
graves of those who fell in the struggle, with a small chapel on an 
eminence, and adjoining it a charnel-house. 

The line intersects numerous rice-fields, which are kept under 
water two months in the year. Stations Vittuone ; Rhb (p. 164), 
where the line unites with that from Arona; and Musocco. 

931/2 M. Milan (see p. 125). 

11. From Bellinzona to Genoa. 

156 M. Railway in 8>/ 2 -12y2 hrs. (fares 28 fr. 15, 19 fr. 75, 13 fr. 20 c; 
express 30 fr. 70, 13 fr. 20 c). At Mortara this line is joined by another 
coming from Milan , on which the throngh-trains from Milan to Genoa 
run: From Milan to Genoa, 106 M. , in 5-7'/2 hrs. (fares 19 fr. 35, 
13 fr. 55, 9 fr. 70 c. ; express 21 fr. 35 c. , 15 fr.). (Railway by Voghera, 
see R. 27.) 

Bellinzona, see p. 35. Journey to Cadenazzo, where the Lo- 
carno line diverges, see p. 35. — At (10'/ 2 M.) Magadino (p. 167) 
the train reaches the Lago Maggiore, and skirts its E. bank (views 
to the right). Opposite lies Locarno (p. 166), at the mouth of the 
Maggia. 12>/ 2 M. 8. Nazzaro ; 14 M. Ranzo-Qera (opposite Bris- 
sago, p. 167). At Zenna we cross the Dirinella , the Italian fron- 
tier. Tunnel. 

16'/2M. Pino, the first Italian station. The bank becomes steep 
and rocky , and the construction of the railway was attended with 
great difficulties here. Between Pino and Luino there are six tun- 

LAVENO. 11. Route. 77 

nels, and numerous cuttings and viaducts. Delightful views of the 
lake to the right ; on the opposite bank lies Cannobbio (p. 1673, and 
farther on is the promontory of Canriero, with the picturesque cas- 
tles of that name on a rocky islet (p. 168). Near (21 M.) Maccagno 
the train crosses the Giona. Several tunnels. 

25 M. Luino, an international station , with Swiss and Italian 
custom-houses, see p. 168. — To Lugano, see p. 161. 

The line crosses the Margorabbia (p. 168) below its union with 
the Tresa (p. 162), and leads by Germignaga and through a tunnel 
to (29V2M.) Porto- Valtravaglia. Beyond a tunnel under the castle 
of Calde (p. 168) we skirt the bay of the same name (opposite 
Intra, p. 1G9) and enter the Tunnel of Calde, fully l 3 / 4 M. in 
length, the longest on the lake. 

34 M. Laveno (p. 168) is beautifully situated at the mouth of 
the Boesio, at the foot of the Sasso di Ferro (p. 169). The lake here 
attains its greatest breadth. Splendid view of the broad bay of 
Stresa; in the centre lie the Borromean Islands: in the distance 
rise the snow-peaks of Monte Rosa and the Simplon. 

Laveno is the station for Intra , Pallanza, Stresa , and the Borromean 
Islands (steamer and small boats, p. 166; from the station to the steam- 
boat-quay , >/* nr - i omnibus in 6 min.). — To Varese, p. 163 ; railway 
from Laveno to Milan, p. 164. 

The line quits the lake. Tunnel of Mombello ( 3 / 4 ML). 36y 2 M. 
Leggiuno-Monvalle ; 40 M. Ispra, on a promontory (opposite Bel- 
girate and Lesa, p. 172); 43'/2 M. Taino-Angera. 

47 M. Sesto-Calende, at the efflux of the Ticino from the lake, 
junction for Arona and for Milan (p. 165). A handsome iron bridge, 
with three openings (central 310 ft., the others 260 ft.), and two 
roadways (the upper for the railway, the lower for the Simplon 
road), here spans the Ticino. The railway to Arona (p. 165) di 
verges to the right on the other side of the river. 

We follow the right bank of the Ticino. 48 M. Castelletto- 
Ticino ; 51 M. Porto-Varallo ; then a long tunnel. 52 M. Pombia. 
From (56Y2 M.) Oleggio a branch-line runs to Arona (p. 165), 
passing Varalpombia and Borgo Ticino. — 59 M. Bellinzago. 

67 M. Novara (p. 75), junction for Milan and Turin (R. 10). 

72'/2 M. Garbagna; 74y> M. Vespolate; 77 M. Borgo- Lavezzaro. 
We traverse rice-fields , interspersed with arable land and mul- 

82 M. Mortara, a town with 8100 inhabitants. The church 
of S. Lorenzo contains pictures by Crespi , Lanino, Procaccini, 
and Gaud. Ferrari (Madonna with SS. Rochus and Sebastian). 

At Mortara the direct line to Milan diverges. Feom Milan to Mortaka, 
32i/2 M., in l'/4-l s A hr. (fares 5 fr. 90, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 65 c. ; express 6 fr. 55, 
4 fr. 60 c). Stations Corsico, Gaggiano, and Abbiategrasso (with a church 
by Bramante). We then cross the Ticino to Vigevano (Albergo Reale), 
with 14,100 inhab., a town of some importance in the silk-trade, with 
a spacious market-place surrounded by arcades. Tramway from Vige- 
vano to Novara (p. 75) and to Ottobiano. — Then (32'/2 M.) Mortara , see 

78 Route 15. TORTONA. 

Mortara is also the junction for the Vekcelli-Pavia line: 41'/ 2 M., in 
3-4 hrs (fares 7 fr. 60, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c). Stations unimportant. Vereelli, 
see p. 74; Pavia, see p. 177. 

Tramway from Mortara by Ottobiano (see p. 77) to Pieve del Casio. 

85 M. Olevano; 89 V 2 M. Valle; 92'/ 2 M. Sartirana; 95 V2 M. 
Torre-Berttti (railway to Pavia, see p. 179). 

To the left the long chain of the Apennines forms a blue line 
in the distance. The line crosses the Po. — 100 M. Valenza, once 
a fortified town, has a cathedral of the 16th cent, (thence to Pavia, 
see p. 179; to Vereelli, see p. 74). Tunnel 11/3 M. in length. 
104 M. Valmadonna; several prettily situated little towns lie on 
the chain of hills to the right. The Tanaro is then crossed. 

108 M. Alessandria; thence to Genoa, see p. 80. 

12. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria. 

117 M. Railway in 4>/ 2 -8 hrs. (fares 21 fr. 25, 14 fr. 90, 10 fr. 60 c, 
express 23 fr. 45, 16 fr. 40 c). 

From Turin to Alessandria, 57 M., seeR. 13. Beyond Alessandria 
the train traverses the battle-field of Marengo (p. 80). 62 M. 
Spinetta, a little to the S.E. of Marengo , is also connected with 
Alessandria by a steam-tramway. 65 M. 8. Giuliano. The train 
crosses the Scrivia. 

70 M. Tortona (Croce Bianca) , the ancient Dertona, with a 
Cathedral of 1584, containing a fine ancient sarcophagus. 

Branch-Line to Novi (p. 80), 12 M., via Pozzuolo and Eivalta- Scrivia, 
in 20-40 min. (2fr. 10, 1 fr. 50 c, lfr.; express 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 55 c). 

Country fertile. At (76 M.) Pontecurone we cross the impet- 
uous Curone. — 81 M. Voghera (Italia; Albergo del Popolo), a 
town with 15,500 inhab. (perhaps the ancient Irid], on the left 
bank of the Staffora , was once fortified by Giangaleazzo Visconti. 
The old church of 8. Lorenzo, founded in the 11th cent. , was remod- 
elled in 1600. Tramway to Stradella (see below). — From Voghera 
to Milan via, Pavia, see R. 27. 

On the high-road from Voghera to the next station Casteggio, 
to the S. of the railway , lies Montebello , famous for the battle of 
9th June, 1800 (five days before the battle of Marengo), and where 
on 20th May, 1859, the first serious encounter between the Aus- 
trians and the united French and Sardinian armies took place. 
Casteggio, a village on the Coppa , is the Clastidium so often 
mentioned in the wars of the Romans against the Gauls. 

The train skirts the N. spurs of the Apennines. Stations S. 
Giuletta, Broni, Stradella. (To Bressana-Bottarone and Pavia, see 
p. 179; tram to Voghera, see above.) At (98 M.) Arena- Po we 
enter the plain of the Po. 103 M. Castel S. Giovanni; 10572 M - 
Sarmato; 108 M. Bottofreno. 110 M. S. Niccolb , in the plain of 
the Trebbia (ancient Trebid) , memorable for the victory gained by 
Hannibal, B. C. 218, over the Romans, whom he had previously 
defeated near Somma. 

117 M. Piacenza, see p. 291. 

13. From Turin to Genoa. 

a. Via Alessandria. 

104 M. Railway in 3'/ 2 -4 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 80, 13 fr. 15, 8 fr. 45 c. ; ex- 
press 20 fr. 65, 14 fr. 45 c). 

The line at first runs towards the S., at some distance from the 
left bank of the Po, crosses its affluent the Sangone (beyond which 
the branch-line to Pinerolo diverges, p. 70), and then the Po itself 
by a bridge of seven arches. 5 M. Moncalieri , with a royal cha- 
teau on the hill (p. 70). A final retrospect is now obtained of the 
hills of Turin , and of the snowy Alps to the left. From (8 M.) 
Trofarello branch -lines diverge to Savona (p. 81) and Cuneo 
(p. 116), and to Chieri. Stations Cambiano, Pessione, Villanuova, 
Villafranca, Baldichieri, S. Damiano. The train then crosses the 
Borbore and reaches the valley of the Tanaro, on the left bank 
of which it runs to Alessandria. 

35!/2 M. Asti (Leone d'Oro; Albergo Reale; Rail. Restaurant), 
the ancient Asta, with 17,300 inhab. (with suburbs 33,500) and 
numerous towers, is famous for its sparkling wine (Asti spumante) 
and its horticulture. The left aisle of the Gothic Cathedral, erected 
in 1348, contains (2nd chapel) a Madonna with four saints by a 
master of the school of Vercelli , and (3rd chapel) a Sposalizio, 
probably by the same. — The adjacent church of 8. Giovanni (the 
sacristan of the cathedral keeps the key) is built over an ancient 
Christian basilica, part of which has again been rendered accessible, 
and has monolithic columns with capitals bearing Christian sym- 
bols (6th cent.). The Piazza is adorned with a statue of the poet 
Alfieri (1749-1803 , a native of Asti) , by Vini, and the Giardino 
Pubblico with a monument of Victor Emmanuel II. Near the 
Porta Alessandria is the small octagonal Baptistery of S. Pietro (11th 
cent.), borne by short columns with square capitals, and enclosed by 
a low, polygonal gallery. 

From Asti to Moetaea (Milan), 46 M., in 2 3 /4-3>/2 hrs. Stations un- 
important; 29 M. Casale, see p. 74; Mortara, see p. 77. — From Asti 
to Castagnole (p. 81), 13 M., in 1 hr. — Tramway from Asti to Crotanze 
(via Montechiaro) and to Canale (via B. Damiano, see above). 

Next stations Annone , Cerro , Felizzano, Solero. Country flat 
and fertile. Near Alessandria the line to Bellinzona (p. 78) diverges 
to the N. The train crosses the Tanaro by a bridge of 15 arches, 
skirts the fortifications, and reaches — 

5672 M. Alessandria (*Rail. Restaurant ; Europa, well spoken 
of; Italia, mediocre), a town with 30,800, or with suburbs 62,500 
inhab., situated on the Tanaro in a marshy district, and only remark- 
able as a fortified place. It was founded in 1168 by the Lombard 
towns allied against the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, and named after 
Pope Alexander III. A bronze statue , designed by Monteverde, 
was erected here in 1883 to the statesman Urbano Rattazzi (d. 
1873), a native of the town. — Alessandria being a junction of 
several lines, carriages are generally changed here. 

80 Route 13. NOV1. From Turin 

Railway to Vercelli via Valenza, p. 74; to Novara and Bellinzona, 
pp. 78-76; to Milan via Mortava and Vigevano, sec p. 77; to Pavia via 
Valenza, see p. 179; to Piacenza, Parma, Bologna, etc., see RR. 12 and 
41 ; to Bra, see p. 81. — Tkamways from Alessandria via Marengo to Sale 
and Tortona, to Casale (p. 74), to Spinetta (p. 78), and to Montemagno. 

From Alessandria to Savona (via Acqui), 65 M., in 4 hrs. (fares 
It fr. 90, 8 fr. 35, 5 fr. 35 c). — As far as Cantalupo the line is the same 
as to Bra (see p. 81). — 21 M. Acqui (Moro; Italia), the Aquae Statiellae 
of the Romans, an episcopal town on the Bormida with 11,200 inhab., 
is well known for its mineral waters , which resemble those of Aix-la- 
Chapelle. The Cathedral, with its double aisles, dates from the 12th century. 
Good wine is produced in the vicinity. — The line ascends the valley of 
the Bormida, passing through ten tunnels. Stations of little importance. 
52 M. S. Giuseppe di Cairo, see p. 82. — 65 M. Savona, see p. 82. 

The line crosses the Bormida , which a little below Alessan- 
dria falls into the Tanaro. About l i / i M. to the E. of the bridge, 
in the plain between the Bormida and the Scrivia, lies the village 
of Marengo, near which, on 14th June, 1800, was fought a 
battle momentous for the destinies of Europe. The French were 
commanded by Napoleon , the Austrians by Melas. The battle 
lasted 12hrs. — 63 M. Frugarolo. 

70 M. Novi (*La Sirena , moderate) , on the hills to the right, 
commanded by a tower (*View) , was the scene of a victory gained 
by the Austrians and Russians under Suvorov over the French on 
15th Aug., 1799. Branch-line to Pavia and Milan via Tortona and 
Voghera, see p. 78, and R. 27; to Piacenza, see R. 12. Tramway 
to Ovada. ■ — At (75 M.) Serravalle-Scrivia the train enters a moun- 
tain region. 79 M. Arquata, with a ruined castle on the height. 
Between this and Genoa eleven tunnels. The train threads its way 
through rocky ravines (la Bocchetta) and over lofty embankments, 
crossing the Scrivia several times. Scenery imposing. 84!/ 2 M. Isola 
del Cantone; on the hill to the right a ruined castle. 87 M. Ronco. 

The following section of the line is new, having been constructed 
in 1889 to avoid the steep grades of the old line. The train enters 
the Ronco Tunnel, upwards of 5 M. in length, and then descends 
through the narrow Polcevera Valley with the help of numerous 
viaducts and cuttings. Opposite we see the old line (see below). 
92 M. Mignanego; 96'/2 M. 8. Quirico. The valley now expands; 
its well-cultivated slopes are dotted with the summer-villas of the 
Genoese. On the heights to the left are towers belonging to the 
fortifications of Genoa. 102 M. Sampierdarena (p. 97), where 
travellers with through - tickets to or from Nice change carriages 
(Rail. Restaurant). On the right are the lighthouse and citadel, 
below which the train passes by a tunnel. 

104 M. Genoa, see p. 84. 

The Old Eailwat fkom Ronco to Genoa (see above; 17'/'2 M., in 
I1/2 hr.) is now used for local and goods traffic only. It runs via Busalla, 
Pontedecimo, Bolzaneto, Rivarolo, and Sampierdarena (see above). 

to Genoa. CARIGNANO. 13. Route. 81 

b. Vi& Bra and Savona. 

From Turin to Savona, 91 M., in 41/2-6 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 70, 11 fr. 70, 
8fr. 40 c; express 18 fr. 40, 12 fr. 90c); thence to Genoa, 271/2 M., in 
11/4-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 95, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 45 c. ; express 5 fr. 45, 4 fr. 75 c). 
Finest views to the right. 

From Turin to Trofarello, 8 M. , see p. 79. — i2 l / 2 M. Villastettone. 

A road crossing the Po leads hence to the W. to (41/2 M.) Carignano, a 
town with 7800 inhab. and several fine churches , situated on the high- 
road from Turin (tramway , see p. 57) to Nice. S. Giovanni Batiista was 
erected by Count Alfieri ; S. Maria delle Grazie contains a monument to 
Bianca Palaeologus, daughter of Guglielmo IV., Marquis of Montferrat, 
and wife of Duke Charles I., at whose court the 'Chevalier Bayard' was 
brought up. — Carignano, with the title of a principality, was given as an 
a 1 anage to Thomas Francis (d. 1656), fourth son of Charles Emmanuel I., 
from whom the present royal family is descended. 

18 M. Carmagnola, with 4100 inhab., was the birthplace (1390) 
of the famous Condottiere Francesco Bussone, son of a swineherd, 
usually called Count of Carmagnola , who reconquered a great part 
of Lombardy for Duke Filippo Maria Visconti, and afterwards be- 
came Generalissimo of the Republic of Venice. At length his fidel- 
ity was suspected by the Council of Ten , and he was beheaded in 
the Piazzetla (p. 244) on 5th May, 1432. Bussone's fate is the sub- 
ject of a tragedy by Manzoni. — The 'Carmagnole', the celebrated 
republican dance and song of the first French Revolution , was 
named after this town, the home of most of the street-musicians of 
Paris. ■ — Tramway to Turin, see p. 57. 

From Carmagnola to Coneo, 36>/2 31. , railway in l 3 /4-2 hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 70 c, 3 fr.). 51/2 31. Racconigi, with a royal chateau and 
park laid out in 1755 by Le Notre, once the favourite residence of Carlo 
Alberto (d. 1849). From (10 M.) Caeallermaggiore, a branch runs to (8 M.) 
Bra (see below) and to Moretta (p. 70). The principal church of (14 31.) 
Savigliano (Corona) , a town on the Macra, with ancient fortifications, 
contains paintings by Afulinari (1577-1640), a native of the town, surnamed 
Carraccino, as an imitator of Carracci. [A Branch Line (10 M. in '/ 2 hr.) 
runs from Savigliano to Saluzzo , capital of the province (formerly mar- 
quisate) of that name, with 16,200 inhab., the seat of a bishop, with 
flourishing trade and industries. The higher part of the town affords a 
fine survey of the Piedmontese plain. A monument was erected here in 
1863 to Silvio Pellico, the poet (d. 1854), born at Saluzzo in 1788. Railway 
to Airasca, see p. 70. Tramway to Turin, see p. 57; to Pinerolo, p. 70; 
to Cuneo, p. 116; and to Revello.] — 18 M. Genola. — 2572 M. Fossano, 
with 16,900 inhab., finely situated on a hill on the left bank of the Slura, 
seat of a bishop, has an academy and mineral baths (branch-line to Mon- 
dovi, see p. 82). — 26 M. Maddalena. 29 M. Centallo, a picturesque place 
with remains of medifeval fortifications. 30/2 31. S. Benigno di Cuneo. — 
36'/2 M. Cuneo, and thence to Nice, see B. 16. 

The line continues towards the S.E. 24 M. Sommariva del 
Bosco; 26 M. Sanfre; 29 M. Bandito. 

31 M. Bra (14,300 inhab.), with a busy trade in wine, cattle, 
truffles, and silk. Branch to Cavallermaggiore, see above. 

From Bra to Alessandria, 52'/2 31., railway in 3V4 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 
65, 6 fr. 75, 4 fr. 35 c). — 4'/2 M. S. Viltoria; pleasant excursion thence 
to the royal chateau of Pollenzo, with the remains of the Roman town of 
Pollentia. 7 31. Monticello Alba; 10 31. Musotto. ll'/2 31. Alba, with 
6400 inhab. ; the cathedral of S. Lorenzo dates from the 15th century. — 
I6V2 31. Neive. I91/2 M. Castagnole; branch-line to Asli (p. 79). We next 

Baedekek. Italy 1. 8th Edit. 6 

82 Route 13. MONDOVI. 

traverse a fertile wine-country. Stations Costigliole d'Asti; S. Stefano Belbo, 
on the Belbo, the valley of which the train traverses for some distance ; 
Canelli , Calamandrana , and Nizza di Monferrato , whence a road leads 
to Acqui (p. 80). Stations Incisa Belbo, Castelnuovo Belbo, Bruno, Berga- 
masco, Oviglio, Cantalupo, and Alessandria, see p. 79. 

36 M. Cherasco, at the confluence of the Tanaro and Stura, not 
visible from the line. The train ascends the former. Stations Nar- 
zole, Monchiero-Dogliani, Farigliano. — 55 M. Carrii. 

Branch -Line to Cuneo, 251/2 M., in 13/4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 25, 
2 fr. 10 c). — 13 M. Mondovi ( Croce di Malta; Tre Limoni d'Oro), the only 
important station, a town with 17,900 inhab., on the Ellero , with a 
cathedral of the loth cent, and a loftily situated old tower , is the best 
starting-point for a visit to the imposing * Cavern of Bossea, in the Valle 
di Corsaglia. A carriage may be hired at one of the inns at Mondovi for 
Frabosa , 9>/2 M. to the S., whence a lighter 'calesso' conveys travellers 
to the cavern (each member of a party 7-8 fr. for the whole drive). The 
cavern is shown from the beginning of June to the end of October (ad- 
mission 2'/< fr.; no gratuities). — Cuneo, see p. 116. 

From Mondovi to Fossano (p. 81), 15 M., railway in l'/4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 
80, 1 fr. 30 c.) ; to S. Michele, tramway in 3 /t hr. 

From Mondovi to the Certosa di Val Pesio (p. 116), a drive of 2'/2 hrs. 

56y 2 M. Niella; 60 M. Castellino. 62 l / 2 M. Ceva , on the Ta- 
naro , with an old castle , under which the train passes through a 

The train now begins to cross the Maritime Alps, the most im- 
posing part of the line. Between this and Savona are numerous 
viaducts and 28 tunnels. The train quits the Tanaro and ascends. 
Beyond (66'/2 M.) Sale is the Galleria del Belbo, a tunnel upwards 
of 3 M. in length, the longest on the line. 69 J /2 M. Saliceto ; 
73 '/2 M. Cengio, in the valley of the Bormida di Millesimo. 

79 M. S. Giuseppe di Cairo, on the Bormida di Spigno, through 
the valley of which the train descends to Acqui (p. 80). 

Interesting journey amid the deep ravines and precipices of the 
Apennines. Tunnels and viaducts in rapid succession. 86Y2 M. 
Santuario di Savona, a pilgrimage-church, founded in 1536. 

91 M. Savona, and thence to Genoa, see p. 99. 

III. Liguria. 

14. Genoa 84 

15. From Genoa to Ventimiglia 98 

16. The French Coast from Ventimiglia to Nice 105 

Nice and Environs 109 

17. From Nice to Cuneo (Turin) by the Col di Tenda . . 115 

From Cuneo to the Certosa di Val Pesio 116 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Kiviera di Levante 117 

The Maritime Alps and the contiguous Apennines (the boundary be- 
tween which is some 20 M. to the W. of Genoa) slope gently northwards 
to the Po in the form of an extensive rolling country , and descend 
abruptly towards the sea to the S. The narrow Riviera, or coast-district, 
expands at a few points only into small plains. The cultivated land climbs 
up the hillsides in terraces, sheltered from the N. wind, and enjoying a 
tine sunny aspect. While the mean temperature at Turin is 53'/3° Fahr., 
it is no less than 61° at Genoa; and again, while the temperature of Jan- 
uary averages 31° at the former, and occasionally falls below zero, it 
averages 46° at the latter, and is rarely lower than 23°. — The climate 
of the Riviera is therefore milder than that of Rome, and is even favour- 
able to the growth of the palm. 

As the country differs in many respects from Piedmont, so also do its 
Inhabitants, while their Genoese dialect, which is difficult for foreigners 
to understand, occupies a middle place between the Gallic patois of tipper 
Italy and that of Sardinia. The historical development of the two countries 
has also been widely different. The natural resource of the Ligurians, or 
the inhabitants of the Riviera, was the sea, and they were accordingly known 
to the Greeks at a very early period as pirates and freebooters. To what 
race the Ligurians belong has not yet been ascertained. As the Greek 
Massalia formed the centre of trade in S. France, with Nice as its extreme 
outpost towards the E., so Genoa constituted the natural outlet for the 
traffic of the Riviera. During the 3rd cent. B.C. Genoa became subject 
to the Romans, who in subsequent centuries had to wage long and obstinate 
wars with the Ligurians, in order to secure the possession of the military 
coast-road to Spain. As late as the reign of Augustus the Roman culture 
had made little progress here. At that period the inhabitants exported 
timber, cattle, hides, wool, and honey, receiving wine and oil in exchange. 
In the 7th cent, the Lombards gained a footing here, and thenceforth the 
political state of the country was gradually altered. The W. part with 
Nice belonged to the Provence, but in 1388 came into the possession of 
the Counts of Savoy , forming their only access to the sea down to the 
period when they acquired Genoa (1815). After the Austrian war of 1859 
Nice (1512 sq. M.) and Savoy (3889 sq. M.) were ceded by Italy to France 
in 1860 as a compensation for the services rendered by Napoleon III. The 
district of Liguria , consisting of the provinces of Porto Maurizio and 
Genoa, with an area of 2040 sq. M. and 899,300 inhab., once formed the 
Republic of Genoa, which in the 13th cent, became mistress of the W. 
part of the Mediterranean, and afterwards fought against Venice for the 
supremacy in the Levant. Genoa's greatness was founded on the ruin of 
Pisa. The Tuscan hatred of the Genoese was embodied in the saying — 
'Mare senza pesce, montagne senza alberi, uomini senza fede, e donne senza 
vergogna', and Dante (Inf. xxxiii. 151-53) addresses them with the words — 
'Ahi, Genovesi, uomini diversi 
D'ogni costume, e pien d'ogni magagna; 
Perche non siete voi del mondo spersi? 1 

84 Route 14. GENOA. Hotels. 

Modern historians describe the character of the Genoese in the middle 
ages in a similar strain. The whole energy of the Genoese seems indeed 
to have been concentrated on commerce and the pursuit of gain. Notwith- 
standing their proud naval supremacy , they participated little in the 
intellectual development of Italy, and neither possessed a school of art, 
nor produced any scholars of eminence. When at length the effete re- 
public was incorporated with Piedmont, it became the representative of 
radical principles as contrasted with the conservatism of the royalist terri- 
tory. Giuseppe Mazzini, the chief leader of the national revolutionary 
party, was born at Genoa in 1808, and Garibaldi, though born at Nice 
(1807) , was the son of a Genoese of Chiavari. The rivalry of the once 
far-famed republic with the upstart Turin , and of the restless harbour 
population with the stolid Piedmontese, have of recent years been pro- 
ductive of very notable results. Modern Genoa has, moreover, regained its 
ancient mercantile importance , though its naval arsenal has been trans- 
ferred to Spezia. 

14. Genoa. 

Arrival. There are two stations at Genoa. The Stazione Piazza Principe 
(PI. B, 2; Restaurant), the West or principal station (for Alessandria, Tu- 
rin, Spezia, Pisa, and for Savona and Nice), is in the Piazza Acqua- 
verde (goods-station in the Piazza del Principe). The arrangements are ad- 
mirable. A long row of omnibuses in the covered hall awaits the trains. 
— The East station, or Stazione Piazza Brignole (PI. H, 6), at the end of 
the Via Serra, and connected with the chief station by means of a tunnel 
below the higher parts of the town, is the first place where the Spezia 
and Pisa trains stop. — Travellers arriving at Genoa by sea (embarking 
or disembarking, 1 fr. each, with luggage), and wishing to go on by rail 
without delay, may, immediately after the custom-house examination on 
the quay, book their luggage there for their destination (fee to the facchino 
of the dogana, 20 c). 

Hotels. Grand Hotel Isotta, Via Roma 7 (PI. a; F, 5), with lift; 
Grand Hotel de Genes (PI. f ; E, 5), by the Teatro Carlo Felice, also 
with lift; Grand Hotel du Parc (PI. b; G, 5), Via Ugo Foscolo, near 
Acquasola (p. 97), quiet, with pleasant garden. Charges in these : R. 
from 3, D. 5, dej. 31/2, B. l'/j, L. 1-2, A. 1-2, omn. I-IV2 fr. — Hotel 
de la Ville (PI. d ; D, 4), in the old Pal. Fieschi; Hotel de France (PI. 
g; D, 5), R. from 2, L. & A. iy 2 , D. 41/2, B. l'/ 2 , omn. 1 fr. ; Hot. de Lon- 
dres (PI. h; C, 2), near the principal station, R. from 2'/2, B. I1/2, D. 4'/2, 
L. & A. I1/2 fr., well spoken of; Gr. Hotel des Etrangers (Rebecchino ; 
PI. 1; E, 4), Via Nuovissima 1, with lift, similar charges; Hotel Smith 
(PI. n; D, 5; English), near the Exchange, Vico Denegri, R. from 2 fr., 
omn. 75 c, well spoken of; Albergo di Milano (PI. i; C, 2), Via Balbi 
34, near the Palazzo Reale; Vittokia (PI. k; D, 3), Piazza dell' Annun- 
ziata 16; "Albergo & Trattoria della Nuova Confidenza (PI. m; F, 5), 
Via S. Sebastiano 13, moderate; Alb. Centrale, Via S. Sebastiano 8; 
Alb. d'Italia, Via Carlo Felice 14. — The 'Indicatore degli Alloggi\ pub- 
lished on Saturdays, gives information as to lodgings. 

Cafes. "Concordia, Via Garibaldi, opposite the Pal. Rosso (PI. E, 4; 
p. 93), with a garden, pleasant and cool, music frequently in the evening; 
"Roma, Via Roma and Galleria Mazzini ; "Italia, with a brilliantly lighted 
garden, open in summer only, at Acquasola (p. 97); Milano, Gall. Mazzini; 
Teatro, on ground-floor of the Teatro Carlo Felice, on the right. 

Restaurants. "Concordia, see above; Costa, Via Carlo Felice 7, well 
spoken of; Zolesi, Galleria Mazzini; Labb, Via Carlo Felice 6; Teatro, 
see above; Bona, Via S. Luca, moderate; Unione, Piazza Campetto 9. — 
Beer: Monsch, Via S. Sebastiano, Bavarian beer; Klainguti, by the Teatro 
Carlo Felice, Vienna beer ; Birreria Svizzera (Payer), Piazza S. Siro, corner 
of Via Nuovissima (PI. D,4), Bavarian beer; Birreria Viennese, Via Roma, 
new; "Birreria Jensch, Piazza Corvetto (PI. G, 5), Munich beer. 

I C3m f "gaift t. 

r^aist.Tcai'Wkgner &Debes,Xeipzi£. 

Theatres. GENOA. 14. Route. 85 

Cabs (a tariff in each) in the town : By day At night. 

Per drive 1 — 1.50 

Per hour 1.50 2 — 

Each additional half-hour — 75 1 — 

Small articles of luggage free ; trunk 20 c. — Night-fares are reckoned from 
the time when the street-lamps are lighted. 

Tramway Cars (comp. Plan) run from Piazza dell' Annunziata by the 
Via Balbi, Piazza Acquaverde, and Via Milano (halting-places at the Pa- 
lazzo Doria and at the tunnel under the Caserina di S. Benigno) to Sam- 
pierdarena (25 c), and thence in the one direction to Cornigliano (30 c), 
Seslri Ponenle (45 c), Multedo, and Pegli (55 c), and in the other to Rivarolo 
(55 c.) and Bolzaneto (80 c). — Omnibus from Piazza Carlo Felice to the 
two stations, 10 c. ; to the Campo Santo 25 c, etc. 

Small Boats. For 1-4 pers. 2fr. per hour; test to enquire beforehand. 

Baths. At the "Palazzo Spinola, Salita S. Caterina, adjoining Bossola's 
music shop; others at Via delle Grazie 11, and Piazza Sarzano 51. — Sea 
Baths by the Molo Veechio (PI. A, B, 5); by the Mura della Cava (PI. 
D, E, 8) and the Strega; also by the lighthouse (Lanterna; p. 97), but in 
July and August only, poorly fitted up. Swimmers had better bathe from 
a boat. Sea-bathing places on the Riviera, see pp. 98, 117. 

Theatres. Carlo Feltce (PI. E, F, 5) , one of the largest in Italy, 
open in winter only; Politeama Genovese (PI. F, G, 4), near Villetta di 
Negro, open the whole year; Politeama Regtna Margherita, in winter 
only; Paganini (PI. F, 3), at intervals. — Military Music in the Acquasola 
Park (p. 97) : three times a week in summer, 7-9 p. m. (except during great 
heat), and Sun. 2-4 ; in winter three times a week, 2-4. 

Shops. Booksellers: H. Stenebery , Via Roma 4; A. Donath, Via 
Luccoli 44; L. Bevf, Via Nuovissima 2; Libr. Sordo-Muli, Piazza Fontane 
Morose. — Photographs : Alfred Noack, Vico del Filo 1, upstairs, not far 
from the Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, good selection of views of N. Italy; 
Degoix, Via Nuovissima 7; Lupi, Via Orefici 148. — Candied Fruit : Pietro 
Romanengo, Strada Soziglia. — Perfumers : Stef. Frecceri, Via Nuovissima 7; 
Vitale, Via S. Luca 84 and Via Carlo Felice 15. — Filigree Work: Forte, 
Via Orefici 155, and others in the same street; Sivelli, Via Roma. — Ala- 
baster and Marble: P. Capelli, Gall. Mazzini 5; CI. Pocchini , Via Nuo- 
vissima 1. — Goods-Agent : K. Riipprecht, at the back of S. Luca. 

Post Office, Galleria Mazzini (PI. F, 5), open' 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. — Tele- 
graph Office, Palazzo Ducale (PI. E, 6). 

Bankers, Granet, Brown, & Co., Via Garibaldi 7. 

Steamboats. The most important for tourists are those of the Navi- 
gazione Generate Italiana (Florio-Rubattino; offices in the Piazza Acqua 
verde), which ply to all the chief ports of Italy and to the Levant. Those 
of the Norddeutsche Lloyd (Piazza S. Siro 10) touch at Genoa on their way 
to and from Asia and Australia, twice monthly each way. 

Consulates. English, Mr. M. V. Brown, Spianata deir Acquasola 18; 
American, Mr. Fletcher, Via Assarotti 14. 

Physicians: Dr. Breiting (speaks English), Via Mameli 33; Dr. Frilhauf, 
Via Roma 8 A ; Dr. Zaslein , Via Palestro 15. — Protestant Hospital sup- 
ported by the foreigners in Genoa (physician, Dr. Breiting). — Dentist: 
Mr. Charles S. Bright, Via Assarotti 14, 2nd floor. — Chemists: Farmacia 
Zerega (English prescriptions), Piazza Carlo Felice ; Pharmacie des Etran- 
gers, Via Nuovissima 10. 

English Church, Via Goito 2 (Rev. A. F. C. Owen, M. A.). — Pres- 
byterian Church , Via Peschiera 4 (Rev. Donald Miller) ; service at 11 ; 
evening service at 7 in the floating chapel 'Caledonia 1 . 

Principal Attractions. Walk through the Via S. Lorenzo past the 
Cathedral (p. 89) to the Piazza Nuova; ascend to S. Maria in Carignano 
(p. 90) and return to the Piazza Fontane Morose. Then through the Via 
Garibaldi (p. 92), and visit the Palazzi Rosso (p. 93), Durazzo (p. 94), and 
Balbi (p. 95; the mansions of the Genoese noblesse are generally shown 
between 11 and 4 o'clock, and probably earlier in summer), the Monument 
of Columbus (p. 87), and the Palazzo Doria (p. 96) ; drive round the Via di 
Circonvallazione (p. 97) and to the Campo Santo (p. 97) ; row in the har- 

86 Route 14. GENOA. History. 

bour, after which the evening may be spent in the park of Acquasola 
(p. 97). "Villa Pallavicini, see p. 99. 

The situation of Genoa, rising above the sea in a wide semi- 
circle, and its numerous palaces, justly entitle it to the epithet of 
'LaSuperba'. The town is divided into the 'sestieri' of Pre, Molo, 
Portoria, S. Vincenzo, S. Teodoro, and Maddalena, and is surround- 
ed by extensive fortifications , dating from the beginning of the 
17th cent., and recently strengthened. From the lighthouse on the 
W. side, where the barracks of S. Benigno afford quarters for 10,000 
men, a broad rampart runs up the hill at some distance from the 
town, past the Forte Begato (1620 ft.), to the Forte dello Sperone 
(1690 ft.), the highest point ; then descends past Forte Castellaccio 
(1250 ft.) to the mouth of the Bisagno, which falls into the sea to 
the E. of Genoa, a circuit of about 9^2 M. in all. The heights 
around the town are crowned with ten detached forts. 

Genoa, Italian Geriova, French Genes, with 138,000, or includ- 
ing suburbs 1€0,000 inhab. , is the chief commercial town in Italy. 
In 1887 the harbour was entered and quitted by 11,301 vessels of 
a total burden of 5,916,959 tons, of which 5704 were steamers of 
5,245,494 tons. The annual imports and exports together are val- 
ued at 454 million francs (18,160,000;.), the imports (coal, sugar, 
chemicals, iron, etc.) amounting to 376 millions (15,040,000i.). 

From the earliest times Genoa has been famous as a seaport, and it 
is believed to derive its name from the fact that the shape of the coast 
here resembles that of a knee (genu). The Roman form of its municipal 
government was maintained throughout the period of the barbarian in- 
vasions, when a new feudal nobility sprang up alongside of the native 
noblesse. The smaller towns on the Ligurian coast looked up to Genoa 
as their champion against the Saracens, who ravaged the country from 
Frassineto , and in 936 even plundered Genoa itself. In 1015 the Genoese 
made themselves masters of Corsica, and in 1119 they waged a victorious 
war against Pisa, then mistress of the Tyrrhenian Sea. From that date 
the rival cities were almost permanently at war down to 1284, when a 
terrible naval battle took place between them at Meloria, on which oc- 
casion the Genoese captured 29 Pisan galleys, and sank 7 others. From 
this disaster Pisa never recovered, and Genoa now obtained the supre- 
macy over the W. islands, Corsica, and nominally over Sardinia also. 
At a still earlier period Genoa had participated in the Crusades , and se- 
cured to herself a busy trade with the Levant. She also possessed settle- 
ments at Constantinople and in the Crimea, in Syria and Cyprus, at 
Tunis and Majorca. The rivalry of the Genoese and Venetians was a fruit- 
ful source of wars and feuds during the 12-14th centuries, which at length 
were terminated by a decisive victory gained by the latter in 1380. 

The internal history of the city was no less chequered than the ex- 
ternal. The party conflicts between the great families of the Dona and 
Spinola (Ghibellines) on one side, and the Grimaldi and Fieschi (Guelphs) 
on the other , led to some extraordinary results. The defeated party 
used, at the expense of their own independence , to invoke the aid of 
some foreign prince , and accordingly we find that after the 14th cent, 
the kings of Naples and France , the counts of Monferrat , and the dukes 
of Milan, were alternately masters of Genoa. Nor was this state of 
matters materially altered by the revolution of 1339, by which the ex- 
clusive sway of the nobility was overthrown, and a Doge invested with 
the supreme power. In the midst of all this confusion the only stable 
element was the mercantile Banco di S. Oiorgio, which had acquired ex- 
tensive possessions, chiefly in Corsica, and would have eventually ab- 

Harbour. GENOA. Id. Route, 87 

sorbed the whole of the republic and converted it into a commercial 
aristocracy, had not Genoa lost its power of independent development by 
becoming involved in the wars of the great powers. Andrea Doria (p. 96), 
the admiral of Emperor Charles V., at length restored peace by the estab- 
lishment of a new oligarchic constitution , and the unsuccessful conspir- 
acy of Fieschi in 1547 was one of the last instances of an attempt to 
make the supreme power dependent on unbridled personal ambition. But 
the power of Genoa was already on the wane. The Turks conquered 
its Oriental possessions one after another, and the city was subjected to 
severe humiliations by its powerful Italian rivals , as well as by the 
French, who took Genoa in 1684, and by the Imperial troops by whom 
Genoa was occupied for a few days in 1746. These last were expelled 
by a popular rising, begun by a stone thrown by Ealilla. a lad of 15 years. 
In 1736 the ambition of Theodore de Neuhof, a Westphalian nobleman, 
occasioned great disquietude to the republic. He was created king by 
the Corsicans, who were subjects of Genoa, but the usurper was expelled 
with the aid of the French, who afterwards (1768) took possession of the 
island on their own behalf. After the battle of Marengo (1800) Genoa 
was taken by the French. In 1805 it was formally annexed to the Empire 
of France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia. 

The beauty of its situation and the reminiscences of its ancient 
glory render a visit to Genoa very attractive, especially to the travel- 
ler visiting Italy for the first time. To the student of art the Re- 
naissance palaces of the Genoese nobility are objects of extreme 
interest, surpassing in number and magnificence those of any other 
city in Italy. Some of the smaller churches are of very ancient ori- 
gin, though usually altered in the Gothic period. 

Many of the Genoese palaces were erected by Qaleazzo Alessi (a pupil 
of Michael Angelo, born at Perugia 1500, d. 1572) , whose style was fol- 
lowed by subsequent architects. In spite of occasional defects, the archi- 
tecture of the city is of an imposing and uniform character, and great 
ingenuity has been displayed in making the best of an unfavourable and 
limited site. The palaces moreover contain a considerable number of 
works of art, while Rubens, who resided at Genoa in 1606-8, and Van Dyck 
at a later period, have preserved the memory of many members of the 
noblesse. The native school of art, however, never rose to importance, 
and was far from being benefited by the zeal of its artists in painting fa- 
cades. The chief painters were Luca Cambiaso (1527-85), Bernardo Strozzi, 
surnamed /( Cappuccino or Prete Genovese (1581-1644), Giov. Bali. Paggi, 
and Benedetto Castiglione. 

The *Harbour (Porto) consists of a semi-circular bay, about 4 M. 
in length, protected from the open sea by long and substantial piers. 
The Duke of Galliera (d. 1876) having presented 20 million francs 
for its improvement, on condition that government and the city 
would complete the required sum, an outer basin (Avamporto), a 
new harbour (Nuovo Porto), and an inner basin (Porto), provided 
with quays, have lately been constructed. Comp. the plan of the 
town and the map on p. 98. 

In front of the Principal Railway Station (PI. B. 2 ; p. 84) , on 
the N.W. side of the town , extends the spacious Piazza Acqua- 
verde (PI. C, 2) , in the centre of which , embosomed in palm- 
trees, rises the marble Statue of Columbus, who was born at Cogo- 
leto (p. 99) in 1456. The pedestal is adorned with ships' prows. 
At the feet of the statue , which leans on an anchor , kneels the 
figure of America. The surrounding allegorical figures represent 

88 Route Id. GENOA. S. Maria di Castello. 

Religion , Science , Geography , Strength, and "Wisdom. Between 
these are reliefs from the history of Columbus , -with the inscrip- 
tions: 'A Cristoforo Colombo la Patria', and 'divinato un mondo lo 
avvinse di perenni benefizi all' antico\ 1862. Opposite is the 
Palazzo Farraggiana, with a marble frieze representing scenes from 
the life of Columbus. — Between this palace and the Hotel de 
Londres is the end of the Via Balbi (p. 94). — Beyond the station, 
to the W., is the Pal. Doria [p. 96). 

We descend the Via delle Monachette (PI. C, 2), leading S. to 
the harbour. At the end of the street, on the right, rises the small 
Romanesque church of S. Giovanni Battista, with its two apses re- 
sulting from an alteration of facade (best light in the forenoon). 
On the tower is the head of the founder Guglielmo Acton, 1180, 
in relief. To the E. of this point runs the Strada di Pre; to the 
S.W. are the piazza and chapel della Comenda, a dilapidated Re- 
naissance building. 

Adjoining the former Arsenaledi Marina is the Darsena (PL C,3), 
in which Fiesco was drowned in 1547. We follow the busy Via 
Carlo Alberto (PL C, D, 3, 4), which down to 1855 was sepa- 
rated from the harbour by a lofty arcaded wall with a marble plat- 
form (terrazzo di marmo), which was removed in 1885. No. 9 in this 
street, near the Piazza della Darsena (p. 89), is adorned with a 
statuette of Columbus in a niche, with the inscription : 'Dissi, volli, 
credi, ecco un secondo sorger nuovo dall' onde ignoto mondo'. The 
Via Carlo Alberto ends in the Piazza Caricamento (PL D, 4, 5), 
where the Dogana occupies the building of the former Bank of 8. 
Giorgio (p. 86). The large hall is embellished with 21 marble 
statues of men who have deserved well of the city, partly of the 15th 
century. On the upper floor are the Archives. Farther on is the 
Deposito Franco, or free harbour, with extensive bonded warehouses 
(visitors admitted ; no smoking). 

The Via Vittorio Emanuele (PL D, 5), on the E. side of the 
Deposito Franco, leads S. to the Piazza Cavour, which is adjoined by 
the Molo Vecchio, the oldest pier, with the Porta del Molo (PL C, 5), 
a gateway built in 1550 by Gal. Alessi. — The Via S. Lorenzo, run- 
ning E. from the N. end of the Via Vittorio Emanuele, leads straight 
to the cathedral and S. Ambrogio, see p. 90. 

Near the S. end of the Via Vittorio Emanuele, in a small side-street 
to the E., is the church of S. Giorgio (PI. D, 6), a rococo structure with 
a dome. Adjoining it is a charming little church in the same style, by 
Borromini. Farther on is the small Piazza Cattaneo, with the palace of 
that name, a room on the second floor of which contains eight portraits by 
Van Dyck. The Via delle Grazie leads hence to the Gothic church of S. 
Cosmo, which contains a Florentine Madonna of the 14th cent, (left of the 
high-altar). — Continuing to ascend beyond S. Cosmo, we reach the church 
of Sta. Maria di Castello (PI. 1), 6) , on the site of the Roman castle. 
Above the portal is an ancient architrave ; ten of the shafts of the columns 
in the interior are also ancient. In the first chapel on the left is a Roman 
sarcophagus, used as an altar; the third has an Annunciation by Gio- 
vanni Mazone of Alessandria (15th cent.) ; the last chapel contains a 

S. Lorenzo. GENOA. 14. Route. 89 

marble door with Renaissance sculptures. The choir was added in the 
15th century. In the transept is a Madonna by Justus d'Allamagna, 1451 
(under glass). 

The following route avoids the noisy and crowded streets near 
the harbour. From the Piazza della Darsena (PI. D, 3 ; p. 88), 
whence the Via delle Fontane leads to the left to the Annunziata 
(p. 94), we pass through the fine Gothic Porta de' Vacca, with its 
mediaeval sculptures and towers of the 16th cent., to the Via del 
Campo (PI. D, 4). [From the Piazza Fossatello (PI. D, 4) the Via 
Lomellini leads to the left to the Annunziata (p. 94).] Then through 
the Via di Fossatello and the Via S. Luca to the Piazza Banchi, 
with the Exchange (Loggia de' Banchi, Borsa, PL D, 5), erected 
at the end of the 16th cent, from plans by Gal. Alessi, and adorned 
with a marble figure of Cavour by Vine. Vela. [In a side-street to 
the left of the Via S. Luca is the old cathedral of S. Siro (PL D, 
E, 4), rebuilt about 1580, with facade of 1830, containing statues 
by Taddeo and frescoes by Giov. Batt. Carlone.\ — The narrow but 
handsome *Via Orefici(P1. D, E, 5 ; a door in which, on the right, is 
adorned with an Adoration of the Magi in relief, 15th cent.), and then 
the Via Luccoli, lead to the Piazza delle Fontane Morose (p. 92). A 
little to the N. of the Via Orefici is the church of S. Maria delle 
Vigne, containing a wooden crucifix by Maragliano, three Gothic 
figures above the side-portal on the right, and a tower of the 13th 
century. On the left is a ruined cloister of the 11th century. In the 
piazza is the Palazzo de Amicis of the 16th century. — To the S. of 
the Exchange the Via S. Pietro della Porta, passing the curious church 
of S. Pietro de' Banchi (1583), leads to the Via S.Lorenzo, and the 
Piazza S. Lorenzo, in which are the new Banca Nazionale (PL 
D, 5), and the cathedral of — 

*S. Lorenzo (PL E, 6), erected in 1100 on the site of an older 
church, and afterwards so much altered that it now presents three 
distinct styles, Romanesque, French Gothic, and Renaissance. The 
lower part of the facade, which consists of alternate courses of black 
and white marble, was constructed in the 13th cent, in imitation of 
the French churches ; the two lower of the recumbent lions which 
adorn it on the right and left of the steps are modern. The sculp- 
tures of the principal portal date from the end of the 13th century. 
The entrances to the aisles are richly decorated with Romanesque 
sculptures of the 12th cent. ; the antique ornamentation of the en- 
tablature and capitals probably belonged to the older church. A 
small oriel of 1402, formerly belonging to the Hospital of St. John, 
has been built into the right aisle. 

The Interior, constructed in 1307 , is borne by the columns of the 
earlier church. Beyond the massive substructure of the towers, which 
forms a kind of atrium, lies the nave with its aisles, covered with cylindrical 
vaulting and a dome (which last was constructed by Alessi in 1567), and 
borne by sixteen Corinthian columns of coloured marble and four buttresses, 
above which is another series of columns alternating with pillars. On the 
right, over the second side-portal, is the monument of a bishop by Giov. di 
Balduccio (1336). In the chapel to the right of the choir a Crucifixion by 

90 Route 14. GENOA. S. Maria in Carignano. 

Fed. Baroccio, and statues by P. Francavilla. In the choir, handsome stalls 
with inlaid-work. In the chapel to the left of the choir six pictures and 
a statue of Fides by L. Cambiaso. In the left aisle, seven statues by 
Gugl. della Porta. — The second chapel to the left of the entrance, that of °S. 
Giovanni Battista, erected in 1451-96, contains in a stone area of the 13th 
cent, (below the altar) relics of John the Baptist, brought from Palestine 
during the Crusades. The six statues at the sides and the reliefs above 
them are by Matteo Civitali (p. 362); the Madonna and John the Baptist by 
Andrea Sansovino (1504) ; the canopy and the other sculptures by Giacomo 
and Guglielmo della Porta (1532). The external decoration of the chapel is 
in the Gothic style, with admirable reliefs above (ladies not admitted; best 
light in the afternoon). — In the sacristy is the Cathedral Treasury 
(permesso obtainable at the Municipio, first floor, to the left, 10-4 o'cl.). 
Here is preserved the Sacro Catino, the vessel out of which the Saviour 
and his disciples are said to have partaken of the paschal lamb , and in 
which Joseph of Arimathea is said to have caught some drops of the blood 
of the Crucified (a fine glass vessel, captured by the Genoese at Cesarea in 
1101 and supposed to be made of a large emerald, until it was broken at 
Paris, whither it had been carried by Napoleon I.). Among the other re- 
lics are a cross from Ephesus, captured at Phocaea in 1308; a silver shrine 
for the Procession on Ash Wednesday, by Teramo di Daniele (143S) ; and 
a beautifully wrought silver chalice attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. 

On the left of the cathedral are Romanesque cloisters of the 
12th century. 

Farther on, in the Piazza Nuova, is S. Ambrogio (PI. E, 6), a 
church of the Jesuits, of the close of the 16th cent., profusely de- 

3rd Altar on right : "Assumption by Guido Reni. High-altar-piece, Cir- 
cumcision, by Rubens. The four black monolith columns are from Porto 
Venere (p. 120). First chapel on left, Martyrdom of St. Andrew, by Semino 
the Elder. 3rd Altar on left : "Rubens, St. Ignatius driving out an evil spirit. 

The house Vico dei Notari No. 2, to the right of the church, has 
a fine Renaissance portal. In the Piazza Nuova is also situated the 
Palazzo Ducale (PI. E, 6), the grand old residence of the doges, 
originally a building of the 13th cent., to which the tower on the 
left belonged, but completely remodelled by Rocco Pennone (fine 
staircase) in the 16th cent., and modernised after a fire in 1777. 
Facade by Simone Cantoni. It now contains offices of the muni- 

This is the best starting-point for a visit to the church of S. 
Maria in Carignano, situated on one of the highest points at the S.E. 
end of the city. Opposite the Palazzo Ducale we follow the Salita 
Pollajuoli to Piazza Ferretto and the ancient church of S. Donato. 
(Portal adorned with antique entablature and columns like the Ca- 
thedral. Campanile also Romanesque. In the interior a few an- 
cient columns ; also, to the left, an Adoration of the Magi by a 
Dutch master.) We then ascend the Stradone Agostino to the right 
(passing S. Agostino, with ruined facade of 13th cent.), and cross 
the Piazza di Sarzano to the left to Ponte Carignano, which spans a 
street 100 ft. below and leads direct to the church. 

*S. Maria in Carignano (PI. E, 8; 174 ft. above the sea), 
begun by Oaleazzo Alessi in 1552, but not completed till 1603, is 

Accad. d. Belle Arti. GENOA. 14. Route. 91 

a smaller edition of the plan adopted by Michael Angelo and Bra- 
mante for St. Peter's at Rome. Principal portal, 18th cent. ; 2nd 
altar to the right, Maratta, SS. Blasius and Sebastian; 4th altar, 
Franc. Vanni, Communion of St. Magdalene; 1st altar to the left, 
Ouercino, St. Francis ; 3rd altar, *Cambiaso, Entombment. Baroque 
statues below the dome by Puget (St. Sebastian and Alessandro 
Sauli) , Parodi (St. John), and David (St. Bartholomew). 

The "View from the highest gallery of the dome (370 ft. above 
the sea ; 119 steps to the first gallery , thence to the top 130; easy 
and well-lighted staircase) embraces the city , harbour, and forti- 
fications , the well-peopled coast ("W. the Riviera di Ponente , E. 
the Riviera di Levante) , and on the S. the vast, ever-varying ex- 
panse of the Mediterranean. (Sacristan 25 c. ; his attendance for the 
ascent unnecessary ; best light in the morning.) 

Hence by the Via Gal. Alessi, Mura Santa Chiara, and Mura 
Santo Stefano to the Park of Acquasola, see p. 97. 

From the Piazza Nuova the Via Sellai (PI. E, 6) leads to the 
left to Piazza Deferrari (with palace of that name , 18th cent., 
on the left), formerly Piazza S. Domenico (80 ft. above the sea). 

The Salita di S. Matteo, the second side-street to the left, leads hence 
to the small church of S. Matteo (PI. E, 5) , originally Gothic (1278), 
containing many memorials of the Doria family, the facade being covered 
with inscriptions in their honour. The interior was altered in 1530 by 
the Florentine Oiov. Angelo Montorsoli, who was invited to Genoa by 
Andrea Doria, and who, with his assistants, executed the whole of the 
sculptures which adorn the church. The balustrade of the organ-loft is 
particularly fine. Above the high-altar is Doria's sword, and his tomb is 
in the chapel below. To the left of the church are handsome cloisters 
with double columns in the Transition style, 1308-10, with 17 ancient in- 
scriptions relating to the Dorias, and remains of a statue of Andrea Doria, 
which was mutilated during the Revolution in 1797. An ancient sarco- 
phagus-relief, with an inscription in honour of Lamba Doria , who de- 
feated the Venetians at Curzola in 1297, is built into the right side of the 
facade. — The little piazza in front of the church is surrounded with 
palaces of the Doria family ; one nearly opposite, the lower half of which 
is covered with black and yellow marble, bears the inscription, l Senat. 
Cons. Andreae de Oria, patriae Uberaiori munus publicum? (1528). — No. 13, 
to the left of S. Matteo, is the Palazzo Cenlurione, with an early Renaissance 

In the Piazza Deferrari, on the right, is the Teatro Carlo Felice 
(PL E, F, 5 ; see p. 85). Adjacent is the — 

Accademia delle Belle Arti (PI. E, F, 6). The vestibule con- 
tains mediaeval sculptures from the suppressed church of S. Domen- 
ico. On the first floor is the Biblioteca Civica (about 40,000 vols.); 
on the second floor a Picture Oallery (shown by the custodian). 

The copying-room contains, on the right, a coloured marble relief of 
the 15th cent, and a Coronation of the Virgin by Luea delta Robbia. In 
the room to the left are medifeval reliefs, Renaissance sculptures (door- 
frame , chimney-piece) , and casts. A room to the right of the copying- 
room contains ancient pictures , unarranged , some of them unnumbered. 
The finest are: 69. Last Supper; 19. St. Anthony; -20. Two saints; 68,97, 
99. Miracles of St. Philip. Then 28 (9). Manfredino da Pistoja (1292), Annun- 
ciation, Christ in the house of Martha; 21. Umbrian School, Crucifixion; 

92 Route Id. GENOA. S. Stefano. 

Ant. Scarini , Entombment ; L. Cambiaso , Holy Family. In the centre 
modern statues. Next a circular room and a saloon with pictures by 
Genoese painters (Piola, Deferrari, Ferrari, Fiasella, etc.); lastly two 
rooms with paintings, terracottas, bronzes, etc., chiefly modern (Museo 
Principe Odone). 

The Via Giulia leads from the academy E. to the Piazza degli 
Archi. On a terrace to the left of the piazza is S. Stefano (PI. F, 
G, 6), a Gothic church (14th cent.), with Romanesque tower. In- 
terior modernised. The choir-gallery on the entrance-wall dates 
from 1499. Above the high-altar the *Stoning of Stephen by Oiulio 
Romano, one of his best works (1523). From the back of the church 
we may go to the left to Acquasola (p. 97) , or to the right to S. 
Maria in Carignano (p. 90). — In the neighbouring Via Bosco is 
S. Caterina, with a fine portal (1521); adjoining it is the Spedale 
Pamatone, in front of which is a fountain with a bronze statue of 
the boy Balilla (p. 87) by Oiani. 

Two broad streets lead N.E. from the Piazza Deferrari: to the 
right the new Via Roma , to the left the Via Carlo Felice. The 
Via Roma (PI. F, 5) , to the construction of which a corner of the 
interesting old Palazzo Spinola , now the Prefettura , has been 
sacrificed, soon reaches the Piazza Corvetto, where a fine eques- 
trian Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. in bronze , founder of Italian 
unity , surrounded with flower-beds , was erected in 1886. The 
chief entrance of the Qalleria Mazzini is in this piazza. "We may 
ascend hence to the right to Acquasola (p. 97) , or go to the left, 
passing a marble Statue of Mazzini , by Costa (with allegorical 
figures of Thought and Action on the pedestal) , to the Villetta di 
Negro (p. 97). The Via Roma is continued by the Via Assarotti, 
which leads to the loftily-situated Piazza Manin (p. 97). 

On the left side of Via Carlo Felice (PI. F, 5), No. 12, is the 
Palazzo Pallavicini, now belonging to the Durazzo family (p. 96). 
We next come to the Piazza delle Fontane Morose (PI. F, 4, 5). 
No. 17 in the piazza is the Pal. delta Casa, originally Spinola, 
adorned with five statues in niches (loth cent.) ; No. 27 is the Pal. 
Lud. Stef. Pallavicini, sumptuously fitted up. 

At the Piazza Fontane Morose begins a broad line of 16th cent, 
streets, extending to the Piazza Acquaverde (p. 96), under the 
names of Via Garibaldi (formerly Nuova) , Via Nuovissima , and 
Via Balbi , one of the chief arteries of traffic. In these streets are 
the most important palaces and several churches. Some of the for- 
mer should be visited for the sake of their noble staircases, one of 
the sights of Genoa. On each side of these streets a labyrinth of 
lanes , occupied by the lower classes , descend to the harbour, and 
ascend the hill, also presenting points of interest. 

The first of these main streets , *Via Garibaldi (PL E, 4), is 
flanked with a succession of palaces. On the right, No. 1, Palazzo 
Ces. Cambiaso, by Gal. Alessi. On the left, No. 2, Pal. Qambaro, 
formerly Cambiaso. Right, No. 3, Pal. Parodi, erected in 1567-81 

Pal. Rosso. GENOA 14. Route. 93 

by Gal. Alessi for Franco Lercaro, containing frescoes by Luca Carn- 
biaso and others. Left, No. 4, *Pal. Cataldi, formerly Carega, 
erected about 1560 by Giov. Batt. Castello. Right , No. 5 , *Pal. 
Spinola, by Gal. Alessi, containing pictures of the Genoese school, 
a portrait of Cambiaso by himself, a Madonna by Luini, an eques- 
trian portrait, and a Madonna by Van Dyck. Left, No. 6, Pal. 
Oiorgio Doria (not always open), by Alessi, adorned with frescoes 
by Luca Cambiaso and other pictures (Castiglione , Shepherd and 
shepherdess ; Van Dyck, Portrait of a lady ; P. Veronese, Susanna). 

Left, No. 10, Pal. Adorno (not always accessible), also by Gal. 
Alessi , contains several good pictures [Rubens, Hercules and De- 
janira ; three small pictures attributed to Mantegna , probably by 
Botticelli : Triumph of Amor, of Jugurtha, of Judith (comp. p. 63, 
No. 369) ; Cambiaso, Madonna and saints ; Clouet, Portraits of four 
children ; Piola , Frieze with children ; Perino del Vaga , Nativity 
of Mary.] 

Left, No. 12, Pal. Serra, by Alessi; interior by De "Wailly (d. 
1798) and Tagliafico, with a magnificent hall. 

Right, No. 9, Palazzo Municipale (PI. E, 4), formerly Doria 
Tursi, by Rocco Lurago (16th cent.), has a handsome staircase and 
court, skilfully adapted to its sloping site. 

The Vestibule is adorned with five frescoes from the life of the Doge 
Grimaldi, the Coukt with a marble statue of Mazzini , and the Stair- 
case with a statue of Cataneo Pinelli. — In the large Council Chamber 
on the upper floor are portraits of Columbus and Marco Polo in mosaic. 
In the adjacent room a Madonna between two saints, by Gerard David of 
Bruges (not Van Eyck); Crucifixion with SS. Mary and John by a good 
early Netherlands master (not Diirer) ; other pictures inferior. Facsimiles 
of letters of Columbus (the originals are in the pedestal of his bust in 
the Sala della Giunta); large bronze tablet of B.C. 117, recording the 
judgment of Roman arbiters in a dispute between Genoa and a neighbouring 
castle. A cabinet to the left contains Paganini's violin. In the loggia to 
the left is a Bacchic sarcophagus-relief from the tomb of Franc. Spinola. 
(Permessi for the cathedral-treasury are procured in the loggia on the right.) 

Left, No. 18, *Palazzo Eosso (PI. E, 4), by Alessi, so named 
from its red colour, formerly the property of the Brignole-Sale 
family , with its valuable contents , library , and *Picture Gallery 
(open 10-3, Mon. and Thurs. free, other days 1 fr.), was presented 
to the city of Genoa in 1874 by the Marchesa Maria Brignole-Sale, 
wife of Marchese Deferrari, Duke of Galliera (p. 87), and by their 
son Filippo. 

Ascending the staircase, we pass through an Antisala into the Camera 
delle Arti Liberali, named like the following rooms , after the ceiling- 
paintings (by Carlone, Parodi, Deferrari, and others), and containing three 
portraits of Doges of the Brignole family, 17- 18th centuries. The ceil- 
ing-paintings are sometimes continued by the relief-work of the cornices. 
— Small Room (Alcova) : Rigaud, Lady and gentleman of the Brignole 
family. — III. Stanza della Gioventu. Over the door : Carlelto Cagliari, 
Martyrdom of St. Justina. Adjacent.- "Ouercino, Cleopatra; B. Strozzi, 
HI Cappuccino' , Charity ; L. Cambiaso, Holy Family ; B. Strozzi, Cook with 
poultry ; Andrea del Sarto, Holy Family (copy). — IV. Salone, with ceil- 
ing decorated with the armorial bearings of the family. Guidobono di 
Savona, Lot and his daughters; Valerio Castello, Rape of the Sabines. 

94 Route 14. GENOA. Pal. Mare. Durazzo. 

Entrance-wall : Guidobono, Lot in captivity; D. Piolo, Sun-chariot of Apollo ; 
Guidobono, Abraham dismissing Hagar. — V. Stanza della Prima veka : 
Paris Bordone (or rather School of Paolo Veronese), Venetian woman ; Mo- 
retlo (?), Scholar with book ; * Van Dyck, Marchese Antonio Giul. Brignole- 
Sale on horseback; Titian (school-piece), Philip II. of Spain. Over the 
egress; Van Dyck, Prince of Orange ; VanDyck, Portrait of father and son ; 
B. Strozzi, Flute-player; Van Dyck, Marchesa Paola Brignole-Sale ; Van 
Dyck, Bearing of the Cross; Paris Bordone, Portrait. — VI. Stanza 
d'Estate : Ouercino, Suicide of Cato ; L. Carracci, Annunciation ; Luca 
Giordano, Clorinda liberating Olintho and Sophronia (from Tasso) ; Guercino, 
Christ driving out the money-changers; B. Strozzi, St. Paul; Lanfranco, 
Bearing of the Cross ; Guido Reni, St. Sebastian (early copy). — VII. Stanza 
d'Autunno : Bonifazio Veneziano , Adoration of the Magi ; Guido Reni, Bast 
of the Saviour; Bassano, Adoration of the Child; G. Reni, Madonna; 
Baciccio, The boy Jesus; "Guercino, Madonna enthroned, with the Baptist, 
and SS. John and Bartholomew below; Venetian School (attributed to 
Bellini), Portrait of Franc. Philetus ; G. Reni, St. Mark. — VIII. Stanza 
dell' Inverno: Venetian School (attributed to P. Veronese), Judith and 
Holofernes; Murillo (?) , Holy Family; Rubens, Portrait of an old man; 
Varotari, Magdalene; "Paris Bordone, Holy Family with SS. Jerome and 
Catharine ; Carlo Maratta, Repose during the flight to Egypt ; P. Bordone, 
Half-length of a young man ; Leonardo da Vinci, John the Baptist (original 
in the Louvre) ; Procaccino , Holy Family. — A corridor with frescoes 
leads to — IX. Stanza della Vita delt/ Uomo: VanDyck, Portrait; P. 
Veronese (?), Venetian lady ; Teniers, Peasants carousing, two pictures ; 
" Van Dyck, Marchesa Geronima Brignole-Sale with her daughter. 

No. 13, opposite Pal. Rosso, and named 'white' by way of con- 
trast, is the Palazzo Bianco (PI. E, 4), erected in 1565-69, also 
for a long peiiod the property of the Brignole-Sale family, but after- 
wards inherited by the Marchese Deferrari. — About ^2 M. to the 
N. is the Spianata di Castello, with a beautiful view. 

Crossing the small piazza in front of these palaces, we enter the 
Via Nuovissima (PL D, 4). At the end of this street, No. 13, on 
the left, is *Palazzo Balbi (by Greg. Petondi, 18th cent.), through 
which a fine view is obtained of the lower-lying Via Lomellina. — 
On the height , obliquely opposite , is the Pal. Centurioni, with 
marble portal, containing several pictures. We then cross the 
Piazza de' Forni to the Piazza dell' Annunziata (PI. D, 3), with the 
former Capuchin church of *S. Annunziata , erected by Oiac. della 
Porta in 1587. The portal is borne by marble columns ; brick facade 
otherwise unfinished. It is a cruciform structure with a dome ; the 
vaulting rests on twelve fluted and inlaid columns of marble. This 
is the most sumptuous church at Genoa , and contains frescoes by 
the Carloni and an altar-piece by Maragliano. 

In the handsome Via Balbi (PI. D, C, 3, 2), on the right, No. 1, 
is the *Palazzo Marcello Durazzo , formerly della Scala , built by 
Alessi, with an imposing facade, fine vestibule, and a superb stair- 
case (left) added by Andrea Tagliafico at the end of the 18th cen- 
tury. On the first floor is the *Galleria Durazzo- Pallavicini, shown 
daily (sometimes in part only), 11-4. 

The Antisala contains busts of the Durazzo -Pallavicini family. — 
II. Room. Left: "Guercino, Mucius Sceevola before Porsenna; Van Dyck, 
Portrait of a man; "Rubens, Silenus with Bacchantes; "Lucas van Leyden 
(or rather School of Memling), Descent from the Cross; An. Carracci, 

Palazzo Balbi-Senarega. GENOA. 14. Route. 95 

Magdalene; Van Dyck (?), James I. of Great Britain with his family; Diirer 
(more probably of Italian origin), Madonna, the Child, and John the Baptist. 
— III. Room. Procaccini, The Woman taken in adultery ; Strozzi, Portrait of a 
bishop; Guercino, The tribute-money; Titian, Magdalene (school-piece; 
original in Florence); Zcmchi, Jephtha's daughter. — IV. Room. L. Carracci, 
Scourging of Christ; Andrea del Sarto (or rather School of Fra Bartolom- 
meo), Madonna and Child, a round picture ; Guido Reni, Carita Romana ; 
"Paolo Veronese, Espousals of St. Catharine; GuidoReni, St. Jerome ;VanDyck, 
Portrait, a round picture; "Guido Reni, Vestal virgin; Tintoretto, Portrait 
of March. Agostino Durazzo. Admirable porcelain vases in the centre of 
the room. — V. Principal Room. Paintings relating to the myth of Achilles 
by unimportant Genoese masters. Beautiful Chinese porcelain. — VI. Room. 
Domenichino , Risen Christ appearing to his mother; "Van Dyck, Boy in 
white satin; above it, Van Dyck, Young Tobias ; Domenichino, Venus mourn- 
ing the death of Adonis ; Van Dyck , Three children with a dog ; Rubens, 
Philip IV. of Spain, full length; Ribera, Heraclitus (weeping philosopher); 
"Ribera, Democritus (laughing philosopher); Van Dyck, Lady with two 
children; Titian, Ceres with Bacchus, nymph, and Cupid (after the original 
in the Galleria Borghese). — VII. Room. Unimportant. — VIII. Room. 
Fr. Pourbus, Garden of Flora; Flemish School of 15th cent., Madonna and 
Child with St. Francis and the donors ; /. Brueghel , Landscape with 
peasants; "'Dutch Master of 15th cent., Pieta. — IX. Room. German School 
(attributed to Lombard Sch.), Crucifixion, with saints; A. del Sarto, Adora- 
tion of the JIagi (after the fresco at Florence) ; Rubens, Ambrogio Spinola. — 
The Library contains 7000 vols., including many specimens of early printing. 

On the left side, No. 4, is the *Palazzo Balbi-Senarega (PI. D, 3), 
begun early in the 17th cent, by Bart. Bianco, and enlarged by Pier 
Ant. Corradi. It still belongs to the family who built it, and after 
whom the street is named. The superb court, with its Doric 
colonnades, affords a glimpse of the orangery. The Picture Gallery 
on the first floor deserves a visit (admission 9-4, during the ab- 
sence of the family). 

I. Room, adorned like the others with ceiling-paintings by Genoese 
artists. Van Dyck, Francesco Maria Balbi on horseback; Bern. Strozzi, 
Joseph explaining the dream. — II. Room. "Rubens, Infant Christ and St. 
John. "Titian, Madonna with SS. Catharine, Dominicus, and donors: 
'charming picture (about 1520), thrown out of focus by abrasion, washing, 
and repainting ; but still pleasing on account of the grace of the attitudes 
and the beauty of the landscape' ( Crowe & Cavalcaselle). Gaud. Ferrari, Holy 
Family ; A. Carracci, St. Catharine ; Michael Angelo (?), Gethsemane ; Van 
Dyck, Madonna with the pomegranate (della Melagrana). — III. Room. 
Three "Portraits of the Balbi family by Van Dyck (in the equestrian piece 
the head of Philip IV. is said to have been substituted by Velazquez for 
that of theBalbi, who had been banished). — IV. Room. Caravaggio, Conver- 
sion of St. Paul, trivial in conception, but masterly in execution; portraits 
by Tintoretto, Allori, Van Dyck, and Carracci; then, Guido Reni, St. Je- 
rome; Lower Rhenish School, Holy Family and Adoration of the Magi. — 
V. Room. Four children, sketches by Perino del Vaga; small pictures by 
Schiavone. — VI. Gallkky. P. del Vaga, Holy Family; Rubens, Portrait; 
Van Dyck, Holy Family ; * Titian , Portrait ; Flemish Master , Crucifixion ; 
Filippino Lippi, Communion of St. Jerome. 

On the right side of the street , No. 5 , is the *Palazzo dell' 
University (PL D, 3), begun as a Jesuit college by Bart. Bianco in 
1623 , and erected into a university in 1812. The court and stair- 
case are probably the finest at Genoa. The latter is adorned with 
a statue of Boccanegra, first Doge of Genoa (14th cent.). The 
building contains a library , a natural history museum , a small 

96 Route 14. GENOA. Palazzo Doria. 

botanical garden , and in the hall six bronze statues , and 'putti' 
and reliefs by Oiovanni da Bologna. 

On the left, No. 6, Pal. Durazzo, with colonnaded court. Right, 
8. Carlo, with sculptures by Algardi (1650). 

Left, No. 10, Palazzo Eeale (PI. C, 3), erected in the 17th 
cent, by the Lombard architects Franc. Cantone and Oiov. Ang. 
Falcone for the Durazzo family , and extended at the beginning of 
the 18th by Carlo Fontana of Rome. It was purchased by the royal 
family in 1815, and restored by Charles Albert in 1842. It con- 
tains handsome staircases and balconies, and is sumptuously fur- 
nished (shown daily, when the royal family is absent). The pictures 
and antiquities are of no great value. 

Ante-Chamber: Battle-pieces by Burrasca. Room on the right: Van 
Dyck, Portrait of Marchesa Durazzo ; good portrait of the Lombard School, 
attributed to Leon, da Vinci ; Perino del Vaga , Holy Family. To the 
right a handsome gallery with rococo-painting and a few ancient and 
modern statues: on the right, Apollo and Apollino, on the left, Mercury; 
at the end, Rape of Proserpine by Schiaffino. On the left, Crucifixion by 
Van Dyck ; Adulteress, Moretto; St. Agnes, Slueroout; Sibyl, Ouercino. In 
the throne-room two large pictures by Luca Giordano. 

The terrace commands a fine view of the city and harbour. 

In the vicinity is the Piazza Acquaverde, near the station, with 
the monument of Columbus (see p. 87). 

The Piazza del Principe (PI. B, 2), to the W. of the station, 
commands a good view of part of the old fortifications. No. 4 in the 
piazza is the long *Palazzo Doria (PI. A, 2), presented in 1522 to 
Andrea Doria, 'padre della patria' (d. 1560, at the age of 92). It 
was remodelled in 1529 from designs by Giov. Ang. Montorsoli, 
and adorned with frescoes by Perino del Vaga, a pupil of Raphael. 

The long Latin inscription on the side next the street records that 
Andrea d'Oria, admiral of the Papal, Imperial, French, and native fleets, 
in order to close his eventful career in honourable repose , caused the 
palace to be rebuilt for himself and his successors. His praises were 
thus sung by Ariosto : 'questo e quel Doria , che fa dai pirati sicuro il 
vostro mar per tutti i lati'. — The finest of the Frescoes by Perino 
del Vaga (restored in 1845), which often recall the paintings of Raphael, 
are the scenes from Roman history on the ceiling, vaulting, and lunettes of 
the great entrance-hall (with reliefs by Montorsoli) ; a corridor with por- 
traits of the Doria family; a saloon with a large ceiling-painting, Jupiter 
overthrowing the Titans; and a room with the love-adventures of Jupiter. 
The Titan Saloon also contains a portrait of the aged prince with his 
favourite cat, and a superb chimney-piece. The elder branch of the Doria 
family, to whom the palace belongs, generally resides at Rome. 

The garden, extending towards the harbour, contains a large 
arcaded Loggia. The gardens on the hill opposite, with a statue 
of Hercules ( l Il Gigante'J in a niche, also belong to the estate. 

Farther on , in the direction of the Molo Nuovo , stretch the 
large new quays (comp. p. 87). On the hill above the Magazzini 
Generali and the railway lies the Palazzo dello Scoglietto, property 
of Sign. Vitale Rosazza, the charming gardens of which also command 
a fine view (gardener 1 fr.). 

On the rocky headland from which the Molo Nuovo stretches 

Acquasola. GENOA. 14. Route. 97 

into the sea rises the large Lighthouse (Lanterna), with its dazz- 
ling reflectors 380 ft. above the sea-level , showing a light visible 
for 20 miles. Visitors may go by tramway from Piazza dell'Annun- 
ziata to the tunnel (p. 85). The tower (353 marble steps) may be 
ascended and the apparatus inspected (fee 1 fr.); but the high 
ground at its foot commands as good a view. Best light in the evening. 
On the coast, farther W., lies the suburb of S. Pier d' Arena, or Sampiev- 
darena (cab 2, with two horses 2'A> fr.), with 22,000 inhab. and numerous 
palaces and gardens , including Pal. Spinola and Pal. JScassi (formerly 
Imperiali), the latter with a pleasant garden, both probably by Gal. Alessi. 
The church of S. Maria della Cella contains frescoes of the Genoese school. 
Large sugar refinery. — Railway-station, see p. 98; tramway, see p. 85. 

The *Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, a magnificent route laid 
out in 1876 on the hills at the back of the town, offers a beautiful 
walk or drive (p. 85). It begins on the E. at the Piazza Manin 
(PL I, 4 ; 330 ft. above the sea), skirts the hillside in long wind- 
ings, under various names (Corso Solferino , Corso Magenta, 
Corso Paganini), and leads to the Albergo dei Poveri (PI. D, E, 1 ; 
320 ft. above the sea), a poor-house founded in the 17th cent., 
and last extended in 1835, accommodating 1300 persons. (A 
little higher up is the Trattoria dei Cacciatori, with garden and 
line view.) Thence it descends to the Piazza Annunziata (PI. D, 
3; p. 94). 

Another fine street is the Via di Circonvallazione al Mare, 
leading from Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 6) along the shore (Mura delle 
Grazie, Mura della Cava, Mura della Strega), trending to the left 
near the Ospedale S. Andrea, and debouching in the Mura di S. 
Chiara (see below). 

A favourite promenade, especially when the band plays (p. 85), 
is the little park of Acquasola (PI. G, 5, 6 ; 135 ft. above the sea), 
on an eminence at the N.E. end of the town (approached by Via 
Roma), laid out on part of the old ramparts of the town in 1837. 
Fine views to the E. and S., and seawards. ■ — • To the N. of Acqua- 
sola is the *Villetta di Negro (PI. F, 4), the property of the city, 
and open to the public, with a well-kept garden , a small museum 
of Natural History (open on Sundays), and an incipient Zoological 
Garden. Winding promenades ascend hence to a bastion about 
160 ft. above Acquasola, which affords a noble survey of city, har- 
bour, and environs. — From Acquasola we may proceed S. by 
Mura S. Stefano, Mura S. Chiara (to the left, below, is the Mani- 
comio, or lunatic asylum), and Via Oal. Alessi to S. Maria in Ca- 
rignano (p. 90), or go on to the Via di Circonvallazione al Mare 
(see above). 

The *Campo Santo (Cimitero di Staglieno, open from 10 a.m. ; 
cab there and back 5, with two horses 7 fr. ; omnibus, p. 85 ; comp. 
Map, p. 98), laid out in 1867 on the slope of the valley of the 
Bisagno, l'^M. from the town, is reached from the Piazza Deferrari 
(p. 91) by the Via Giulia, Via S. Vicenzo, and Porta Bomana (PI. 

Babdekes. Italy I. 8th Edit. 7 

98 Route 15. SESTRI PONENTE. 

H, 6, 7). It contains several line *Monuments, e. g. that of Marchese 
Taliacarne, in the lower row on the right, above No. 359. The 
arrangement of the cemetery is interesting, as also \ e rotunda in 
the upper row, the internal gallery of which is borne by monolithic 
columns of black marble. At the upper end of the cemetery, on 
our right, when our backs are turned to the river, is the tomb of 
Giuseppe Mazzini (d. 1872). — On one side we observe a conduit 
and aqueduct belonging to the water-works of the city. 

Excursions. To the W. to Pegli ("Villa Pallavicini), by railway, see 
p. 99, or in l 1 /* hr. by carriage (there and back 10, with two horses 
15 fr.); tramway every 10 min., comp. p. 85. To the E. to S. Francesco 
d'Albaro (by tramwav) , near which are the "Villa Cambiaso (1557) and 
the Villa Paradisi. To Sturla (p. 117), Quinto (p. 117), and Nervi (p. 117) by 
omnibus from Porta d'Archi (PI. F, 6) every 20 min. (20, 30, 40 c). Also 
to S. Margherita (by rail), and thence to Portoftno, see p. 118. 

15. From Genoa to Ventimiglia. 

941/2 M. Railway in 4i/4-5'/i hrs. (fares 17 fr. 10, 11 fr. 95, 17 fr. 70 c. ; 
express 23 fr. 15, 16 fr. 30 c). 

The Riviera (p. 83), the narrow sea-border of Liguria, divided by Genoa 
into an eastern (p. Ii7) and a larger western half (Riviera di Ponente), 
which belongs to France from Ventimiglia westwards, is one of the most 
picturesque regions of Italy. It affords a delightful variety of landscapes, 
bold and lofty promontories alternating with wooded hills, and richly cul- 
tivated plains near the coast. At places the road passes precipitous and 
frowning cliffs, washed by the surf of the Mediterranean, while the summits 
are crowned with the venerable ruins of towers erected in bygone ages 
for protection against pirates. At other places extensive plantations of 
olives , with their grotesque and gnarled stems, bright green pine-forests, 
and luxuriant growths of figs, vines, citrons, oranges, oleanders, myrtles, 
and aloes meet the view, and even palms are occasionally seen. Many of 
the towns are charmingly situated in fertile spots or on picturesque hills ; 
others, commanded by ancient strongholds, are perched like nests among 
the rocks. Little churches and chapels peering from the sombre foliage of 
cypresses, and gigantic grey pinnacles of rock frowning upon the smiling 
plains, frequently enhance the charms of the scenery, while the vast expanse 
of the Mediterranean, with its ever-varying hues, forms one of the chief 
attractions. At one time the sea is bathed in a flood of sunshine, at another 
its beautiful blue colour arrests the eye ; or while the shore immediately 
below the spectator is lashed with wild breakers, the snowy crests of the 
waves are gradually softened to view in the purple distance. On some parts 
of the route, especially between Savona and Loano (p. 100), and between 
San Remo and Nice (p. 109), many travellers will prefer to quit the railway 
with its tiresome succession of tunnels in order to enjoy a drive on the 
picturesque road. 

The railway skirts the coast, and runs parallel with the high- 
road as far as Savona. The numerous promontories are penetrated 
by tunnels. 2*/2 M. Sampierdarena, see pp.97, 80; 3 M. Corni- 
gliano (Grand Hotel Villa Rachel), with numerous villas, adapted 
for a prolonged visit in April and May (Engl. Ch. Serv.). 

41/2 M. Sestri Ponente (* Grand Hotel de Sestri; Engl. Ch. 
Serv. ; good sea-baths), with 11,000 inhab., also has a number of 
villas (V. Rossi, with fine garden), a church adorned with frescoes, 
manufactories , and wharves (tramway, see p. 85). The Grotta of 
Sestri has been known for two centuries (Inn, good cuisine). 


-"=:.-.-...>/' Mftfe •; § >&.•/« /- \, .ASH* .'•• 

PEGLI. 15. Route. 99 

6 M. Pegli (*H6tel de la Miditerranee, in the Palazzo Lomel- 
lini, with fine garden, R. 272-5, D. 5 fr. ; Hotel Gargini; these 
two on the coast; Hotel d'Angleterre, opp. the station, pension 
6-7 fr.), a sea-bathing place, with 7700 inhab., much visited from 
Genoa, is a pleasant resting-place for travellers on their way to the 
favourite wintering - places on the Riviera. Numerous cool and 
beautiful walks in the wooded valleys and on the hill-slopes lend a 
peculiar charm to the place. Among the villas are the Villa Rostan, 
with grounds in the English style, Villa Elena (10 c. for opening 
the door), Villa Doria, and the * Villa Pallavicini, a favourite object 
for an excursion from Genoa (comp. p. 98 ; adm. 10-3 ; visitors enter 
their names in a book ; fee 1 fr. , for a party 2fr.). English Church. 

The villa is on our left as we leave the station. The visit takes 
2 hours. The grounds extending along the slopes of the coast display a 
profusion of luxuriant vegetation and afford delightful prospects of Genoa, 
the sea, coast, and mountains. On the highest point stands a castle in 
the mediaeval style with a tower ('View). Around it are indications of 
a simulated siege: mausoleum of the fallen commandant, ruin-strewn 
burial-place of his heroes. Farther on is a stalactite grotto with a sub- 
terranean piece of water ; under the bridge a striking glimpse of the 
lighthouse of Genoa and the sea. There are also summer-houses in 
the Pompeian, Turkish, and Chinese styles, an obelisk, fountains, etc. 
The gardens contain examples of the coffee, vanilla, cinnamon, pepper, 
and camphor plants, sugar-canes, palms, cedars, magnolias, and azaleas, 
some of them remarkably fine. 

77 2 M. Prh, a ship-building place; 8y 2 M. Voltri (Alb. 
Svizzero), at the mouth of the Ceruso , near which is the Villa 
Brignole , with three female figures from the tomb of Empress 
Margaretha, by Giov. Pisano. 

Numerous tunnels and bridges. 13 M. Arenzano, a retired 
and sheltered spot, with the fine park of Marchesa Pallavicini ; 
beautiful retrospect towards Genoa. — 1572 M- Cogoleto, the sup- 
posed birthplace of Columbus (p. 87); the house bears several in- 
scriptions (the one above of 1650, two lower ones of 1826). 

20 M. Varazze, with 10,000 inhab., is a busy ship-building 
place. The coast on both sides of it is rocky. Numerous cuttings 
and tunnels. — 21 72 M. Celle; 24 M. Albissola, at the mouth of 
the Sansobbia, where pottery is largely manufactured. 

2672 M. Savona (Rail. Restaurant ; Alb. Svizzero; Roma, well 
spoken of; Italia), a town with 27,000 inhab., capital of the 
Montenotte department under Napoleon I., is charmingly situated 
amidst lemon and orange gardens. Busy harbour, commanded by 
a fort. The Cathedral (of 1604) contains several good pictures. 
The handsome theatre, erected in 1853, is dedicated to the poet 
Chiabrera (1552-1637), a native of the place. S. Maria di Castello 
has a Madonna by Foppa (1490). The church of Madonna degli 
Angeli affords a fine view of the town. Savona was the birthplace 
of the great popes SixtusIV. and Julius II. (della Rovere). Santua- 
rio, see p. 82. FromSaoona to Turin, see pp. 82, 81 ; to Alessandria, 
6ee p. 80. 


100 Route 15. SAVONA. From Genoa 

30 M. Vado. On this side of (32 M.) Bergeggi we obtain a 
*Retrospect of the Riviera as far as Genoa. Then a tunnel and gal- 
leries, through the arches of which are seen the sea and the islet 
of Bergeggi. The construction of the line was difficult here ; the 
tunnels become longer. 34 M. Spotorno ; 36 M. Noli, a little town 
embosomed in olive-groves, with the ruins of a castle. 

42 M. Finalmarina (Hotel Garibaldi, poor) is the seaport and 
principal part of Finale , which consists of three different villages; 
it contains a cathedral by Bernini, with double columns of white 
marble , a dome , and rich gilding. To the left lies Finalborgo, 
the oldest paTt, with a castle; and towards the E. is Finalpm. 
In the neighbourhood are interesting caverns, with prehistoric re- 
mains. Finalmarina and several of the following places suffered 
severely from the earthquake of February, 1887, the ruins caused 
by which are still traceable. — 43 M. Borgio Verezzi (Grand Hotel 
Beaurivage), coming into favour as a winter-resort; 44 ' / 2 M. Pietra- 
ligure ; 47 M. Loano, with a ruined castle. To the right of the line 
are two suppressed monasteries, of which Monte Carmelo, the higher, 
erected by the Dorias in 1609, commands a fine view. The large 
twelve-sided church of the village was also erected by the Dorias. 
— 471/2 M. Borghetto S. Spirito. Beyond (49 M.) Ceriale, with its 
market-gardens, the mountains recede. 

52 M. Albenga(/U6er</o Reale, Vittoria, both ItalianJ, the Albin- 
gaunum of the Romans, an ancient town and episcopal see, 1 M. 
to the W. of the station. Between the station and the town are ex- 
tensive remains of a Roman bridge [Ponte Lungo). Several chateaux 
of the old noblesse with lofty towers, and the cathedral with towers 
and elegant facade, are all of brick. — To the left lies the rocky 
island of Oallinaria, crowned with a tower. 

The train quits the coast and traverses olive-groves, vineyards, 
and orchards. It crosses the Centa and skirts the promontory of 
S. Croce. Several tunnels. 

57M. Alassio (*6rand Hotel Alassio, on the shore, pens. 6-9fr.; 
Hot. de la Mediterranee, with large orangery, also on the shore, 
pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hot. Suisse, pens. 7-8 fr. ; Pens. Spraggi, pens. 7 fr. ; 
Hot. de Londres, pens. 6 fr. ; English Church), a seaport with 4800 
inhab., is frequented in summer as a bathing -place, and in 
winter as a health-resort, especially by English visitors. The 
orange-gardens contain numerous palm-trees. 

58 M. Laigueglia ; beautiful retrospect of the wild Capo S. 
Croce. The train penetrates the Capo delle Mele by means of a long 
tunnel. 60y 2 M. Andora Marina; the village of Andora lies on the 
hill to the right. Several tunnels. 63 [ /2 M. Cervo, picturesquely 
situated on the slope. 64 M. Diano Marina, in a fertile plain, the 
central point of the great earthquake of February, 1887 ; to the 
right, inland, Diano Castello. — The train enters a more extensive 
plain, in which Oneglia and Porto Maurizio are situated. 

to Venlimiglia. SAN REMO. 15. Route. 101 

68'/2 M. Oneglia (Bail. Restaurant; -"Hotel Victoria; Albergo 
del VaporeJ, with 7800 inhab. and a shallow harbour, carries on 
a busy trade in olive-oil. The prison near the station resembles a 

The train crosses the broad stony bed of the Impero, which the 
road crosses to the left by a suspension-bridge. — 70 M. Porto 
Maurizio (Hotel de France), with 7400 inhab. and a good harbour, 
most picturesquely situated on a promontory amidst dense olive- 
groves. Olive-oil is the staple commodity. The finest kinds are pro- 
duced here and at Oneglia. 

73 M. S. Lorenzo. The low, massive towers which rise at inter- 
vals along the coast to the right of the line, some of them con- 
verted into dwelling-houses, were erected for defence against the 
Saracens in the 9th and 10th centuries. — 77y 2 M. 8. Stefano- 
Rivaligure. To the right on the hill is the fortified S. Stefano, 
beyond which we enter the broad Vol Taggia. The train crosses 
the Taggia, beyond which is (79'/ 2 M.) the station of that name 
(the village lies 3 M. up the valley). Beyond a short tunnel a 
valley on the right affords a charming view of Bussana, romantically 
perched on a rock. The village opposite is Poggio, which first be- 
comes visible. Then a tunnel under the Capo Verde. 

84'/4 M. San Remo. — Hotels & Pensions. On the W. Side of the 
Town: Hotel de l'Eueope et de la Paix (PI. a ; C, 4), near the station, 
open situation, pens. 9-12 fr. ; Gk. Hotel des Anglais (PI. b; E, 4), new; 
"Gr. Hotel de Londres (PI. c; A, 4), frequented by English; "'Hotel 
Bellevue (PI. d; B, 4), pens. 12-15fr., good cuisine; "Gr. Hotel Royal; 
"West End Hotel (PI. e; B, 4), with elevator and garden; "Villa 
Qoisisana (PI. g; A, 4), with garden; 'Pension Teapp (PI. h; A, 4), un- 
pretending; Pension Bristol (PI. i; B, 4); Hotel Pavillon (PI. k; A, 4), 
moderate; Hotel des Anglais (PI. 1; A, 4); Pension Anglo-Ameeicaine, 
plain, adjoining the Jardin Public; Pension Bellavista (PI. m ; B, 3), 
English, Via Berigo; Hotel des Iles Beitanniques (PI. n; A, 4), close 
to the sea; "Villa Flora (PI. 0; B, 3), with garden and sea-view. — In 
the Principal Part of the Lower Town: Hotel Beeigo (PI. p ; B, 4) ; "Hotel 
du Commeece (PI. q; C, 3), with cafe-restaurant and small garden, near 
the station, D. 4, L. 3 / 4 , A. '/* fr. ; Hotel Molinaei (PL r ; D, 3) ; Hotel 
National, well spoken of, all with moderate prices ; Hotel Grande Bee- 
tagne (PI. s; D, 3; Italian style). — Ore the J!. Side of the Town: "Hotel 
de Nice (PI. t; E, 2), in a sheltered situation, with large garden, pens. 
8-13 fr.; "Villa Bottchee (PI. u; E, 2), Corso Garibaldi, 7-11 fr., open 
in summer also ; 'Pension Villa Lindenhof, near the sea, 10-15 fr. ; "Ho- 
tel de Rome (PI. v; F, 2), small, 6>/2-9 fr., L. 40 c.; Hotel Mediteeeanee 
(PI. w; F, 2), 8-13 fr., open throughout the year; "Hotel Viotoeia 
(PI. x; F, 2), preferred by Germans; the last two have large gardens; 
"Hotel d'Italie (PI. y; E, 2), modest; Pension d'Angleteere (PI. z; 
E, 2). — The charge for a room in a hotel or pension is 3-6 fr. daily; 
'pension' including room 7-15 fr. 

Apartments. Suites of apartments, which are coming more and more 
into favour , are to be found in the Via Vittorio Emanuele , Corso dell' 
Imperatrice, Via Feraldi, Corso Garibaldi, Via di Genova, and in the new 
Via Roma. Those in the interior of the town are less desirable, owing 
to the coldness of the streets. Villas abound; rent for the winter 1800- 
12,000 fr., including furniture and other requisites (distinct bargain neces- 
sary). A lower rent than that advertised is generally taken. Situation 
important where invalids are concerned; a S. aspect is essential. Lists of 

102 Route 15. SANREMO. From Genoa 

apartments and villas at Mr. Congreve's, Via Vitt. Emanuele 16 ; the Agence 
Ligurienne ; Agence Mariani, Via Roma ; and the Agence Uhiverielle Gandolfo. 

Restaurants & Cafes. "Commerce, see p. 101; 'Europeen and Beeb, 
Via Vitt. Emanuele; Mitropole, Via Vitt. Em. and Via Umberfo; Cavour, 
Via Vitt. Em. ; Cacciatore, near Ponte S. Martino. — Cafes. "Europien, Via 
Vitt. Em., Vienna and Nuremberg beer, etc.; Colombo, Central, Menotti, 
all in the Via Vitt. Em.; Mazzini, Piazza del Mercato; Corradi, Via 
Feraldi; Caffe di Francia and Caffe del Popolo, Via Palazzo. 

Reading Room at the Circolo Internazionale, where balls and concerts 
are also given ; subscription for the winter 50, per quarter 30, per month 12 fr. 

Physicians. English, Drs. Freeman, Hassall, and Kay-Shuttleviorlh; 
German, Drs. Goltz, Sccchi, Strahler, Rieth, and Frank; Russian, Drs. Kerlin 
and Tymovsky ; Italian, Drs. Ajcardi, Ameglio, Maccary, Onetti, and Panizzi. 
English Dentists: Terry, Villa Bracco 6; Buss, Via Vitt. Emanuele. — 
Chemists. Squire, Via Vittorio Emanuele 17; Pharmacie Internationale (Cal- 
vi), at the corner of Via Vitt. Emanuele and Via Feraldi; Wiedemann, Via 
Vitt. Emanuele 10, undertakes chemical and microscopical analyses; Panizzi 
(a good botanist), Via Palazzo. — Baths in the Stabilimento Bagni, Via Pri- 
vata. Sea-baths at the Stabilimento dei Bagni di Mare (new Passeggiata). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. D, 3), Via Roma, in the Casa Piccone. 

Bankers. Asquasciati and Rubino , Via Vitt. Emanuele ; Fraielli Mar- 
saglia, Via Roma ; Cridit de Nice. 

Shops. Oandolfo, bookseller, with lending library, Via Vitt. Emanuele. 
Among the specialties of the place are inlaid wood (Anfossi, Corso Gari- 
baldi, and Di Leva, Via Vitt. Emanuele) and the perfumes manufactured 
by Ajcardi. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. John Congreve, Via Vitt. Emanuele 16. — 
U.S. Consular Agent, Signor Alberto Ameglio, Via Umberto. 

Music in the Giardino Pabblico thrice weekly. — Operas at the 
Theatke (PI. D, 3) from 1st Jan. to Easter. 

Carriages. Drive in the town 1 fr., with two horses l'^fr.; per hour 
2 or 3 fr. ; if luggage over 40 lbs., each box '/2 fr. ; one-horse carr. to Mentone 
30fr. — Donkey per day 5, half-day 3fr., and gratuity. — Boat per hour 
for 1 person 1 fr., for several 2 fr. and fee. 

Climate. San Remo is sheltered by an unbroken semicircular hill 
rising from the Capo Nero and La Colla to its culminating points in the 
Piano Carparo and Monte Bignone, nearly 4000 ft. in height, and descend- 
ing thence to the Capo Verde, its summit being nowhere more than 4 M. 
distant in a straight line. The N. winds are therefore entirely excluded 
from this favoured spot, especially as a double range of Alps rises behind 
the town a little farther back, while the force of the E. and W. winds 
is much broken. Violent E. winds, however, frequently occur at the end 
of February and the beginning of March , and the 'Mistral' is also an un- 
welcome visitor at this season. Heavy rains are not uncommon between 
the middle of October and the middle of November, but December and 
January are usually calm and sunny. — To consumptive and bronchial 
patients the E. bay is recommended on account of its sheltered situation 
and humid atmosphere, while sufferers from nervous and liver complaints 
will find the dry and stimulating air of the W. bay more beneficial. An 
aqueduct, completed in 1885, supplies San Remo with good drinking-water. 

English Churches. St. John the Baptists, Via Carli ; All Saints', Corso 
delP Imperatrice. — Scottish and American Church (Presbyterian Service), 
Corso delP Imperatrice 4. 

San Remo , although apparently a small place, contains 17,000 
inhah. , densely crowded in the older parts of the town, which 
consist of a curious labyrinth of narrow but clean lanes , flights of 
steps, archways, lofty and sombre houses, and mouldering walls. 
The arches which connect the houses high above the streets are 
intended to give them stability in case of earthquakes. Vines are 
frequently seen clambering up the houses and putting forth their 

to Ventimiglia. SAN REMO. 15. Route. 103 

tendrils and leaves on the topmost stories, The town, once fortified, 
stands on a hill between two short valleys, and the houses rising 
one above another receive light and air from the back only. Castig- 
liuoli, a smaller quarter on the W. side, is similarly situated. 

The E. part of the town terminates in a height approached by 
broad roads shaded by cypresses , which command charming views 
of the bay and mountains , and is crowned with the white dome- 
covered church of Madonna delta Costa (PI. C, 1, 2), in front of which 
there is a large hospital. On a more prominent point, in the grounds 
of Villa Carbone (PL C, D, 2), rises a low octagonal tower (fee 
x /-i fr.), which affords an excellent survey of the situation. Corsica 
is visible in the distance to the S. 

Another walk may be taken to the W- pier of the small harbour, 
which is defended by the fort of S. Tecla (PI. D, 3, 4), erected by 
the Genoese, now a prison. A survey from the upper platform of 
the Molo will convey an idea of the sheltered position of San Remo, 
which renders the climate as genial as that of Mentone and has 
brought it into notice as a health-resort (comp. pp. 102, 105). In 
the rich vegetation of the bay the olive predominates, while the 
hills above are chiefly clothed with pines. From amidst the olive- 
groves peep a number of country-houses and little churches, the 
highest being at San Bomolo (2580 ft.) at the foot of the Bignone, 
where summer visitors seek refuge from the heat. Majestic palms 
adorn the town at places. 

Walks numerous and beautiful. Some of the roads are new and ex- 
cellent. "Near the station are the Giardino Pubblico (PI. C, 3), containing 
palms, eucalypti, etc., and the Corso Mezzogiorno (PI. B, C, 4), planted 
with palms and pepper-trees, and terminating towards the W. in the Giardino 
dell' Imperatrice (PI. A, B, 4), which was laid out under the auspices of 
the late Empress of Russia. Higher up is the "Via Berigo (PI. A, B, 3), 
which affords a delightful drive (tariff, see p. 102). A new road leads 
from the Via Berigo to Madonna del Borgo (PI. B, 1) and Madonia delta 
Costa (see above; PI. B, C, 1, 2). Below the Via Berigo (and entered from a 
lane ascending past the Hotel Bellevue : PI. d; B, 4) is the garden of Frau 
von Huttner, richly stocked with rare subtropical and tropical trees and 
shrubs (adm. on leaving visiting-card). Other roads are the new and 
sheltered Via Baragallo (PI. D, 1, 2), the Via Peirogallo (PI. E, F, 1), the 
Via di Francia (PI. D, E, 2), and the new Corso di Levante (PI. E, F, 2). 
On a height to the N. of the last-named, towards the Via Peirogallo, and 
opposite the Hotel Me'diterrane'e, stands the Villa Zirio, where the suffering 
Crown Prince Frederick resided from 3rd Nov., 1887, to 10th March, 1888. 
All these roads are well-protected from wind. 

Excursions. A beautiful point of view easily reached is the "Madonna 
della Guardia on Capo Verde, returning by Poggio. — To S. Romolo, a 
donkey-ride of 3 hrs. About 2 hrs. higher rises Monte Bignone (4235 ft. ; 
panorama of the sea to the S., and the Maritime Alps to theN.); on the 
way back the Piano del Be, a celebrated point of view, may also be visit- 
ed. — Good roads lead to Ceriana and to Taggia (p. 101). — To Coldirodi 
by Ospedaletti (see below) 2 hrs.-, or direct, by a very ancient road, 1 hr. 

The train passes through a tunnel under Capo Nero, while the 
road winds round the promontory high above the sea. 

87 1/ 2 M. OsveAnletti (*H6tel de la Heine, R. from 3, D. 5, pens. 
8-14 fr, ; *H6t.-Pens. Suisse, pens. 6-9 fr. ; private apartments; 

104 Route 15. BORDIGHERA. 

Engl. Ch. Serv. in winter; physician, Dr. Weil), in a sheltered and 
most favourable situation, with walks free from dust, has recently 
been converted into a winter-resort at great expense. This is the 
station for the loftily-situated (1 hr.) Coldirodi, the town-hall of 
which contains a picture-gallery. — A view is now soon obtained of 
the palm-groves of — 

91 M. Bordighera. — Hotels and Pensions. On the road: "Westend 
Hotel & Beaurivage and "Hotel d'Angleterre, both closed in summer; 
Gr. Hotel des Iles Britanniques & Victoria , a little back from the 
road, new. Higher up, on the Strada Romana (see below) : "Hotel Angst ; 
Hotel Belvedere, well situated, pens. 9-10fr. ; Hotel de Londres ; Hotel 
Westminster; Hotel Windsor, pens. 7-10 fr., well spoken of ; Hotel Bel- 
lavista, with fine view. — (List of Apartments at the Agence des Elrangers, 
adjoining Hot. Windsor.) 

Physicians : Dr. Goodchild and Dr. Christeller. 

English Church : services at 8.30, 10.30, and 3. 

Post Office, Via Vittorio Emanuele, open 9-12 and 3.30-7.30. — Tele- 
graph Office, Via Vitt. Emanuele and at the station. 

Climate. Bordighera itself is too exposed to make a good resort for 
invalids, but behind the town lies a pleasant quarter well sheltered by 
trees and hills, especially in its E. half. In temperature and moisture 
the climate here resembles that of San Remo , while rain is even less 

The little town (1800 inhab.) consists of a new lower and an 
old upper quarter. The former, with the railway-station, hotels, 
and straight streets , extends along the shore ; the latter stands on 
the higher ground of the promontory. From the main road in the 
lower quarter several cross-roads ascend to the ancient Strada Ro- 
mana ( Via Aurelia) , running parallel with it. A fine view is 
obtained from the terrace by the Hotel Bellavista , to the left at 
the entrance to the old town. A more extensive prospect is gained 
from the stone benches on the top of the promontory , a few paces 
to the S. of the highest houses : to the left the bay of Ospedaletti; 
to the right Ventimiglia, Mentone, Capo S. Martino, Monaco, the 
Monts Este'rels, and the snow-flecked Alpes Maritimes. Bordighera 
is famous for its date-palms [Phoenix dactylifera) , but the fruit 
seldom ripens sufficiently to be edible. Among the attractions 
are the *Garden of Hr. Winter , to the E. of the town (his shop on 
the W. side contains an interesting exhibition of plaited palm- 
branches), and the Villa Oarnier (or Palazzino des Palmiers, pro- 
perty of the French architect Gamier), both with beautiful palms. 

Excursions to the neighbouring Dolceacqua, with the ancestral castle 
of the Dorias of Genoa, and to Pigna; to Valbona via Borghetto; and from 
Old Bordighera by foot and bridle paths through beautiful olive-groves 
to Sasso. 

To the right of the line we pass the Protestant school of Valle- 
crosia. Crossing the Nervia, we obtain a glimpse of the Maritime 
Alps. The line crosses the road ; on the left are scanty remains of a 
Roman theatre and the burial-ground of the recently discovered Nervi. 

94 M. Ventimiglia, Fr. Vintimille (*Rail. Restaurant; Hotel 
de I' Europe; *H6tel Suisse, modest). The town, an Italian fron- 
tier-fortress, with 8400 inhab., lies picturesquely on a hill beyond 

MENTONE. 16. Route. 105 

the Roja , whose broad stony bed the line crosses farther on. In 
the Municipio a small collection of Roman antiquities from Nervi 
(see p. 104). S. Michele is interesting; the columns of its vaulted 
crypt bear Roman inscriptions. Fine view of the Roja valley through 
the Porta Romana. Branch-line from Ventimiglia to Cuneo (p. 116) 
in course of construction. 

16. The French Coast from Ventimiglia to Nice. 

From Ventimiglia to Nice, 22'/2 M., railway in l>/s-l'/4 hr. (fares 
4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 40 c.) See also Baedekers Midi de la France. 

Ventimiglia, where passengers' luggage for France is examined 
at the custom-house, see above. The train passes through a tunnel 
and approaches the sea. View limited. — [The high-road, far more 
beautiful , is guarded by forts at the highest point. On a hill to 
the right are the ruins of a Roman fort. Then Mortola , with its 
church , picturesquely perched on a rock. Mr. Hanbury's garden 
here , with its tropical vegetation and beautiful view, deserves a 
visit (Mon. and Frid. ; tickets obtained on written application to 
the proprietor). It is much visited from Mentone , especially in 
February and March, when the extensive fields of anemones are 
in bloom. The road then skirts a gorge and ascends, past the 
Italian dogana. On the hill to the right lies Qrimaldi. Charming 
country-houses with gardens and luxuriant vegetation are now 
passed. The deep gorge crossed by the Pont St. Louis is the French 
frontier.] — 

8^2 M. Mentone. — Hotels and Pensions. The larger hotels have 
hydraulic lifts and heated corridors and staircases, and send omnibuses 
to the station. The charge for a room with southern aspect varies from 
2 1 /* to 6 fr. ; pension (R., A., B., lunch, and D. excl. wine) from 6 to 15 fr. 
per day. On the W. Bay. (1.) At some distance from the sea: "Hotei. 
National, finely situated, !: Iles Britanniques, both expensive ; "Hot. du 
Louvre, with garden, pension 9-12 fr. ; ,:, H6t. des Ambassadeurs ; Hot. 
Victoria & des Princes ; Hot. de Geneve ; Hot. de Venise ; !, H6t. d'Orient, 
with garden ; <: H6t. des Alpes ; Hot. de Malte ; Hot. de Turin. On the 
Avenue de la Gare and the Turin road : Hot. du Parc. To the N. of 
the station: Pension des Orangeks, Pens. Comfortable, Hot. d'Albion, 
and Hot. Cosmopolitain (in a high situation). — (2) In the Promenade 
du Midi, Route Nationale, Avenue Victor Emanuel, and Rue St. Michel, 
near the sea : Hot. du Pavillon and Prince de Galles, beyond the W. 
end of the town ; Hot. St. Georges ; Hot. de Londres ; Hot. de Russie & 


Westminster & Central ; Hot. de Menton (see p. 106), R. 2'/2-5, B. I1/2, 
dej. 3, D. 5 fr. ; Hot. du Littoral (with restaurant). — In the Gorbio 
valley, to the N.W., 20 niin. from the middle of the town : "Alexandra 
Hotel, a large new house, charmingly situated, with garden. 

On the E. Bay: 'Hotel d'lTALiE, patronised by the English, and 'Hot. 
Bellevue, both situated above the high-road, and with pleasant gardens ; 
,! Hot des Anglais, Hot. de la Paix, Grand Hotel, also frequented chiefly 
by English; *Hot. Garavan, with garden; 'Hot. & Pens. Beaurivage; 
Hot. Grande Bretagne ; Hot. Britannia ; "Pens. Sta. Maria; Pens. Villa 
Marina (chiefly for ladies). 

All the hotels and pensions are closed in summer except the Hotels 
de Menton and du Pare. 

106 Route 16. MENTONE. From Ventimiglia 

Apartments. In both bays there are many charming and sometimes 
handsomely furnished villas, a list of which (about 300) may be obtained 
of G. Willoughby, Cook's Agency, or Gust, and Ton. Amarante , who draw 
up contracts of lease, take inventories of furnishings , and compare them 
again when the visitor leaves. Rents 1000-7000 fr. and upwards for the 
season. Private apartments, from 700 fr. upwards, where families can 
live less expensively than at a pension, are to be had in the Avenue Victor 
Emanuel, Rue de la Republique, &c. Choice of situation, see below. 

The Cercle Philharmonique fclosed , but to be re-opened) sometimes 
gives concerts and balls. New Casino, for operettas, etc. 

Restaurants at the Pare, Menton, and Littoral hotels and others supply 
monthly subscribers with dinner at reduced rates. — Cafes. Cafe" du Nord, 
Avenue de la Gare (coffee 40c); de Menlon; de Paris. — Beer. Brasserie 
Suisse (Jann) , Rue Honorine ; Maison Dorie ; Brasserie de Munich , Rue 
Partonneaux ; Cafi du Jardin and Cafi des Voyageurs, Avenue de la Gare. 

— Confectioners. "Rumpelmayer, with newspapers, and Pavilion de Menton, 
both in the Jardin Public. 

Physicians. Drs. Fitz-IIenry, Bennet, Marriott, Siordel, and Rendal, 
English; Drs. Reale and Farina, Italian; Dr. Sliege (Hot. de Paris) and 
Dr. v. Cube (Hot. de Malte), German; Dr. Almiras, French. — Chemists: 
British Pharmacy (Jassoud), Lindewald, Oddo, Albertotti, and Gras, some 
of whom make up English and German prescriptions during the winter. 

Baths. Etablissement des Bairn , Rue Partonneaux Sea-Baths (cold 
and hot) in front of the Hotel des Anglais. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Rue Partonneaux (from 8 a.m. till 9 p.m.). 

Bankers. Charles Palmaro (Brit, vice-consul); Credit de Nice, Avenue 
Victor Emanuel; Banque Populaire, Rue Partonneaux. — Book-shops. Li- 
brairie Centrale , Rue St. Michel, with lending library ; Giordan, Avenue 
de la Gare. — Bazaars. Maison Modele , Rue St. Michel; Bazar Parisien 
and Bazar de Menton, Avenue Victor Emanuel ; Au Petit Paris, for ladies. 

— Photographers. Anfossi and Numa Blanc, Rue Partonneaux. 

Music daily in the Jardin Public, 2-3.30 p.m. 

Tramway through the town from the Quartier Garavan to the Qnar- 
tier Madonna (Pont de l'Union) every 10 min., 10-40 c. 

Carriages. Drive in the town 1 fr., with two horses I1/2 fr.; per hour 
2'/ 2 or 3'/2 fr. ; half-day, one-horse 8-10, day 12-15 fr., two-horse 25 fr. — 
To Monte Carlo 8-12, and back, with stay of 1-2 hrs., 12-15 fr. ; to Roque- 
brune, Vallee de Gorbio, Vallee de Menton, and Cap Martin and back 
8-10 fr.; to Mortola and back 12-15 fr. — Donkey 5 fr. per day, 21/2 fr. 
for half-day, and gratuity. 

English Churches. St. John's, in the W. bay, services at 8, 11, and 3; 
Christ Church, in the E. bay, adjoining the Hotel de la Paix, services at 
8.30, 11, and 3- — French Protestant Chtirch, Rue de la Republique. 

Climate. Mentone is sheltered from the N. winds by a girdle of rocky 
mountains, and is considered one of the most favourable spots for a 
winter-residence on the Riviera. The E. bay in particular is thoroughly 
sheltered, and has a mean temperature in winter of 50° Fahr. A cool and 
refreshing breeze, however, generally springs up about noon, and the cold 
'Brise' is also an occasional visitor. Between 1st Nov. and the end of 
April rainy days average 40, while snow rarely falls. Fogs are unknown, 
but heavy dews are frequent. The W. bay is less sheltered than the E. 
bay, but has a greater choice of houses at a distance from the sea, and 
affords pleasanter walks. The dusty roads are regularly watered, and the 
sanitary arrangements have been improved. Like the rest of the Riviera, 
however, Mentone has suffered from the panic caused by the earthquake 
of February, 1S87. 

Mentone, Fr. Menton, a small town with 9400 inhab., formerly 
belonging to the principality of Monaco , independent for a short 
time in 1849, and afterwards under Sardinian supremacy, was an- 
nexed to France in 1860. It is charmingly situated on the Bay of 
Mentone, consisting of the Bale de I' Est and the Bale de I' Quest, 

to Nice. MENTONE. 10. Route. 107 

separated by a rocky promontory, on which the older parts of the 
town are built. Several brooks, occasionally swollen by rain, empty 
themselves into the W. bay. The luxuriant vegetation consists 
mainly of orange and lemon groves, chiefly in the side-valleys (yield- 
ing about 30 million lemons annually), interspersed with gnarled 
carob-trees (ceratoria siliqua), figs, olives, etc. The well-planted 
Promenade du Midi and Jardin Public are favourite walks in the 
afternoon. The ruined castle on the hill above the old town, which 
has been converted into a Cemetery, affords a fine *View of the sea 
and coast from Bordighera as far as the Tete de Chien. (8. Agnese 
on one of the hills was built for defence against the Saracens.) 
Another good vantage-ground is the new Boulevard Victoria, 
leading from the cemetery towards Port St. Louis. So, too, the 
monastery of S. Annunziata, to which a tolerable path ascends in 
J /2 ur - from the Turin road (to the left immediately beyond the rail- 
way). Pleasant walks may also be taken to the Vallee de Gorbio, 
Vallee Borrigo, Vallee de Menton (carriage-road to CasteUar), and the 
Cap Martin, which bounds the Bay of Mentone on the W. ; to Qrimaldi 
(p. 105), to the E., just beyond the fiontier-bridge (3/ 4 hr. walk), 
where a tower in Dr. Bennet's garden (adm. in forenoon , except 
Sundays) commands a fine view; to Mortola, with Mr. Hanbury's 
beautiful garden (p. 105). 

Excursions. A beautiful walk or drive may be made by the new (Tu- 
rin) road to Sospello, ascending the right bank of the Torrent de Carrei, 
which falls into the Baie de l'Ouest. Near (4 M.) Monti the road begins 
to ascend. About 3 /t M. farther, a little to the right, is the Gourg de VOra, 
a grotto with a waterfall. The road then winds up the Col de Guardia, 
penetrating the upper part of the hill by a tunnel 88 yds. long. At the 
other end of the tunnel lies the rock-bound hamlet of Castillon (2530 ft.), 
9'/2 M. from Mentone, 4'/^ M. from Sospello (p. 110). — Another walk by 
(3'/2 M.) CasteUar to the summit of the Berceau (3600 ft. ; 3-4 hrs.): magni- 
ficent prospect, embracing the mountains of the coast, the blue expanse 
of the Mediterranean, and Corsica in the distance (guide advisable; Louis 
Jouan of Mentone, donkey-hirer, recommended; riding not practicable for 
the last '/< hr.). — To S. Agnese (poor tavern), situated on a serrated ridge 
of rock (2510 ft.), 2 hrs.; returning by (2 hrs.) Gorbio and Roqtiebrune to 
Mentone in 4-5 hrs. — From S. Agnese the ' Aiguille' (4230 ft.) may be 
ascended in 2-2'/2 hrs.; splendid view. — To Camporosso, 3'/2 M., and Dolce 
Acqua, 7 M. inland from Ventimiglia (p. 104). — Comp. Maps, pp. 100,114. 

The Road from Mentone to Nice, 19 M. (£-6 hrs. on foot; by carr. in 
4 hrs. ; 35-45 fr., 2-3 fr. gratuity) , the so-called '■Route de la Corniche\ 
traverses the most beautiful part of the Riviera, and is far preferable to the 
railway. (As the drivers prefer the new road which is les3 picturesque 
than the old, travellers should see that they turn to the right where the 
roads divide before Roquebrune.) The road ascends amidst luxuriant ve- 
getation. Charming retrospect of Mentone and the coast as far as Bordi- 
ghera. Then, when the top of the first hill is reached , we gain a view 
of Monaco, to which a road descends to the left. To the right of the road, 
higher up, Roquebrune (see below) is visible. Then , after several ascents 
and descents, La Turtle, with its huge Roman tower, now a mere shell, 
the remains of the Tropaea Augusti (whence the name) , erected to com- 
memorate the subjugation of the Ligurian tribes, A.D. 6. (Walkers may 
descend from this point to Monaco by a stony path, which is preferable 
to the long circuit by Rcquebrune.) Another delightful view is enjoyed 
here, embracing the wild mountains to the E., the entire coast, and the 

108 Route 16. MONTE CARLO. 

sea. The road now enters a bleak mountain-district. On the left ia Eza 
(p. 109), a group of grey and venerable houses with a white campanile, 
perched on a precipitous isolated rock. We now reach the culminating 
point of the road and obtain frequent views (especially where the road 
makes a wide bend to the S.) of the snow-flecked Maritime Alps. The 
wooded promontory of St. Jean (p. 115), Beaulieu (p. 115), and Villefranche 
(p. 114) with its exquisite bay next become visible. Lastly the road sweeps 
round the Mont Gros (p. 114) to the N., while several short-cuts diverge to 
the left. — Nice, see p. 109. 

The Railway from Mentone to Nice skirts the coast, crosses the 
Boriggo, penetrates Cap Martin (p. 107) by a tunnel, and stops at 
(4 M.) Cabbe-Roquebrune. The village (Ital. Roccabrund) lies on 
the hill to the right , amidst luxuriant orange and lemon groves, 
commanded by a ruined castle, which affords fine views. 

12 M. Monte Carlo. — Hotels. At Monie Carlo: Grand Hotel 
Continental, palatial and expensive, especially during the season (15th 
Dec. to end of April); Hot. de Paris, also on a grand scale; Hotel 31 i> 
tiiopole, opened in Oct., 1889; at the same height Hotel des Anglais, 
smaller but not much cheaper, and Hot. des Colonies; farther up, Hot. 
de Londres, Hot. Mermet, and Hot. de Russie; still higher, Victoria 
(chiefly English); Prince de Galles; Hotel de Roue. — To the E., at Les 
Moulins: Hot. de la Terrasse, first-class, well spoken of; Maison Meublee 
Ravel ; Hot. du Parc. — On the Avenue de Monte Carlo, leading to Con- 
damine: Grand Hot. Monte Carlo, well spoken of, and Hot. Beaurivage, 
two large houses; Hot. des Princes. — At Condamine, '/iM. to the W. of 
Monte Carlo : "Hot. des Etrangers, unpretending, R. 2'/2, D. 3 fr. ; Hot. 
dWngleterre; *Hot. des Bains ; Hot. de France; Bristol; Beau-Sejour; 
Beau-Site ; Condamine ; London House ; etc. Charges lower than at Monte 
Carlo; but the drains here are sometimes unpleasant. — "Cafe Riche. 

Carriages : drive H/2, hour 3 fr. To Nice and back, with 3 hrs. halt, 
25 fr. ; bargain beforehand. 

English Physicians: Dr. Pickering, Villa Shakspeare; Dr. Fitz-Qerald, 
Villa Cazanovo; Dr. Pryce Mitchell, Villa Henri. — Dentist: Mr. Ash. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. Edward Smith. — Bankers. La Croix; Banqtie 
Populaire; Smith A- Co. 

English Church ; chaplain, Rev. J. Haynes, M. A. 

Monle Carlo, the chief railway-station for Monaco (see below), 
is a health-resort in winter and a sea-bathing place in summer, 
but the chief attraction to many is the 'tapis vert' at the Casino, 
which stands on a promontory to the E. of the town, in beautiful 
grounds commanding a fine view. The establishment is luxuriously 
fitted up and is adorned with works of art (in the concert-hall paint- 
ings by Feyen-Perrin, Homer and Poetry ; in the vestibule land- 
scapes by Jundt). Tickets of admission (after midday) gratis on 
presenting a visiting-card at the office, to the left in the vestibule. 
Music twice daily (from 15th Nov.); classical concerts on Thurs- 
days, from 2.30 to 4. In 1838 over 450,000 travellers visited 
Monte Carlo. — Monte Carlo belongs politically to the diminutive 
principality of Monaco (5 3 / 4 sq. M., which included Mentone and 
Roccabruna down to 1848), governed by sovereign princes of the 
house of Grimaldi. Monaco (Hotel de la Paix , moderate charges ; 
Pension Villa Lesseps), the capital, with 2900 inhab., is most pic- 
turesquely situated on a bold and prominent rock (station, see 
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NICE. 16. Route. 109 

tains sumptuous apartments, adorned with frescoes, and has a fine 
garden. Pleasant promenades extend round the rocky point, which 
commands a beautiful view of the sea-coast to the E., particularly 
by evening-light. 

13 M. Monaco (see p. 108). Three long and several short tun- 
nels. 15 M. La Turbie (p. 107). 17 M. Eza; the village, on a 
lofty isolated rock to the right, was once a robbers' stronghold. — 
19 M. Beaulieu (p. 115); 20 M. Villefranche (p. 114). Beyond 
a long tunnel (1640 yds.) and the Station du Quartier Riquier, the 
train enters the valley of the Paillon , crosses the stream , passes 
through another tunnel , and reaches the principal station of 
(22'/ 2 M-) Nice, on the right bank of the river. 

Nice and Environs. 

Comp. Map, p. 114. 

Hotels. In the Promenade des Anglais (PI. A-D, 5, 4) : "Hotel des 
Anglais, du Luxembourg, de la Meditereanee, "Westminster, "Westend, 
all first-class and expensive. — By the Jardin Public (PI. D, 4) : "Grande 
Bketagne; "Angleterre, B. from 4, D. 6, B. I1/2, pension 12 fr. 

On the Quai Mussina (PI. D, E, 4) : "Hot. de France , D. 6, B. 2'/i, 
A. & L. 2, omnibus l>/ 2 fr. — Quai St. Jean Bapiiste (PI. E, F, 4, 3) : "Hot. 
Cosmopolitain, R. 5, L. & A. 2, D. 6, omn. 2 fr. ; Hot. de la Paix; 
"Grand Hotel. 

In the Boulevard Carabacel (P). F, 2): Hot. de Paris; Hot. Bristol; 
"Hot. de Nice, well situated, R. 5, D. 5-6, B. l^/j, lunch 3'/2, A. 1, L. 
3 /4 fr. ; Hot. Carabacel. — In the Boulevard Bubouchage (PI. E, 3, 2) : Hot. 
de Hollande; Hot. Julien; Hot. dAlbion, pens. 10 fr. ; Hot. des Em- 
pereurs. — In the Boulevard Victor Hugo (PI. C, I), 3): "Iles Britanniques; 
"Hot. Paradis; Hot. de la Reixe Victoria; Hot. du Louvee ; Hot. et 
Pens, des Palmiers. — In the Rue St. Etienne (PI. C, D, 2, 3): "Hot. 
Raissan; Hot. -Pens. Milliet, frequented by Germans, pens, from 10 fr. 

Place Masse'na (PI. E, 4): Hot. Meuble du Helder. — Rue des Pon- 
chettes (PI. F, 4): "Hot. des Princes, finely situated on the shore; adjacent, 
Hot. et Pens. Suisse. — In the Boulevard du Midi (PI. E, F, 4) : Hot. 
Beaurivage, with beautiful view. — In the Old Town (PI. E, F, 4): "Hot. 
des Etrangers, Rue du Pont-Neuf, frequented by passing travellers, R. 
from 2V2, D. 4 fr. ; Hot. des Negociants et Pens. St. Etienne, Rue Pas- 
torelli 21, E. 2, D. 3'/2, L. 1/2, A. 1/2 fr., well spoken of. — In the Rue de 
France (PI. A-D, 5, 4) : Hot. et Pens. Tarelli. — On a hill to the N. of 
the town, Hot. St. Bartiielemi, in the former Villa Arson, with park 
(omnibus to the Avenue de la Gare and the Place Masse'na four times daily). 

Near the Station : "Terminus Hotel, a large new house, with cafe, op- 
posite the station; a little farther off, in the Avenue de la Gare, Hot. Xa- 
tional, also with cafe, less pretending, both frequented by passing tra- 
vellers; Hot. des Deux Mondes and Hot. de l'Univers, same street. — In 
the Rue d' Angleterre (PI. D, 2, 3): Hot. d'Interlaken, modest.. — In the 
Avenue Delphine (PI. D, 2): Hot. & Rest, du Midi, moderate, well spoken 
of; Hot. Eichevont; Hot. St. Petersburg. 

At Cimiez: Grand Hotel de Cimiez, well spoken of, pens, from 12 fr. 

Most of the hotels are closed from the beginning of summer till the end 
of September or October. The Hotels de l'Univers, des Etrangers, Tarelli, 
Suisse, and National, and the Pens, de Geneve are open the whole year. 

Pensions (all good). In the Promenade des Anglais : Pension Rivoir, 
P. Anglaise. Petite Rue St. Etienne: Pension Internationale, P.Geneve. At 
Cimiez : P. Anglaise. Usual charge 7-12 fr. per day. 

Restaurants. "Restaurant Francois; "London House, Rue Croix de 
Marbre, adjoining the Jardin Public, high charges; "Garden House (in 
the Credit Lyonnais), Rest, des Deux Mondes, C'a/4 de la Regence (formerly 

1 10 Route 16. 



with 2 seats. 

with 4 seats. 

day | night 

Two horse, 
with 4 seats. 





























Maison Doree), all in the Avenue dc la Gare; Ileldcr, Place Massena; 
Aiglo- American , Boul. Victor Hugo; Rest, du Cours, in the Corso, morlest. 
— On the coast, to the E. of Nice, *Rest. de 1 1 Reserve (PI. H, 5). — Beer. 
Tareme Goihique, ''Taverne Steinhoff, Avenue de la Gare; Taverne Rvsse 
(see below). 

Cafes. -Cafe 1 de la Renaissance, "Taverne Russe, both on the ground- 
floor of the new Casino Municipal (p. Ill), the handsomest in the town; 
Cafi de la Regence, sec above; Cafe de Paris, Boul. Dubouchage ; De la 
Vicloire, Place Massena. Ices: the best at -Rumpelmayer^s, Boulevard 
Viclor Hugo, dear. — Preserved Fruits : Miiller, Place St. Dominique; 
Fia and Vogade, Place Massena; Portaz, Avenue de la Gare. 

Bakers. Rem, RueParadis, German; Diedrich, Place St. Etienne, Russian. 

Cabs stand in the Place 
Charles -Albert, Place Massena, 
Boulevard du Pont Vienx, etc. 

Per drive of one hour in the 

town, central division. . . 
Per drive of one hour within 

the octroi limits of the town 
Per drive of one hour within 

the commune of Nice . . . 
To Villefranclie, Montboron, Tri- 

niti- Victor, Orotte St . Andri 

To JBeaulieu 

To the Observatory on Montgros 

The fares for all these excursions include a stay of '/'i hr. and the 
drive back. 

Night is reckoned in winter from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. When a cab is 
taken by the hour, one full hour at least must always be paid for; but 
fractions of hours after the first are charged pro rata. Small articles 
of luggage free; larger, 25 c. each. 

Tramway (10 c.) from the Place Masse'na to the railway-station and 
the harbour, and to the Pont Magnan every 10 min. ; to St. Maurice and 
to the Abattoir every 20 min. ; also from Pont Magnan to the Californie 
(near the Var Bridge, where the races take place). 

Omnibuses in various directions (10-25 c); from station to town 10c; 
trunk 25, hat-box 10 c. ; to Cimiez every hour, from Boulevard du Pont- 
Neuf; to Villefranclie and Beaulieu every 2 hrs., 30 c, from Pont Vieux, 
on left bank of the Paillon; to St. Andre and to St. Laurent du Var, 
several times daily, from Boulevard du Pont-Neuf. — Brake to Monte Carlo 
from Boul. du Pont-Neuf 34 at 10 a.m. and 1 30 p.m.; from Monte Carlo 
to Nice at 10 a.m. and 2.30 p.m.; fare 3, return 5 fr. 

Donkey 4-5 fr. per day, attendant 1 fr. ; half-day 2-3 fr. Horse 6-10 fr. 
per half-day. 

Public Library (PI. 6 ; E, 4), Rue St. Francois-de-Paule 2, open on week- 
days 9-12 and 2-4; it also contains a few Roman antiquities. 

Natural History Museum, Place Garibaldi 6; Tues., Thurs.,Sat., 12-3. 

Post Office: Place de la Liberte (PI. E, F, 3), open from 7 (in winter 
8) a.m. to 9 p.m. Branch-offices: Place Grimaldi , Place Garibaldi. — 
Telegraph Offices: Place de la Liberte, Place Grimaldi, Place Garibaldi 
8, and at the railway-station; these always open. 

Physicians. English: Dr. Slurge, Boul. Dubouchage 29; Dr. Asftmorf- 
Noales, Promenade des Anglais 5. German (speaking English): Dr. Thieme, 
Avenue de la Gare 42; Dr. Ziircher, Rue Massena 20. — Dentists: Williams 
(American), Prnmenade des Anglais 11; Garcia (American), Preterre, both 
in the Place Massena; Ninck, Avenue de la Gare. — Chemists: Nicho'ls 
<f- Passeron, Quai Massena; Grande Pharmacie, Avenue de la Gare 35; 
Pharm. Sue, same street, 18; Leoncini, Place St. Etienne; Basso, Rue Giof- 
fredo. — Mineral Waters : Claude, Rue Massena 26 ; T/iaon, Rue Gioffredo. 

Consulates. American, Rue d'Angleterre 2; British, Place Bellevue 4, 
near the harbour. 

Climate. NICK. 16. Route. 1 1 1 

Bankers. Credit Lyonnais , Avenue de la Gare (a palatial edifice); 
Mine. La Croix A Co., Jardin Public 1 ; Carlone, Quai Massena 8; Caisse 
de Credit, Rue Gubernatis ; Sociiti Ginirale, Rue < linffredo. 

Baths. Warm Baths: Bains Polylhermes, Rue St. Francois-de-Paule 8; 
Bains des Qualre Saisons, Place du Jardin Public 8; Bains, Avenue de la 
Gare 20; Ba : ns, Place de la Liberte; Bains Macarani, Rue Macarani 6; 
Bains Massina , Rue Massena 3. Turkish Baths : Hammam de Nice , Rue 
de la Buffa 2. Sea-baths opposite the Promenade des Anglais and at the 
Quai du Midi, 1 fr. (including attendant). 

Booksellers. Baudry, Jeamout, & Cie. (Galignani), Quai Massena 16; 
Barbery, with lending library, Jardin Public 5; Visconti, large reading- 
room with newspapers of every country and lending library, Rue du 
Cours 2, with garden ; Librairie Nouvelle, Quai St. Jean-Baptiste. The Nice 
Library, at the Scottish church, contains about 4000 English books. — 
Shops. The best are on the Quai St. Jean-Baptiste and the Quai Masse'na. 
'Marqueteihe' (inlaid wood-work) : Gimelle Fils & Co., Quai St. Jean-Bap- 
tiste 9 ; Rueger, Rue du Pont-Neuf 3, and others. Photographers : Am- 
brosetti, Avenue Beaulieu; Ferret, Rue Gioffredo; Lucchesi, Avenue de la 
Gare (photographs of Nice). 

Amusements. "Casino Municipal (PI. E, 4), a grand establishment with 
a tasteful winter -garden; concerts daily at 4.30 and 8 (adm. l>/2 fr. per 
day; less for subscribers); theatre (for operettas , comedies, and comic 
operas : fauteuil d'orchestre 5, stalle d'orchestre 3'/2 fr.). • — Cercle de la 
Miditerranie , a handsome building , Promenade des Anglais ; Cercle 
Pkilharmonique, Rue du Pont-Neuf. Concerts and lectures are given during 
the season in the Salle Rumpelmayer ('Athenseum'), Boulevard Victor Hugo. 
— Theatres. Thi&tre Municipal (PI. 42; E, F, 4), a handsome building on 
the site of one burnt down in 1881, for operas (fauteuil d'orchestre 6 fr.); 
Thi&tre du Casino, see above; Thi&tre Francais, Rue de l'Hotel des Postes, 
operettas, comedies, etc. — Circus, Rue Pastorelli. — Arenes, Avenue de 
la Gare prolongee, devoted to bloodless bull-fights. — Horse Races in Jan- 
uary and February; Regalias in March or April; Carnival during 8-10 
days. — Music daily, except Mon., in the Jardin Public, 2-4 o'clock. 

Apartments. Houses and apartments to let, indicated by tickets, are 
easily found, best with the aid of a house-agent. A doctor should be 
consulted as to situation, etc. A single visitor may procure 1-2 furnished 
rooms for the winter for 250-700 fr. ; suites of apartments are let for 
1000-5000 fr. , villas for 3000-8000 fr. and upwards. The contract (on stamp- 
ed paper) should specify the condition of furniture, linen, wall-papers, etc., 
as disputes are apt. to arise on the termination of the lease. Land- 
lords sometimes make exorbitant demands on the death of one of their 
guests, in which case the aid of the authorities should be invoked. Nice 
is reputed an expensive place, but it is possible to live here, as in other 
large towns, cheaper than at Cannes or Mentone. The pensions at a dis- 
tance from the sea, but in well-sheltered spots, are comparatively moderate. 

English Churches in the Rue de France, at Carabacel, and in the Rue 
St. Michel. — American Church, Boul. Victor Hugo 21. — Scottish Church, 
corner of Boul. Victor Hugo and Rue St. Etienne (library, see above). — 
French Protestant Church, Rue Gioffredo. 

Climate. The bay of Nice is sheltered from the N., N.E., and N.W. 
winds by the lower terraces of the Maritime Alps (culminating in Mont 
Chauve , Ital. Monte Calvo , 2670 ft.) , a natural barrier to which it owes 
its far-famed mildness of climate. The mean winter temperature is 10-15" 
Fahr. higher than that of Paris , summer temperature 5-10° lower. Frost 
is rare. The neighbourhood of the broad and stony channel of the Paillon 
is apt to be rather draughty. The coast is somewhat exposed to the E. and 
W. winds. In March and April the E. wind not unfrequently prevails, and 
is usually most trying to delicate persons about midday, when the clouds of 
dust it raises in the Promenade des Anglais have often given rise to com- 
plaints. Owing, however, to the depth of the basin in which Nice is en- 
sconced, it is easy to find inland quarters beyond reach of these drawbacks. 
The most sheltered situations are the Boulevard Carabacel and the Quar- 
tiers Brancolar and Cimiez , in the last of which the air is generally pure 

112 Route 16. NICE. Strangers' Quarter. 

and free from dust. There are three distinct climatic zones: the coast, 
the plain, and the hills. Sunset is a critical period. The moment the sun 
disappears, the atmosphere becomes damp and chilly, but this moisture 
lasts 1-2 hours only. The rainy season begins early in October and lasts 
about a month. The dry, warm, and at the same time bracing climate of 
Nice is specially beneficial for chronic invalids , if free from fever and 
pain, for convalescents, and for elderly people, while the town affords 
greater comfort and variety than any other place on the Riviera. — Good 
drinking-water is supplied by 1he water-works. — Reports of the observ- 
ations made at the Meteorological Station, founded in 1877, are posted up 
on the band-kiosk in the Jardin Public. 

Nice, Ital. Nizza, the capital (66,300 inhab.) of the French De- 
partement des Alpes Maritimes, was founded by the Phocaean in- 
habitants of Marseilles in the 5th cent. B.C., and named Nikaea. 
Down to 1388 it belonged to the County of Provence ; then to the 
Dukes of Savoy ; in 1792 it was occupied by the French, in 1814 
restored to Sardinia, and in 1860 annexed to France together with 
Savoy. Nice was the birthplace of the French Marshal Masse'na 
(b. 1758, d. 1817) and of Giuseppe Garibaldi"(b. 1807, d. 1882). 
The dialect of the natives is Italian with a mixture of Provencal. 

In winter Nice is the rendezvous of invalids and other from 
all parts of Europe , who seek refuge here from the rigours of 
winter. The season begins with the races (p. 115) early in January, 
and closes with a great regatta at the beginning of April ; but 
visitors abound from October until the end of May. In summer 
the place is deserted. 

Nice is superbly situated on the broad Baie des Anges, which 
opens towards the S., at the mouth of the insignificant Paglione, or 
Paillon. The broad and stony bed of the stream, flanked with hand- 
some quays, bisects the town. On the left bank is the Old Town, 
with narrow, dirty lanes, which have been replaced by better streets 
near the shore (Boulevard du Midi and Promenade du Cours). On 
the right bank is the Strangers' Quarter , bounded on the W- 
by the brook Magnan , and on the N. by the railway. 

From the station , near which there is a beautiful avenue of 
eucalypti (Eucalyptus globulus), the Avenue de la Gare leads to 
the town , passing the Gothic church of Notre-Dame (PI. 19), by 
Lenormant. — A Marble Cross in the Rue de France, commemor- 
ating the meeting of Charles V. and Francis I. in 1538, effected by 
Pope Paul III., has given its name (Croix de Marbre) to this quarter 
of the town. Opposite rises a 'Pius Column 1 . On a spacious site 
built over the Paillon, close to the Pont-Neuf, is the Casino Muni- 
cipal (PI. E, 4), with its fine winter-garden, and showy cafes on the 
ground-floor (p. 110). — Behind it, on a similar site, is the Square 
Masskna (Pl.E, F, 4), embellished with & Statue of Massena (see 
above) in bronze ; on the pedestal in front Clio writes the marshal's 
name on the page of history; at the sides are reliefs. — A hand- 
some new Square has recently sprung up at the corner of the Boul- 
evard Victor Hugo and the Boulevard Gambettu. 

Jardin Public. NICE. 10. Route. 113 

The Jardin Public (PI. D, 4; band, see p. Ill), at the mouth of 
the Paillon , and the 'Promenade des Anglais adjoining it on the 
W., originally laid out by English residents in 1822-24, and since 
extended, are the principal resorts of visitors. These grounds 
stretch along the coast, and are bordered with palatial hotels and 
villas. At the beginning of them is the Cercle de la Mediterranee 
(p. 111). Farther on, a little aside , is the interesting Panorama 
de Nice (PI. 37; B, 4; adm. 1 fr.). The promenade is prolonged 
beyond the brook Magnan (PI. A, 5) to Californie, a point of view 
2>/ 2 M. distant. 

To the S. E. of the town rises the Castle Hill (PL F, G, 4; 
320 ft. ; ascent from the N., E., or S.W. side, 20 min. ; the S.W. 
approach is by a flight of steps from the Rue des Ponchettes), 
crowned with a ruined castle destroyed by the Duke of Berwick 
under Louis XIV. in 1706. The ruins are now converted into beau- 
tiful grounds, where palms, oranges, cypresses, and aloes flourish in 
profusion. The platform on the summit, with an artificial water- 
fall, commands an admirable view in every direction: S. the Medi- 
terranean; W. the coast, the promontory of Antibes, the lies de Le- 
rins, the mouth of the Var, and Nice at our feet ; N. the valley of 
the Paillon , the monasteries of Cimiez and St. Pons , the distant 
castle of St. Andre, Mont Chauve, the Aspremont, and the Alps ; E., 
the mountains, Fort Montalban , and the promontory of Montboron 
(p. 114). The S. slope of the castle-hill, which descends precipit- 
ously to the sea, is called the Bauba Capeu ('hat-robber', owing 
to the prevalence of sudden gusts). — Gambetta (d. 31st Dec. 
1882) is buried in the Cimetiere du Chateau, on the N. side of the 

On the E. side of the castle-hill lies the Harbour (PI. O, H, 4, 
5), called Limpia from an excellent spring (limpida) near the E. 
pier. It has recently been doubled in extent. The Place Bellevue 
was embellished in 1830 with a marble Statue of Charles Felix, 
King of Sardinia, founder of the harbour. 

To the N. of the town are the villas Chateau Neuf, Orangini, and 
Valrose, all in the Quartier Brancolar. In the Quartier St. Philippe 
is the Villa Bermond, with its 10,000 orange-trees, where Nicholas, 
Crown Prince of Russia , died in 1865. The site of the room in 
which he died is now occupied by a chapel (PL B, 2). 

The Environs of Nice afford beautiful excursions. 
The Franciscan monastery of Cimiez , Ital. Cimella (hotel and 
pension, see p. 109), to which a fine boulevard leads from the 
Quartier Carabacel , is situated l 1 ^ M. to the N. of Nice (see plan 
of town, E, F, 1 & 2, and adjacent map). The monastery (to 
which men only are admitted ; but ladies may visit the chapel, 
which contains two pictures by Bre'a) , erected in 1450 , stands on 
the foundations of a temple of Diana of the Roman town of Ce- 
menelium , of which part of an Amphitheatre (210 ft. long, 180 ft. 


114 Route 1G. NICE. Environs. 

wide), a quadrangular structure called a 'Temple of Apollo' , and 
traces of baths and other buildings have been discovered. 

The Villa Clary, below Cimiez, on the St. Andre road, boasts of 
the finest orange and lemon-trees at Nice and many rare plants. 

A good road ascends on the right bank of the Paillon to the 
(40 min.) monastery of St. Pons, founded in 775 on the spot where 
St. Pontius, a Roman senator, suffered martyrdom in 261. It was 
destroyed by the Saracens in 970, and the present edifice dates from 
the 18th century. The treaty by which the County of Nice was an- 
nexed to the Duchy of Savoy was concluded here in 1388. [This 
excursion may be combined with a visit to Cimiez (see above) by 
taking the road from St. Pons to Cimiez through the olive-groves 
on the hill.] — We may also visit (l/ 2 hr. more) the chateau of 
St. Andre (restaurant , closed in summer) , built in 1687 , now 
unoccupied. Farther up the valley C/4 hr.) is the small grotto Les 
Cluses de St. Andre (adm. 50 c.) , or rather a natural bridge over 
the brook. An avenue of cypresses leads thither from the chateau. 

From the Grotto of St. Andre' we may follow the Torretta road 
through the rocky ravine a little farther, and ascend to the left by a 
winding new road to the village of Falicon , the highest point of 
which affords an admirable view. — From Falicon we may return by 
the road to the S. to Nice (or by the shorter, but steep and less 
interesting path via Cimiez) , or follow the good road towards the 
N., with fine views, to Aspremont (9 ] /-2 M. from Nice), where we 
obtain an excellent survey of the valley of the Var and of the Alps. 

Farther up the valley of St. Andre, 7 M. from Nice, lies the antiquated 
village of La Tourette, with a picturesque ruin, which commands a very 
striking survey of the sterile mountain scene , Mont Chauve , the Aspre- 
mont, and Chateau-Neuf, perched on a Darren ridge of rock, with Montal- 
ban and the sea to the S. 

About 3 M. to the N.E. of La Tourette is the village of Chateau-Nevf, 
which is said to have been built in the 15th and 16th cent, by the in- 
habitants of Nice as a refuge from Turkish invaders, but is now almost 
deserted owing to the want of water. This is another splendid point of view. 

One of the finest points of view near Nice is the Mont Gros 
(1220 ft.), crowned with an Observatory , 3 M. to the N., on the 
Route de la Corniche (p. 107, carr., p. 110). 

One of the most beautiful drives near Nice is over the pro- 
montory of Mont Boron, to the E., by the Route Forestiere du 
Mont Boron. The promontory is now fortified , and some of the 
footpaths near the new fort have been closed. On its slope runs 
the beautiful Road to Villefranche (see PI. H, 4), with the con- 
spicuous Villa Smith , a palatial red building in the Oriental style. 
*Villefranche, 3 M. from Nice (carr., p. 110; rowing-boat 10 fr.), 
delightfully situated on the Bay of Villefranche with its olive-clad 
heights, founded in 1295 by Charles II. of Anjou, king of Sicily, 
is now a station of the Mediterranean squadron of the French fleet. 
The railway-station (p. 109) lies below, on the coast. 

If we follow the road for l'/ 2 M. more, a road to the right, cross- 

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SOSPELLO. 17. Route. 115 

ing the railway by a stone bridge, will lead us to ( 3 / 4 M.) Beaulieu 
(Hdtel des Anglais, opp. the station; Beaulieu-Hotel), a small vil- 
lage in the midst of rich plantations of olives (splendid old trees), 
figs, carob-trees (p. 107), lemons, and oranges. Beaulieu is much 
more sheltered than Nice , and is becoming a favourite winter- 
resort. It lies in a wide bay, bounded on the S. by the long pen- 
insula of St. Jean. At the foot of the latter lies the village of St. 
Jean (dear inn), l 3 / 4 M. from Beaulieu , a resort of excursionists 
from Nice. Tunny-fishing is successfully carried on here in spring. 
At the extremity of the peninsula are the ruins of a Saracenic castle, 
destroyed in 1706 under Louis XIV. (see p. 113), and the ruined 
chapel of St. Hospice. From Villefranche we may cross the bay by 
boat to the creek of Passable (60 c), and walk thence across the 
peninsula to St. Jean. 

On the W. Side of Nice pleasant walks may be taken in the valley 
of the Magnan (p. 112), in which a road ascends to (2 M.) the church of 
La Madeleine. The sheltered valley of the Var is also worthy of a visit 
(one day ; carr. and pair 20-25 fr.). A little to the E. of the mouth of this 
torrent , which was the boundary between France and Italy until I860, 
are the Hippodrome , where the races take place (p. 112), and the new 
Jardin d'' Acclimataiion (adm. 25 c). 

The charming island of Corsica may also be visited from Nice (see 
Section VIII. of this Handbook; also Baedeker's Midi de la France). Steam- 
boat to Ajaccio once weekly in 13-14 hrs., [to Bastia once weekly in 11- 
12 hrs. 

17. From Nice to Cuneo (Turin) by the Col di Tenda. 

About 75 M. Post Omnibus ('Courier de Coni' ; office at Nice in the 
Hotel de l'Aigle d'Or, Place St. Francois, near the Boulevard du Vieux- 
Pont) to Robilanle in 16-17 hrs. ; fare 12 fr. 10 c, incl. 20 kilog. of luggage ; 
departure from Nice in the evening , from Eobilante in the morning. — 
Railway from Eobilante to Cuneo, 10'/2 M., in 50 min.; fares 1 fr. 95, 
1 fr. 35, 90 c. 

The road leads from Nice, on the left bank of the Paillon, through 
the villages of La Trinite-Vittorio and Drappo, beyond which it 
crosses and quits the brook. 12 M. Scarena, Fr. Escarene. Sterile 
region, with rocks curiously stratified at places. The road ascends 
to the Col di Braus (4230 ft.). To the S., on a lofty rock to the 
right, is the castle of Castillon , or Castiglione. On the E. side of 
the pass lies — 

25V2M. Sospello, Fr. .SospeZ (1175 ft.; Hotel Carenco, mediocre; 
Hot. de la Poste), in the valley of the Bevera (affluent of the Boja, 
see below), amidst dense olive-groves and surrounded by mountains. 
(From Sospello to Mentone, 14 M., ascent as far as the Col di Guar- 
dia, p. 107.) The road now ascends to the Col di Brouis (2870 ft.). 
From the top of the pass we take a parting look at the sea. Bleak 
mountains on every side. Then a steep descent to — 

38 M. Oiandola (1250 ft. ; Hotel des Etrangers ; Poste), grandly 
situated at the base of lofty rocks. Breglio, a small town with the 
ruined castle of Trivella, lies far below on the right. 


116 Route 17. CUNEO. 

The Toad now ascends the narrow valley of the Roja, which 
falls into the sea near Ventimiglia (p. 104). Saorgio, rising in ter- 
races on a lofty rock on the right, with the ruins of a castle in the 
Oriental style , destroyed by the French in 1792, commands the 
road. On the opposite side is a large monastery. The valley con- 
tracts , barely leaving room for river and road between the perpen- 
dicular rocks. Several hamlets lie at the points where the valley 
expands. 43 M. Fontana, 2'^ M. beyond which the road crosses 
the Italian frontier. The country becomes bleaker. 48 M. S. Dal- 
mazzo (Italian custom-house), where an old abbey fitted up as a 
hydropathic attracts summer-visitors from Nice. 

50^2 M. Tenda (Alb. Nazionale ; Italia), at the S. base of the 
Col di Tenda. Fragments of the castle of Beatrice di Tenda (comp. 
Binasco, p. 175) are situated on a rock here. 

The old road , now disused, ascends a dreary valley by the side 
of the Roja and winds up the barren mountain in 69 zigzags, passing 
several refuges, to the Col di Teuda, or di Cornio (6145 ft.), where 
the Maritime Alps (W.) terminate and the Apennines (E.) begin. 
Immediately beyond the first refuge the New Road penetrates the 
Tenda by means of a tunnel, lighted by electricity, about 2y 2 M. 
long, which first gradually ascends and then descends. From the 
central point both ends are visible. 

62 M. Limone (3670 ft. ; Hotel de la Poste), at the N. base of 
the Col di Tenda, lies in the valley of the Vermanagna, enclosed 
by wooded heights , or flanked with precipitous limestone cliffs. 
To the left rises the superb pyramid of Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). 
About 2 M. farther we reach Robilante, a station on the railway 
now in course of construction between Cuneo and Ventimiglia 
(p. 104). l 3 /^ M. Roccavione ; 1 l j^ M. Borgo 8. Dalmazzo, also con- 
nected with Cuneo by a steam-tramway; 5'/2 M. Boves. 

10'/2 M. Cuneo, or Coni (1500 ft.; Barra di Ferro, good cuisine ; 
Alb. di Superga), a town with 28,810 inhab., at the confluence of 
the Stura and the Gesso. After the battle of Marengo the fortifications 
were dismantled and converted into promenades. In the Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele a monument to Giuseppe Barbaroux, by Dini, 
was erected in 1879. The Franciscan Church is in the Gothic style 
(12th cent.). Pleasant walk to the Madonna degli Angeli, at the 
confluence of the streams. 

Steam-Tkamway from Cuneo to Dronero on theW., and to Busca and 
Saluzzo (p. 81 ; 2y 4 hrs.) on the N. 

About 9 M. to the S.E. of Cuneo, in the Val Pesio, is the Certosa di 
Val Pesio, founded in 1173, with romantic environs. It is now a -Hydro- 
pathic and pleasant health-resort, open from 1st June to the end of Sep- 
tember (pens, from 8 fr.). — In the Val di Gesso, about 15 M. to the S.W. 
of Cuneo, are the Baths of Valdieri. 

Railway from Cuneo to Turin, see p. 81. 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante. 

1021/2 M. Railway in 41/2 -7 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 10, 8 fr. 40 c. ; 
express 20 fr. 50 , 14 fr. 35 c). The trains start from the Stazione Piazza 
Principe at Genoa. Finest views on the side of the train opposite to 
that on which passengers enter at Genoa. Travellers by the night-express 
of course miss all the scenery. Beyond Nervi, however, there is little to 
be seen owing to the numerous tunnels. Observe that it is dangerous to 
lean out of the carriage-window. 

Genoa, p. 84. The train backs out of the Stazione Piazza Prin- 
cipe, and then starts in the opposite (E.) direction, passing through 
a long tunnel under the higher parts of the town (4-5 min.). 

2 M. Stazione Piazza Brignole. To the left we obtain a view 
of the fortress-crowned heights around Genoa (comp. p. 86). 

The railway, parallel with the road at places, now follows the 
*Eivieea di Levante, where the vegetation is less luxuriant than 
on the Riviera di Ponente (p. 98), but the scenery is almost more 
striking. The line is carried through the numerous promontories by 
means of many cuttings and no fewer than eighty tunnels, some of 
them very long. The villages present a town-like appearance, with 
their narrow streets and lofty, substantial houses, closely built on 
the narrow sea-board or in short and confined valleys, and mostly 
painted externally as at Genoa. 

The train crosses the insignificant Bisagno, and passes under 
S. Francesco d'Albaro by means of a tunnel. 4 M. Sturla. To the 
right glitters the Mediterranean ; to the left we enjoy a view of the 
olive-clad slopes of the Apennines, sprinkled with country-houses. 
5 M. Quarto. 6 M. Quinto (Alb. Quinto, with garden and sea- 
view), with numerous villas, dense lemon plantations, and several 
fine palm-trees. 

7^2 M. Nervi. — Hotels. *Eden Hotel, in palatial style, on the 
hill above the town (closed in summer); Hot. -Pens. Victoria, near the 
station and the sea, with shady garden, R. 2-3, B. IV4, D. 3'/2, pens. 8-10 fr.; 
Hot. -Pens. Anglaise (in winter only), adjoining the park of the March. 
Gropallo, pens. 11-16 fr. ; "Hot. Nekvi; Ale.-Pens. Svizzeea, with restau- 
rant. — Pensions. Frl. v. Boeder (with garden; 8-10 fr.); Mine. Fapod, 
with garden and view ; Pens. Bonera, with garden (7-8 fr.) ; Pension Belle- 
vue ; Pens, des Etrangers (Villa Gnecco), all recommended. — Furnished 
Apartments (800-1500 fr. for the season) and villas (2000-4000 fr.) are scarce. 
A doctor should be consulted as to situation. 

Physicians. Dr. Friedmann. Br. Schetelig, Dr. Laudien, all of whom 
receive boarders; Dr. Panly. — Chemists: One at the Post Office; another 
opposite the Palazzo Gropallo. — Telegraph Office opposite the post-office. 
— English Church Service at Pens. Roeder. 

Nervi, a small town with 5700 inhab., surrounded with groves 
of olives, oranges, and lemons, is much frequented as a winter- 
residence owing to its sheltered situation and mild climate. Warmer 
and calmer than Pegli, it is recommended to patients who wish to 
be much in the open air without taking active exercise. Nervi, 
Quinto, and Sturla are frequented by Italians in summer for the 
sea-bathing, but the beach is rocky. Among the villas the finest are 
Villa Gropallo (beautiful park ; entrance by No. 55 in the main 

118 Route 18, CHIAVARI. From Genoa 

street; fee), V. Serra, V. Croce (to the W., with superh grounds), 
and the pagoda-like V. Ponzone, all noteworthy for their luxuriant 
vegetation. The picturesque rocky coast is skirted by a well-shelter- 
ed path, free from dust. Another charming walk is by the road 
to the church of S. Ilario, halfway up the Monte Giugo, which com- 
mands an admirable view of the Riviera di Levante as far as Por- 
toflno, the Riviera di Ponente, and the Maritime Alps. 

Much of the scenery is lost to railway-travellers owing to the 
numerous tunnels through which the train now passes. 9 M. Bo- 
gliasco; 9!/ 2 M. Pieve di Sori ; 10y 2 M. Sort, beautifully situated ; 
noble survey of sea and valley from the viaduct which passes high 
above the town and rivulet. — 21 M. Recco. 

Fkobi Recco to Ruta 2'/^ M. ; omnibus and carriages (4 fr.) at the 
station. From Ruta (*Italia) we may ascend to the (lhr.) top of the ''Pro- 
montory of Portofino (2000 ft.), which affords a magnificent survey of the 
Gulf of Genoa. Descent, if preferred, to S. Fruttuoso (see below). From 
Ruta to S. Margherita l>/2 hr. ; to Portofino 2'/ 2 hrs. 

14y 2 M. Camogli, on the coast, to the right. Beyond the long 
Tunnel of Ruta, penetrating Capo 8. Margherita, the train reaches 
the fertile plain of Rapallo, with its numerous villas. 

17'/ 2 M. S. Margherita {Hotel Bellevue, with garden, mediocre, 
R. 3, D. 4^2, B. IV2 f r 0> on th e coast, is a winter-resort of the 
English and Germans. On a commanding promontory, 1/2 M. off, is 
the Marchese Spinola's Villa Pagana, with a beautiful garden. 

Attractive Excursion hence (best on foot along the coast, 1 hr., and 
back by boat, 4 fr.) to Portofino, a small seaport ensconced behind the 
Montefino, with two old castles, now the property of Mr. Brown, the Eng- 
lish consul at Genoa, and his brother ; the one situated at the extremity 
of the promontory 0/2 hr. from Portofino) commands a splendid prospect. 
Halfway is the suppressed monastery of Cervara, where, after the battle of 
Pavia, Francis I. of France, when detained here by contrary winds on his 
way to Madrid as the prisoner of Charles V., was once confined. In a 
sequestered bay to the W. of Portofino, one of the finest points on the 
entire coast, stands the church of : 'S. Fruttuoso, containing tombs of 
the Doria family of the 13th and 14th centuries. Other pleasant excur- 
sions to Ruta (l'/2 hr. ; see above) ; to the Madonna di Montallegro (3 hrs. ; 
see below); to Portofino via Nosarego (2-3 hrs.); to Chiappa by boat (2'/2 hrs.), 
and thence on foot to S. Rocco ( l |2 hr.) and Camogli CI2 hr. ; see above). 

I81/2 M. Rapallo (*Gr. Hotel de V Europe , R. from 2, D. 3l/ 2 , 
pens, from 7fr. ; Alb. $ Pens. Rapallo, opposite the Europe, with 
sea-view, R. from 2, pens, from 7 fr. ; Engl. Ch. serv. at the Hotel 
de l'Europe), a small seaport with 11,200 inhab., who make lace 
and do a brisk trade in olive-oil. Rapallo is also a winter-resort. 
To the N.E. is the pilgrimage-church of *Madonna di Montallegro 
(2015 ft. ; Inn, R. 2-3, pens. 5-6 fr.), reached by one of several 
routes in 2'/ 2 hrs. (guide unnecessary), which commands a superb 
view as far as Corsica to the S., and the Apennines on the N. A 
path at the back of the hospice ascends to the top of the hill, 
where the view is still more extensive. 

As the region between Rapallo and Chiavari is one of the most 
beautiful in Italy, the traveller should perform this part of the 
journey by carriage instead of by train. 21 V2 M. Zoagli. 

to Pisa. SPEZIA. 18. Route. 119 

24^2 M. Chiavari (Fenice ; Trattoria $ Alb. del Negrino), a town 
with 12,100 inhab., at the mouth of the Entella, where the moun- 
tains recede in a wide semicircle, manufactures lace, light chairs 
(sedie di Chiavari) , and silk, and builds ships. Fine new town- 
hall. New promenades by the station. 

The train now traverses a fertile district. 25'/2 M. Lavagna, a 
ship-building place, ancestral seat of the Counts Fieschi, and birth- 
place of Sinibaldo de 1 Fieschi, professor of law at Bologna, afterwards 
Pope Innocent IV. (1243-54). —28 »/ 2 M - Cavi. Then a long tunnel. 

28 1 /2 M. Sestri Levante {Hot. de V Europe , pens. 7 fr. ; Hot. 
d' Angleterre ; Italia, modest), picturesquely situated on a bay and 
shut in by a promontory. 

The High Eoad from Sestki to Spezia, far superior to the railway in 
point of scenery (carriage and pair about 45 fr.), turns inland and winds up 
the scantily wooded mountains, affording fine retrospects of the peninsula 
and the valley, with the village of Casarza. Farther on , the village of 
Bracco is seen on the left; then to the right a view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village on the coast is Moneglia (see below). Then a gradual ascent 
through a bleak district to the Osteria Baracca (2235 ft.), whence we 
descend into a pleasant valley in which lies the village of Carrodano. Af- 
ter a slight ascent we next descend by Pogliasca to Borghetlo ('Cafe', with 
rooms) and the valley of the impetuous Vara , an affluent of the Magra, 
which falls into the sea near Sarzana. The road skirts the broad, gravelly 
bed of the river for some distance, and then enters a wooded tract to 
the right. Beyond Baracca the sea is not visible until the last height 
before Spezia is attained, whence we enjoy a magnificent prospect of the 
bay and the precipitous mountains of Carrara or Alpi Apvane, as the 
whole range is called. 

Beyond Sestri the mountains recede, and the train also leaves 
the coast for a time. Many tunnels. Several fine views of the sea 
and the coast to the right. 34'^ M. Moneglia, close to the sea; 
37Y2 M. Deiva, at the entrance to a side-valley; 39 M. Framura; 
41 M. Bonassola; 43 M. Levanto (Alb. Nazionale, Hot. Levanto, 
pens, in both about 6 fr.), a small town of 5000 inhab., with old 
fortifications, a small Giardino Pubblico, and good sea-baths. Again 
a succession of tunnels. 46 M. Monterosso ; 48 M. Vernazza; 50 M. 
Corniglia; 51 M. Manarola ; bl 1 /^M. Riomaggiore. Before reaching 
Spezia four more tunnels, the last very long (7 min.). 

56 f /2 M. Spezia. — Hotels. "Croce di Malta, R. from 3'/ 2 , B. I1/2, 
I). incl. wine 5, A. 1, L. 3 /<i omn. 1, pens. 8-12 fr.; *Italia, with garden, 
a little less expensive; Alb. Roma, tolerable. These three have a sea-view. 

— Locanda Gran Bretagna, commercial; Posta, Corso Cavour. (The 
Grand Hotel of the Messrs. Hauser is closed.) 

Cafes. "Cafi del Corso, near the Giardino Pubblico; "Elvetico, near 
the Teatro Civico. 

Baths. Warm baths at the two first-named hotels, and adjoining the 
Hotel Italia. — Sea-baths in summer on the beach to the N., 30-40 c. 

Post Office, Corso Cavour (8-12 and 2-6). — Telegraph Office, Via da 
Passano. — Chemist. Fossati, Via del Prione. 

Cab. Per drive 70 c, at night 1 fr. ; with two horses 1 and li/s fr. — 

— Omnibus to or from the station 20 c, at night 30 c. 

Boat with one rower, 1 fr. per hour. 

English Church Service in the Hotel Croce di Malta. — English Vice' 

Spezia, a town with 27,300 inhab., lies at the N.W. angle of the 

120 Route 18. SAKZANA. From Genoa 

Golfo della Spezia, at the foot of beautiful hills crowned with forts. 
The harbour, one of the largest, safest, and most convenient in 
Europe, was anciently praised by Ennius as the Lunai Portus, and 
since 1861 has been the chief war-harbour of Italy. The Royal 
Dockyard on the S.W. side of the town, constructed by General 
Chiodo, whose statue rises at the entrance, is a large establishment, 
150 acres in extent (not accessible to strangers). Adjacent are the 
naval barracks and the hospital. The marine artillery magazines 
in the bay of S. Vito cover an area of 100 acres. Spezia is also a 
trading and manufacturing place of some importance. The climate 
in winter resembles that of Pisa , but the temperature is a little 

Delightful Excursion to Porto Venere (unpretending Inn, immediately 
to the left of the entrance), on the W. side of the bay (steamer twice daily 
in l ] /2 hr., 30 c. ; there and back 50 c. ; carr. and pair in V/2 hr. , 10 fr.), 
on the site of the ancient Portus Veneris. Charming prospect from the 
ruined church of S. Pietro, rising high above the sea, and supposed to 
occupy the site of the temple of Venus. Opposite lies the fortified island 
of Palmaria. — Beautiful excursions may also be taken on the E. side of 
the bay, to S. Terenzo and Lerici, to which a steamer plies thrice daily 
(60 c), starting from the Molo of the harbour. 

From Spezia to Parma railway in course of construction (open from 
Spezia to Pontremoli, 25'/2 M.). 

Four tunnels. 62' /2 M. Areola, with a conspicuous campanile. 
The train passes through a long tunnel, and crosses the broad Magra, 
the ancient boundary between Italy and Liguria. 

65!/2 M. Sarzana, with 10,300 inhab., Rom. Sergiana, or Luna 
Nova, from its having succeeded the ancient Luna, with the pictur- 
esque fortification of Sarzanello, constructed by Castruccio Castra- 
cani (p. 361), was taken by the Florentines in 1467 under Lorenzo 
Magniflco, from whom it was wrested by Charles VIII. of France. It 
subsequently belonged to Genoa, and then to Sardinia. Sarzana was 
the birthplace of Pope Nicholas V. (Tommaso Parentucelli, 1447- 
55). The handsome Cathedral of white marble, in the Italian Gothic 
style, begun in 1355, contains an ancient painted crucifix from Luni. 

The environs are fertile. Among the mountains to the left the 
quarries of white marble are visible. Near (70 M.) Luni are the 
ruins of Luna. This ancient Etruscan town fell to decay under the 
Roman emperors ; in the middle ages it was destroyed by the Arabs 
(1016) ; and its episcopal see was transferred to Sarzana in 1465. 
The ruins of an amphitheatre and a circus are still traceable. From 
Luna the district derives its name of La Lunigiana. 

72 M. Avenza , a small town on the brook of that name, 
above which rises an old castle of Castruccio Castracani , of 1322, 
with bold round towers and pinnacles , was once the frontier-town 
of the Duchy of Massa. On the coast to the right is a small harbour 
for the shipment of the Carrara marble. 

Branch Railway in 16 min. (fares 60, 40, 30 c.) to (3 M.) — 

Carrara (Alb. della Posla & Nazionale) , a town with 11,900 inhab. 
(with suburbs 30,000), most of whom gain their livelihood by working 
the marble , is worthy of a visit. Some of the studios of the numerous 

to Pisa. CARRARA. 18. Route. 121 

sculptors are interesting. So also the following churches : S. Andrea , in 
a half Germanic style of the 13th cent., like the cathedral of Monza, with 
interesting facade and good sculptures ; Madonna delle Grazie, with sump- 
tuous decorations in marble. The Accademia delle Belle Arti contains 
works by sculptors of Carrara and several Roman antiquities found in the 
mines of Fantiscritti (see below), e.g. a -'Basrelief of Jupiter with Bacchus. 
The piazza in front of the Academy is embellished with a statue of Pelle- 
grino Rossi of Carrara, the papal minister, assassinated at Rome in 1848. 
A visit to the far-famed quarries requires 3 hrs. at least (somewhat 
fatiguing). Guides demand 5 fr., but their services are not indispensable. 
Leaving the station, we turn to the right and follow the street in a straight 
direction, past the theatre, to the Piazza, which is adorned with a statue 
of the grand-duchess Maria Beatrice, over life-size, erected in 1861. We 
cross the bridge to the left at the end of the Piazza, and follow the 
road with deep ruts , ascending on the right bank of the Garrione. At 
O/4 M.) a group of houses a path diverges to the right to large quarries 
of inferior marble, but we continue to follow the road, passing numerous 
marble cutting and polishing works. Beyond the village of Torano, round 
which the road leads, the first quarries with their broad heaps of debris 
are situated on both sides of the valley. The detached blocks are carried 
away by means of a railway ('Ferrovia marmifera'), the construction of 
which is interesting. The finer description is called marmo statuario. 
About 400 quarries with 6000 workmen are at present in operation. The 
working hours are from 5 a.m. to 2 or 3 p.m.; the forenoon is therefore 
the best time for a visit. A horn is blown as a signal when the rock 
is about to be blasted. The quarries of Monte Crestola and M. Sagro 
yield the best and largest blocks. Pretty quartz crystals are offered for 
sale. The quarries of Fantiscritti, 3 M. from Carrara, were worked by 
the ancient Romans. 

76'/2 M. Massa (Alb. Oiappone) , formerly the capital of the 
Duchy of Massa-Carrara , which was united with Modeua in 1829, 
with 20,000 inhab. , is pleasantly situated amidst hills, and enjoys 
a mild climate. The Palace was once occupied by Napoleon's sister 
Elisa Baciocchi when duchess. The valuable marble-quarries here 
rival those of Carrara. 

Country fertile and well cultivated. The picturesque ruined 
castle of Montignoso occupies an abrupt height to the left. — 
80^2 M. Serravezza , a pleasant summer -resort, with marble- 

83 M. Pietrasanta (Unione; Europa), a small town with ancient 
walls, beautifully situated among gentle slopes, was besieged and 
taken by Lorenzo de' Medici in 1482. The church of S. Martino (II 
Duomo), begun in the 13th cent. , with additions extending down 
to the 16th cent., contains a pulpit and sculptures by Stagio Stagi. 
Ancient font and bronzes by Donatello in the Battistero. Cam- 
panile of 1380. iS. Agostino, an unfinished Gothic church of the 
14th cent., contains a painting by Taddeo Zacchia, of 1519. In 
the Piazza , between these two churches , is the pinnacled Town 
Hall. Near Pietrasanta are quicksilver-mines. 

89^2 M. Viareggio (*H6tel de Russie, on the beach, with a de'- 
pendance , pens. 9 f r. ; Italia ; Corona d' Italia ; Commercio ; Hot. 
Anglo- Americain , pens. 7, in winter 5 fr. ; all near the sea; Hot. 
Viareggio; apartments moderate), a small town on the coast, and a 
sea-bathing place (StabUimento Nettuno ; Balena), has lately come 

122 Route 18. VIAREGGIO. 

into favour as a winter-resort. The climate resembles that of Pisa. 
The celebrated pine-wood (Pineta), which forms a half-circle round 
the place from N.E. to S.W., shelters it from the wind. Walks 
in the somewhat neglected grounds of the Piazza Azeglio on the 
shore, or on the long Molo , with its lighthouse (-view). The S. 
portion of the Pineta, which extends along the coast for 372 M., 
belongs to the Duchess of Madrid , wife of Don Carlos , whose fine 
villa (garden open to the public), with sea- view , is about 3 M. 
from Viareggio. In the smaller and inferior part of the wood 
which belongs to the town are the ruins of a hippodrome. — Longer 
excursions to the beautifully situated Camajore (2 hrs.), and to the 
Lake of Massaciuccoli (near the Torre del Lago station, see below). 

The line enters the marshy plain of the Serchio. 92y 2 M. 
Torre del Lago. At (9772 M.) Migliarino we cross the Serchio. 

102'/2 M. Pisa (p. 350). To the left rise the cathedral, baptistery, 
and campanile. We then cross the Arno. 

IV. Lombardy. 

19. Milan 125 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco 146 

A. From Milan to Como via Saroimo 146 

B. From Milan to Como and to Lecco via Monza. . . 147 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 150 

22. Lake of Como 152 

From Colico to Sondrio and Bormio 158 

23. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via Lugano to 
Luino on the Lago Maggiore 160 

24. From Milan to Laveno and Arona 162 

1. From Milan to Laveno 162 

a. Via Saronno and Varese 162 

From Varese to Como, Laveno, and Porto Ceresio . . 164 

b. Via Gallarate 164 

From Gallarate to Varese 164 

2. From Milan to Arona 165 

25. Lago Maggiore 165 

26. From Stresa to Orta and Varallo 172 

27. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) via, Pavia. Certosa di 
Pavia * .... 175 

1. From Pavia to Alessandria via, Valenza 179 

2. From Pavia to Brescia via, Cremona 179 

3. From Pavia to Stradella, to Cremona via Codogno . . 179 

28. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 180 

1. From Cremona to Piacenza 182 

2. From Piadena to Parma 182 

29. From Milan to Bergamo 182 

1. From Bergamo to Ponte della Selva 185 

2. From Lecco to Brescia via, Bergamo 185 

30. From Milan to Verona 185 

31. Brescia 186 

32. The Lago di Garda 192 

Excursions from Riva. Arco 194, 195 

33. From Brescia to Tirano. Lago d'Iseo 196 

The name of the Germanic tribe that invaded Italy in 568 is now 
applied to the country between the Alps and the Po, which is separated 
from Piedmont by the Ticino, and from Venetia by the Mincio. It is 
divided into the eight provinces of Como, Milano, Pavia, Sondrio, Ber- 
gamo, Cremona, Brescia, and Mantova, covering an area of about 9000 sq. 
M., and containing 3,713,331 inhabitants. The name was once applied to a 
much larger tract. Lombardy has not inaptly been likened to an 
artichoke, the leaves of which were eaten off in succession by the lords 
of Piedmont; thus in 1427 they appropriated Vercelli, in 1531 Asti, in 1703 
Val Sesia, in 1706 Alessandria, in 1736 Tortona, and Novara, and in 1743 
Domo d'Ossola. The heart of the country, if we continue to use the 
simile, would then be the District of Milan, or the tract lying Between 
the Ticino, Po , and Adda. The three zones of cultivation are the same 
as in Piedmont, viz. the region of pastures among the mountains, that 




of the vine , fruit-trees, and the silk-culture on the lower undulating 
country and the slopes adjoining the lakes, and that of wheat, maize, 
and meadows in the plains , the yield of these last being , however , far 
more abundant than in Piedmont. The summers are hot and dry, rain 
being rare beyond the lower Alps , and falling more frequently when 
the wind is from the E. than from the W., as the moisture of the latter 
is absorbed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. The land, however, 
is more thoroughly irrigated than that of any other district in Europe, 
and the servitude of aquae ductus, or right to conduct water across the 
property of others, has been very prevalent here for centuries. A failure 
of the crops indeed is hardly possible , except when the summer is 
unusually cold. Meadows yield as many as twelve crops in the year, 
their growth being unretarded by the winter. The so-called Parmesan 
cheese is one of the well-known products of Lombardy. In the middle 
ages the importance of Milan was due to its woollen industries, but sheep- 
breeding has in modern times been largely superseded by the silk-culture, 
an industry which has so materially increased the wealth of the country, 
that it used to be said during the Austrian regime, that the army and the 
officers lived on mulberry leaves , as their produce alone sufficed to pay 
the land taxes, tinder these circumstances the population is unusually 
dense, being about 380 persons to the sq. mile, exclusive of the capital. 
The central situation, and the wealth of the country, have ever ren- 
dered it an apple of discord to the different European nations. In the 
earliest period known to us, it was occupied by the Etruscans, an Italian 
race , which about the 6th cent. B.C. was subjugated or expelled by 
Celts from the W. These immigrants founded Mediolanum (Milan), and 
traces of their language still survive in the modern dialect of the coun- 
try. It was but slowly that the Italians subdued or assimilated these 
foreigners, and it was not till B.C. 220 that the Romans extended their 
supremacy to the banks of the Po. In the following century they consti- 
tuted Gallia Cisalpina a province , on which Csesar conferred the rights 
of citizenship in B.C. 46. Throughout the whole of the imperial epoch 
these regions of Northern Italy formed the chief buttress of the power of 
Rome. Since the 4th cent. Milan has surpassed Rome in extent, and, 
in many respects, in importance also. It became an imperial residence, 
and the church founded here by St. Ambrosius (who became bishop in 
374), long maintained its independence of the popes. The Lombards 
made Pavia their capital, but their domination, after lasting for two 
centuries, was overthrown by Charlemagne in 774. The Lombard dia- 
lect also contains a good many words derived from the German (thus, 
Iron, gast, grit, pib, smessor, stora, and stosa, from the German Brun- 
nen, Gast , Greis, Pflug, Messer, storen, and stossen). The crown of 
Lombardy was worn successively by the Franconian and by the German 
Kings, the latter of whom, particularly the Othos , did much to promote 
the prosperity of the towns. When the rupture between the emperor 
and the pope converted the whole of Italy into a Guelph and Ghibelline 
camp , Milan formed the headquarters of the former , and Cremona those 
of the latter party , and the power of the Hohenstaufen proved to be no 
match for the Lombard walls. The internal dissensions between the 
nobles and the townspeople, however, led to the creation of several new 
principalities. In 1287 Matteo degli Visconti of Milan (whose family 
was so called from their former office of 'vicecomites' , or archiepiscopal 
judges) was nominated 'Capitano del Popolo', and in 1294 appointed gov- 
ernor of Lombardy by the German King. Although banished for a time 
by the Guelph family Delia Torre, both he and his sons and their poster- 
ity contrived to assert their right to the Signoria. The greatest of this 
family was Giovanni Galeazzo, who wrested the reins of government from 
his uncle in 1385, and extended his duchy to Pisa and Bologna, and even 
as far as Perugia and Spoleto. Just , however , as he was preparing at 
Florence to be crowned king of Italy, he died of the plague in 1402, 
in the 55th year of his age. On the extinction of the Visconti family in 
1447, the condottiere Francesco Sforza ascended the throne, and under his 
descendants was developed to the utmost that despotism which Leo de- 


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MILAN. 19. Route. 125 

scribes as ' a slate in which the noblest institutions prosper when the 
prince is a good man; in which the greatest horrors are possible when 
the prince cannot govern himself; a state which has everywhere thriven 
in Mohammedan countries, but rarely in the middle ages in other Christian 
countries besides this'. In 1494 when Lodovico il Moro induced Charles 
VIII. of France to undertake a campaign against Naples , he inaugurated 
a new period in the history of Italy. Since that time Italy has at once 
been the battlefield and the prey of the great powers of Europe. Lodo- 
vico himself, after having revolted against France and been defeated at 
Novara in 1500, terminated his career in a French dungeon. In 1525 the 
battle of Pavia constituted Charles V. arbiter of the fortunes of Italy. In 
1535, after the death of the last Sforza, he invested his son, Philip II. of 
Spain, with the duchy of Milan. In 1713 the Spanish supremacy was 
followed by the Austrian in consequence of the War of Succession. On 
four occasions (1733, 1745, 1796, and 1800) the French took possession of 
Milan, and the Napoleonic period at length swept away the last relics of 
its mediaeval institutions. Although Napoleon annexed the whole of 
Piedmont, Genoa, Parma, Tuscany, and Rome (about 36,000 sq. M. of 
Italian territory) to France, the erection of a kingdom of Italy contrib- 
uted materially to arouse a national spirit of patriotism. This kingdom 
embraced Lombardy, Venice, S. Tyrol, Istria, the greater part of the 
Emilia, and the Marches (about 32,000 sq. M.). Milan was the capital, 
and Napoleon was king , but was represented by his stepson Eugene 
Beauharnais. The Austrian Supremacy, which was restored in 1815, proved 
irreconcilable with the national aspirations of the people. By the Peace 
of Zurich (10th Nov. 1859), Lombardy , with the exception of the district 
of Mantua, was ceded to Napoleon III., and by him to Sardinia. 

19. Milan, Ital. Milano. 

Arrival. The Railway Station (Pl.F, G, 1; Restaurant), a handsome and 
well-arranged structure, is decorated with frescoes by Pagliano, Induno, 
and Casnedi, and with sculptures by Vela, Strazza, Magni, and Tabacchi. 
Omnibuses from most of the hotels are in waiting (fare l-l'/2 fr.). Fiacre 
from the station to any part of the town l 1 Afr. (also at night), each article 
of luggage 25 c. Tramway into the town 10 c. Porterage to the town for 
luggage under 100 lbs. 50 c, according to tariff. 

Hotels (all those of the first class have lifts). "Grand Hotel de la 
Ville (PI. a; F, 5), Corso Vittorio Emanuele; 'Hotel Cavour (PI. b; F, 3), 
in the Piazza Cavour; "Grand Hotel Milan (PI. c; F, 3, 4; Jos. Spatz, 
proprietor), Via Alessandro Manzoni 29, with post , telegraph , and rail- 
way-booking offices; "Hotel Continental (PI. e; E, 4), Via Alessandro 
Manzoni. All these are of the first class, with corresponding charges. — 
The following are somewhat less expensive : "Gran Bketagna & Reichmann 
(PI. d ; D, E, 6), Via Torino 45 R., L., & A. from 3, B. l>/2, lunch 3, D. 4'/ a , 
omnibus 1 fr. ; "Hotel Metropole, in the Piazza del Duomo , with lift, 
R. 2V2-4, A. s/ 4 , L. 3/ 4 , B. IV2, lunch 3, D. 41/2 fr. ; "Rebecchino (PI. p; 
E, 5), Via S. Margherita, with trattoria (see p. 126); "Edropa (PI. f ; F, 5), 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele 9, clean, R. from 2V2, D. 4, B. l'/a, lunch 3, L. 3( 4i 
A. 3/4, omn. 1 fr. ; "Hotel Manin (PI. k ; F, 2), Via Manin, near the Giardini 
Pubblici; "Roma (PI. g; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 7 (with restaurant, no 
table d'hote), R. 2y 2 , A. 3/4, L. s/i, B. ly 2 , omn. 3/ 4 f r . , "Pozzo (PL 1; E, 6), 
Via Torino, R. from 2, D. at 6 p.m. 41/2 fr., L. 60 c, B. l>/ 2 , omn. 1 fr. ; 
"Francta (PI. m ; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 19, D. incl. wine 4, lunch incl. 
wine 3, B. 1 fr., L. 60, A. 60 c, well spoken of; "Central (PI. h ; E, 6), Via 
del Pesce; "Bella Venezia (PI. i; E, F, 5), Piazza S. Fedele, R. 3, omn. 1, 
A. 3/4, L. 3 / 4 fr. ; "Ancora (PL n; F, 5), Via Agnello and Corso Vitt. Ema- 
nuele; "Angioli, Via S. Protaso; "Hotel Lion et Trois Scisses (PL o; G, 
4, 5), Corso Vittorio Emanuele, at the corner of the Via Durini, B. iy 2 , omn. 
1, A. 3 A, L. 3 /4 fr. ; Hot. S.Michele, Via Pattari, near the cathedral, R. from 
l'/2 fr. — Italian hotels, with trattorie: Hotel-Pension Suisse, Via del 
Falcone, R., L,. & A. from 2, B. 11/4, lunch 21/2, D. with wine 4 fr.; 

126 Route 19. MILAN. Tramways. 

Falcone, Via del Falcone, well spoken of; A«uila (PI. r; E, 5), near the 
Via S. Margherita, good Italian cookery; Passarella, Via Passarella; 
Corona d'Italia, 'Biscione & Bellevue, Piazza Fontana (PI. F, 5); 
Vivian i, Via Silvio Pellico 8 (PI. E, 5), pens. 7 fr., A. 25, L. 30 c, all 
near the Piazza del Duomo ; Agnello, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 2, all with 
trattorie ; Hotel du Nord , Albergo Como (with a pleasant garden), 
Albergo S. Gottarpo, all these near the central station. 

Restaurants (Trattorie). "Bi/fi, Gnocchi, in the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 
(see below); Covet (see. below) ; Ristor. delta Borsa, Via S. Giuseppe 2, near 
the Scala, with a garden; "RebeccMno (p. 125), Via S. Margherita, near 
the Piazza del Duomo, founded in 1699, with good Italian cooking. The 
above-mentioned second-class hotels are also restaurants. Fiaschetteria 
Toscana, behind the E. branch of the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele; good Tus- 
can wine. 

Cafes (comp. p. xviii). "Cova, with a garden, Via S. Giuseppe, near the 
Scala, concerts in the evening (10 c. added to the charge on each refresh- 
ment); "Biffi and "Gnocchi, both in the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele, concerts 
in the evening; * Caff'e Anlille, Via Alessandro Manzoni, opposite the Hotel 
de Milan; Martini, Piazza della Scala; Carini, Piazza del Duomo, D. with 
wine 2'/z-4 fr. ; several cafe's in the Giardini Pubblici (p. 144); delle Colonne, 
Corso Venezia 1. Dejeuner a la fourchette may be procured at most of 
the cafe's; also beer in glasses (tazza, 30c; tazza grande, 50 c). — Ices 
(sorbetto, and '■pezzi duri 1 or ices frozen hard) are not to be had before 
4 p.m. ; at an earlier hour, i granita', or half-frozen, is in vogue. Panetone 
is a favourite kind of cake, chiefly used during the continuance of the 

Beer. Birreria Nazionale, a large establishment in the Via Carlo 
Alberto, on the W. side of the Piazza del Duomo (Vienna beer) ; Birreria 
Srizzera, Via Capellaria, near the Hotel Metropole, much frequented; 
"Trenk, Galleria de' Cristoforis (p. 144), cold meat, etc., in the evening 
(wine-room belonging to the same proprietor in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, 
adjoining the Gall, de' Cristoforis); Borghetli, Via Principe Umberto 29; 
Culmbacher Bierhalle. Via Mercanti 5 ; Naef, Via Silvio Pellico 6 ; Birreria 
della Scala, Piazza della Scala. 

Baths. Corso Vittorio Emanuele 17, clean and not expensive ; Via 
Annunziata 11; Via Pasquirolo 11, etc. — Swimming-Baths: "Bagno di 
Diana (P). H, 2), outside the Porta Venezia ( 1 fr., including free convey- 
ance from the Sala d'Aspetto in the Piazza del Duomo) ; Bagno Nazionale 
(PI. D, 8), outside the Porta Ticinese. 

Cabs C Broughams' ; a tariff in each vehicle). Per drive by day or 
night Ifr. ; from the station to the town l'/4fr.; half-hour lfr., per hour 
l'/afr. ; each article of luggage 25 c 

Tramways from the Piazza del Duomo to most of the city-gates, and 
to the station (fare 10 c); also round the town. — Jlilan is also the centre 
of a network of Steam Tramways, extending over almost the whole of 
Lombardy. The following are the principal lines diverging from Milan : 
1. To Monza (p. 147; 1 hr.), starting from the church of S. Babila, Corso 
Venezia (PI. G, 4); inside 80 c, outside 60 c. — 2. Tramway Interpro- 
vinciale, station in the Strada di Circonvallazione , outside the Porta 
Venezia (PI. G, 1); lines to Monza and Barzanb, to Vimercate, and to 
Vaprio (with branch from Villafornace to Treviglio, p. 182, and thence 
to Bergamo, p. 183) ; to Lodi (p. 291); and to Caravaggio (p. 180). — 3. To Ma- 
genta and Castano, starting outside the Porta Magenta (PI. A, 4, 5). — 4. To 
Seregno (p. 148), and thence on the one side to Carafe (p. 152), on the other 
to Giussano, starting from the Porta Volta (PI. D, 1); continuation to 
Bellagio projected (comp. p. 151). — 5. To Melegnano (p. 291) and Lodi 
(p. 291), starting outside the Porta Eomana (PI. H, 8). — 6. To Pavia, see 
p. 175. — 7. To Saronno and Como, see p. 146. — 8. To Saronno and Tra- 
date (p. 162) and to Gallarate (p. 164), starting from the Foro Bonaparte, 
at the corner of the Via Cusani (PI. D, 4). 

Post Office (PI. E, 6), Via Bastrelli 20, near the cathedral, at the back 
of the Palazzo Reale, open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. — Telegraph Office (PI. 
E, 5), near the Borsa, Piazza dei Mercanti 19, ground-floor. 

Shop*. MILAN. 19. Route. 127 

Theatres. The Teatro della Scala (PI. E, 4), the largest in Italy after 
the S. Carlo theatre at Naples, was built in 1778, and holds 3600 spectators. 
The opera and ballet are excellent, but performances take place during 
the Carnival only; the interior is worthy of inspection OAfr.). Teatro 
alia Canobbiana (during the Carnival only; PI. F, 6), with ballet; Teatro 
Manzoni (PI. E, 5), near the Piazza S. Fedele, elegantly fitted up, perfor- 
mances sometimes in French. Teatro Dal Verme (PI. D, 4), operas and 
ballets, sometimes used as a circus; Teatro Filodrammalici (PI. E, 4), Via 
S. Dalmazio, operas ; Teatro Fossati, Corso Porta Garibaldi , melodrama 
and popular pieces ; Teatro Milanese, Corso Vittorio Emanuele, plays in 
the local dialect. 

Bankers. Mack, Wiegel, & Keutzer , Via Brera 19 (PI. E, 4); Mylius 
dc Co., Via Clerici 4 (PI. E, 4); Ulrich & Co., Via Bigli 21 (PI. F, 4); Weill, 
Schott Figli, & Co., Via S. Andrea 6 (PI. F, G, 4) — Money-Changers : A. 
Grisi, Piazza Mercanti (PI. E, 5), Strada, Via Manzoni, etc. 

Booksellers. F. Sacchi & Figli (formerly Artaria), Via S. Margherita; 
Dumolard, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 21 ; Gius. Galli, Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 
17 & 80 ; Schiitzenau & EoccM, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 34, in the Hotel de la 
Ville ; Iloepli, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 37. 

Shops. The best are in the Corso and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. 
The Alle Cilia d"Italia, Via Carlo Alberto, near the Piazza del Duomo, 
is an establishment in the style of the large Magasins at Paris. The Silk 
Industry of Milan, in which upwards of 200 considerable firms are en- 
gaged, is very important. The following are noted retail-dealers: Ver- 
nazzi, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, adjoining the Hotel de la Ville; Osnago, Via S. 
Radegonda, to the N. of the Cathedral. — Marbles: Bianchi, Galleria Vitt. 
Emanuele. — Antiquities : Erei. Via Monte Napoleone. — Optician : Duroni, 
Gall. Vitt. Emanuele 9. — Fancy Goods: Silberkrauss, Corso Vitt. Ema- 
nuele 5 ; Guglianetti, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, at the corner of the Via S. Paolo. 

Cigars. The Spaccio Normale , or government shop , is at Corso 
Venezia 1, where genuine havanas are also sold (PI. F, 4, 5). 

Physicians. Dr. Francis Cozzi, Via Monforte 6; Dr. Lindner, Via 
SenatoSa; Dr. Fornoni, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 26. Private Hospital: Casa 
di Salute Parapini, Via La Marmora. — Chemists : Valcamonica <k Jntrozzi, 
Corso Vitt. Eman. 4; Zambellteti , Piazza S. Carlo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
(PI. F, 4, 5); Talini, Via Alessandro Manzoni, opposite the Hot. de Milan. 

Cook's Tourist Office, Piazza del Duomo 45. 

Permanent Art Exhibition, in the Palazzo della Societa per le Belle 
Arli, Via Principe Umberto 32. 

Italian Alpine Club, [Milan section, Via Silvio Pellicoe 6, first floor 
(3.30-5 and 8-10.30 p.m.). 

English Consulate, Via Principe Amedeo 17. American Consulate, 
Via Monte Napoleone 7. 

English Church Service, Via Andegari 8, at 11 and 4.30 ; chaplain, Rev. 
Mr. Godfrey. — Waldensian Church, S. Giovanni in Conca. 

Principal Attractions: Cathedral, ascend to the roof ; Galleria Vittorio 
Emanuele ; Brera (picture-gallery) ; Museo Poldi-Pezzoli ; Arco della Pace ; 
S. Maria delle Grazie and Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper; S. Ambrogio, 
the oldest of the churches; Ambrosiana (pictures); Piazza de' Mercanti; 
the new cemetery; between 6 and 7 p.m. walk through Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele to and beyond the Porta Venezia. — Excursion to the Certosa 
di Pavia (E. 27). 

Milan (390 ft.), Ital. Milano, surnamed 'la grande, the Medio- 
lanum of the Romans, which was rebuilt after its total destruction 
in 1162 by the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, is the capital of Lom- 
bardy, the seat of an archbishop, the headquarters of an army- 
corps, the chief financial centre of Italy, and one of the weal- 
thiest manufacturing and commercial towns in the country, silk and 
woollen goods, gloves, carriages, machinery, and art-furniture being 

128 Route 19. MILAN. Cathedral. 

the staple commodities. It also exports a considerable amount of 
cheese, butter, eggs, poultry, and other country produce. The town 
is situated on the small river Olona, which, however, is navigable 
and is connected by means of the Naviglio Grande (p. 76) with the 
Ticino and Logo Maggiore, by the Naviglio di Pavia with the 
Ticino and the Po, and by the Naviglio della Martesana with the 
Adda, the Lake of Como , and the Po. It is 7 M. in circum- 
ference, and contains 315,000 inhab., or, including the suburbs, 
373,000, ranking next to Naples in point of population. There are 
numerous German and Swiss residents. 

The favourable situation of Milan in the centre of Lombardy, near 
the beginning of several of the great Alpine passes, has always secured 
for it a high degree of prosperity. Under the Romans it was one of 
the largest cities in Italy (p. 124), but owing to its repeated destruction 
hardly a trace of that period has been left. In the 11th cent, it 
contained 300,000 inhabitants. Its heroic struggles against the German 
emperors are well known. With the exception of S. Ambrogio and a few 
other churches , the city was totally destroyed in 1162 by the emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa, but in 1167 it was rebuilt by the allied cities of 
Brescia, Bergamo, Mantua, and Verona. It was afterwards ruled by the 
Visconti (1312-1447), then by the Sforza family (1447-1535). Under the 
supremacy of the latter it attained the zenith of its reputation as a patron 
of art, having been the residence of Bramante from 1476 to 1500, and of 
Leonardo da Vinci from 1494 to 1516. The most eminent of Leonardo's 
pupils who flourished here were Bernardino Luini, Cesare da Sesto, Giov. 
Ant. Bollrafflo, Marco da Oggionno, Andrea Salaino, and Gaudenzio Ferrari. 
— Milan with the rest of Lombardy afterwards fell into the hands of the 
Spaniards , and in 1714 fell to Austria. In 1796 it became the capital ol 
the 'Cisalpine Republic\ and then (down to 1815) that of the Kingdom of 
Italy. The bloody insurrection of 17th May, 1848, compelled the Austrians 
to evacuate the city, and the patriotic agitations which ensued were 
happily ended by the desired union with the new kingdom of Italy 
in 1859. 

No town in Italy has undergone such marked improvement as Milan 
since the events of 1859. — In the province of Art it has raised itself to 
the highest rank in the kingdom. Sculpture is here carried on to such 
an extent as to have become almost a special industry. The Milanese 
Sculptors take great pride in their technical skill, and in effective 
imitations of nature. Among the best known sculptors are Barzaghi, Argenti, 
Calvi, and Barcaglia. — Painting is represented by Hieron, Induno, Bianchi, 
Pagliano, Bouvier, Sleffani, Bidioni, and others, but most of these artists 
seem to cultivate the modern Parisian style, and to be entirely oblivious 
of their glorious old national traditions. 

The old part of the town, a portion of which consists of narrow 
and irregular streets, is enclosed by canals, beyond which suburbs 
(borghi), named after the different gates (Porta Venezia, Garibaldi, 
Sempione, etc.), have sprung up. 

The focus of the commercial and public life of Milan is the 
*Piazza del Suomo (PI. E, 5), which has recently been much ex- 
tended, and is now enclosed by imposing edifices designed by Men- 
goni (p. 124). It is a centre for omnibuses and tramways. 

The celebrated **Cathedral (PI. E, F, 5) , dedicated 'Mariae 
Nascenti', as the inscription on the facade announces, and as the 
gilded statue on the tower over the dome also indicates, is regarded 
by the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the world, and is, next to 

Cathedral. MILAN. 19. Route. 129 

St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral at Seville, the largest church 
in Europe. This huge structure covers an area of 14,000 sq. yds. (of 
which about 2400 sq. yds. are taken up by the walls and pillars), and 
holds about 40,000 people. The interior is 162 yds. in length, the 
transept 96 yds. in breadth, the facade 73 yds. in breadth ; nave 
157 ft. in height, 18 yds. in breadth. The dome is 220 ft. in height, 
the tower 360 ft. above the pavement. The roof, marble like the rest 
of the building, is adorned with 98 turrets, and the exterior with 
upwards of 2000 statues in marble. The stained-glass windows in 
the choir are the largest in the world. The structure, which was 
founded by the splendour-loving Oian Galeazzo Visconti in 1386, 
perhaps after the model of the Cologne cathedral, progressed but 
slowly owing to the dissensions and jealousies of the Italian and 
Northern architects, whereby it was impossible to attain uniformity 
in the execution. Heinrich von Gmiind, Marco da Campione, Slmone 
da Orsenigo, and Andrea Orcagna are named among the architects of 
the cathedral, but without any positive proof. The general style of the 
building is Gothic, but there are many divergencies from the main 
plan. About the year 1500 Francesco di Giorgio of Siena and 
Ant. Omodeo appear to have been associated in the superintendence 
of the building, and after them the work was conducted by Cara- 
dosso Bramantino, Solari, and Fusina. The crypt and the baptistery, 
the style of which is quite out of harmony with the general design 
of the building, were added in the second half of the 15th cent, by 
Pellegrini, who also laid down the marble pavement and designed a 
Romanesque facade. The church was consecrated by S. Carlo Borro- 
meo on Oct. 20th, 1577. The dome was begun in 1759 by the ar- 
chitects Croce and Merula , and was finished in 1775. The facade 
remained for a long time uncompleted, until in 1805 Napoleon 
caused the works to be resumed, according to Pellegrini's plan, with 
modifications by Amati, and added the tower over the dome (his 
marble statue, in antique costume, is among those on the roof). 
The facade is about to be restored according to the plan of the 
young architect Giuseppe Brentano , whose design won the first 
prize in an open competition in 1888. 

The church is cruciform in shape, with double aisles and a tran- 
sept, the latter also flanked with aisles. The Interior is supported 
by fifty-two pillars, each 12 ft. in diameter, the summits of which 
are adorned with canopied niches with statues instead of cap- 
itals. The pavement consists of mosaic in marble of different col- 
ours. The vaulting is skilfully painted in imitation of perforated 

Interior. By the principal inner portal are two huge monolith col- 
umns of granite from the quarries of Baveno (see p. 29). The band of 
brass in the pavement close to the entrance indicates the line of the 
meridian. Eight Aisle : Sarcophagus of Archbishop Aribert (1018-1045), 
above which is a gilded crucifix of the 11th century. Monument of Otto 
Visconti (d. 1295) and Johannes Visconti (d. 1354), both archbishops of 
Milan. Gothic monument of Marco Carelli (d. 1394). Tomb of Canon 

BAEDEK<"> Ttolij t 8th T?.,iit g 

130 Route 19. MILAN. Cathedral. 

Vimercati, by Bambaja. Right Transept (W. wall): Monument of the 
brothers Giacomo and Gabriele de' Medici, erected by their brother 
Pope Pius IV. (1564) , the three bronze statues by Leone Leoni (Aretino). 
Tickets for the roof (25 c, see below) are obtained near this monument; 
the staircase leading to the dome is in the corner of the side-wall. The 
altar of the Offering of Mary (E. wall of S. transept) is adorned with fine 
Reliefs by Bambaja, with a relief of the nativity of the Virgin by Tan- 
tardini at the foot. Adjacent is the Statue of St. Bartholomew by Marco 
Agrate (end of 16th cent.), anatomically remarkable, as the saint is 
represented flayed , with his skin on his shoulder , and bearing the 
modest inscription 'non me Praxiteles sed Marcus finxit Agrafes'. 

The door of the S. Sacristy (to the right, in the choir) is remarkable 
for its richly sculptured Gothic decorations. The "Treasury here (adm. 
1 fr.) contains silver statues and candelabra of the 17th cent. ; the 
enamelled Evangelium of Abp. Aribert ; a diptych of the 6th cent. ; book- 
covers adorned with Italian and Byzantine carving of the early middle 
ages ; ivory vessel belonging to Bishop Godfrey ; a golden Pax by Caradosso ; 
and lastly a statue of Christ by Crislofano Solari. 

In the ambulatory, a little farther on, is a sitting figure of Martin V. 
by Jacopino da Tradate (1421). Then the black marble Monument of 
Cardinal Marino Carracciolo (d. 1538), by whom Emp. Charles V. was 
crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520, by Bambaja. The fourth of the 
handsome new Gothic confessionals is for the German, French, and English 
languages. The stained glass in the three vast choir-windows, comprising 
350 representations of scriptural subjects, were executed by Alois and 
Giov. Bertini of Guastalla during the present century; most of them are 
copies from old pictures. Before the N. Sackistt is reached , the Statue 
of Pius IV. is seen above, in a sitting posture, by Angelo Siciliano. The 
door of this sacristy is also adorned with fine sculptures in marble. 

In the centre of the N. Transept is a valuable bronze 'Candelabrum, 
in the form of a tree , executed in the 13th cent. , and decorated with 
jewels, presented by Giov. Bali. Trivulzio, in 1562. 

Left Aisle : Altar-piece, painted in 1600 by Fed. Baroccio, represent- 
ing S. Ambrogio releasing Emp. Theodosius from ecclesiastical penalties. 
Upon the adjoining altar of St. Joseph, the Nuptials of Mary, by F. Zuc- 
cari. The following chapel contains the old wooden] Crucijix which S. 
Carlo Borromeo bore in 1576, when engaged, barefooted, in his missions 
of mercy during the plague. Adjacent, the Monument of Abp. Arcimboldi 
(ca. 1550), and by the wall the statues of eight Apostles (13th cent.). Not 
far from the N. side-door is the Font , consisting of a sarcophagus of S. 
Dionysius, but appropriated to its present use by S. Carlo Borromeo. 

In front of the choir , below the dome , is the subterranean Cappella 
S. Carlo Borromeo (p. 165), with the tomb of the saint ; entrance opposite 
the doors to the sacristy, to the N. and S. of the choir (open in summer 
5-10, in winter 7-10 a.m.; at other times lfr.; for showing the relics of 
the saint 5 fr.). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the *Eoop and 
Tower of the Cathedral. The staircase ascends from the corner of 
the right transept (ticket 25 c. ; open till an hour before sunset, in 
summer from 5 a.m.), where an excellent panorama of the Alps by F. 
Bozzoli may also be bought. As single visitors are not now admitted, 
except when other visitors are already at the top, a party of two or 
more must be made up. The well-informed guide demands 1 fr. 
per person for his services. The visitor should mount at once to the 
highest gallery of the tower (by 194 steps inside and 300 outside 
the edifice). A watchman, generally stationed at the top, possesses 
a good telescope. 

View. To the extreme left (S.W.), Monte Viso, then Mont Cenis 
(p. 25); between these two, the less lofty Snperga (p. 70) near Turin; 

Galleria Vitt. Eman. MILAN. 19. Route. 131 

Mont Blanc, Great St. Bernard ; Monte Rosa, the most conspicuous of all ; 
to the left of the last the prominent Matterhorn ; then the Cima di Jazi, 
Strahlhorn, and Mischabel ; N.W. the Monte Leone near the Simplon ; 
the Bernese Alps; N. the summits of the St. Gotthard and Spliigen, 
and E. in the distance the peak of the Ortler. S. the Certosa of Pavia 
(p. 175) is visible, farther E. the towers and domes of Pavia itself, in 
the background the Apennines. 

To theS., opposite the cathedral, stands the Palazzo Keale (PI. 
E, F, 5, 6), built on the site of a palace of the Visconti in 1772, 
adorned with frescoes by Appiani, Luini, and Hayez, and contain- 
ing several handsome saloons. In the street to the left, beyond 
the palace, are visible the tower (1336) and apse of the fine half- 
Romanesque church of &. Oottardo, formerly the chapel of the 
Visconti. — Adjacent, on the E., is the large Archiepiscopal Pal- 
ace (Arcivescovado ; PI. F, 5), by Pellegrini (1565) , containing a 
handsome court with a double colonnade and marble statues (Moses 
and Aaron) by Tantardini and Strazza. The second court, on the 
side next the Piazza Fontana, is embellished with Corinthian col- 
umns of the 15th century. — The W. side of the Piazza del Duomo 
is skirted by the Via Carlo Alberto (see p. 138), beyond which, to 
the N.W., lies the Piazza de' Mercanti (see p. 138). 

On the N. side is the imposing palatial facade (finished in 1878) 
which forms the entrance to the ** Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 
(PI. E, 5), connecting the Piazza del Duomo with the Piazza della 
Scala. This is the most spacious and attractive structure of the 
kind in Europe. It was built in 1865-67 by the architect Oius. 
Mengoni, one of the most gifted of modern Italian architects, 
who unfortunately lost his life by falling from the portal in 1877. 
The gallery, which is said to have cost 8 million t'r. (320,000i.), 
is 320 yds. in length, 16 yds. in breadth, and 94 ft. in height. 
The form is that of a Latin cross, with an octagon in the centre, 
over which rises a cupola 180 ft. in height. The decorations are 
well-executed and bear testimony to the good taste of the Milanese. 
The octagon is adorned with frescoes, representing Europe, Asia, 
Africa , and America , while the frescoes on the entrance-arches 
are emblematic of Science, Industry, Art, and Agriculture. The 
gallery contains handsome shops, and is lighted in the evening by 
electric light, which illumines also the entire surrounding district. 

The gallery is adorned with 24 statues of celebrated Italians : at the 
entrance from the Piazza del Duomo, Arnold of Brescia and G. B. Vico ; 
in the octagon, on the right, Cavour, Emmanuel Philibert (p. 63), Vittore 
Pisano, Gian Galeazzo Visconti (p. 124) ; Romagnosi (p. 292), Pier Capponi, 
Macchiavelli, Marco Polo ; Raphael, Galileo, Dante, Michael Angelo ; Volta, 
Lanzone, Giov. da Procida, Beccaria; at the right lateral outlet Beno 
de' Gozzadini and Columbus, at the left lateral outlet Ferruccio and 
Monti; at the entrance from the Scala, Savonarola and Ugo Foscolo. 

The Piazza della Scala (PI. E, 4) is embellished with the 
*Monument of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) by Magni, erected 
in 1872. The statue of the master in Carrara marble, over life-size, 
stands on a lofty pedestal, surrounded by Marco da Oggionno, Cesare 

132 Route 19. MILAN. Piazza della Scala. 

da Sesto , Salaino , and Boltraffio , four of his pupils , and adorned 
with copies of his principal works in relief. — In the piazza, to the 
W. of the statue, is the Teatro delta Scala (p. 127). To the S.E. is 
the large Palazzo Marino, in which the Municipio (PL E, 4) has 
been established since 1861 , erected in 1555 from designs by Ga- 
leazzo Alessi. The main facade, towards the Piazza della Scala, was 
left unfinished, but is about to be completed from the designs of 
Beltrami. The court is handsome. 

Behind the Pal. Marino is the Jesuit church of S. Fedele (PI. E, F, 4) 
in the Piazza of that name, erected by S. Carlo Borromeo in 1569 
from designs by Pellegrini, containing a sumptuous high-altar. In the 
same piazza is a monument to Al. Manzoni. The adjoining Palazzo 
del Censo ed Archivio, formerly the Jesuit college, contains part of 
the government archives, chiefly documents relating to the history 
of Milan. — To the N. of this point is the Via degli Omenoni with 
the palace of the same name (No. 1), erected by Leone Leoni and 
adorned with Caryatides. The Via degli Omenoni ends in the 
Piazza Belgiojoso, which contains the Palazzo Belgiojoso (No. 2) 
and Manzoni's house (No. 3). 

Adjacent, at Via Morone, No. 10 (PI. F, 4), is the *Museo Poldi- 
Fezzoli, bequeathed to the town by Cavaliere Poldi-Pezzoli in 1879 
and exhibited in the tastefully-furnished house formerly occupied 
by the founder. The collections are open to the public daily 10-4, 
on holidays 12-3 (adm. 1 fr. ; catalogue 1 fr.). 

First Floor. Sala Dorata. To the left, antique gold ornaments and 
silver plate, goldsmith's work of the 16-18th cent. ; in the centre, Roman- 
esque crosses and reliquaries , valuable vessels embellished with gems 
and enamelling; to the right, Roman and Oriental bronzes, antique 
glass, etc.; below the mirror, cloisonne enamel from China, Persian 
weapons. Among the pictures the following are most noteworthy : 
21. Pier della Francesca, Portrait of a woman ; 19. Vine. Foppa, Portrait ; 
20. Crivelli, Christ and St. Francis; 17. Botticelli, Madonna; 18. Qirolamo da 
Santa Croce, Portrait; 16. Luini, Betrothal of St. Catharine. The room also 
contains fine wood-carvings, carpets, Dresden, Chinese, and Sevres por- 
celain, etc. — Sala Neea. Pictures: 23. Early Flemish Master, Annunciation; 
31. V. Foppa, Madonna; 24. Signorelli, Saints; 25. Borgognone, St. Catha- 
rine ; Andrea Solario, 26. John the Baptist (1499), 29. St. Catharine. Also 
a marble statue by Bartolini, representing Reliance upon God. — Stanza 
da Letto. Pictures: 33. Bertini, Portrait of Cav. Poldi-Pezzoli; 35. Botti- 
celli, Descent from the Cross. Venetian glass. — I. Stanza a Qoadei : 
62. Marco Palmezzano, Portrait; 56. Domenichino, Cardinal; 57. Elzheimer, 
Diana. — II. Stanza a Quadei : Luini, 84. Tobias, 85. St. Jerome ; 106. 
A. Solario, EcceHomo; 109. Boltraffio, Madonna; 111. Lor. Costa, Saints. 

— III. Stanza a Qoadei: 122. Mantegna (?) , Madonna; 127. Carpaccio, 
Venetian senator; 130. A. Solario, Flight into Egypt (1515); 138. School 
of Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna ; 139. Fra Bartolommeo , Triptych (1500) ; 
142. Moretto, Madonna ; 150. Perugino, Madonna ; 146. Carpaccio, Samson. 

— We now return and enter the Armoury to the right. 

The Via Alessandro Manzoni leads hence to the right to the Via 
Bigli, in which (No. 1 1) stands the Casa Taverna or Ponti, with a 
fine portal and an admirably restored court of the 16th century. 

We next proceed from the Piazza della Scala to the N. by the 
Via S. Giuseppe (PI. E, 4) and Via di Brera to the Brera. In the 

Brera. MILAN. 1<J. Route. 133 

Via del Monte di Pieta , the second side-street on the left , is the 
handsome new Cassa di Risparmio, or savings-bank, by Balzaretti. 

The *Brera (PI. E, 3), or Palazzo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 
formerly a Jesuits' College , contains the Picture Gallery, the Li- 
brary founded in 1170 (300,000 vols., open daily except holi- 
days, 9-4, in winter 9-3), a Collection of Coins (50,000), the Ob- 
servatory, a collection of Casts from the antique, and an Archaeo- 
logical Museum. 

In the centre of the handsome Court by Richini is a bronze 
statue of * Napoleon I., as a Roman emperor, by Canova, considered 
one of his finest works. By the staircase, to the left, the statue 
of the celebrated jurist Beccaria (d. 1794), who was the first to 
call in question the justice of capital punishment. The courtisalso 
adorned with several other statues. 

The *Picture Gallery (Pinacoteca) is open daily from 9 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. (on holidays from 12; in Nov., Dec, and. Jan. till 3); 
admission 1 fr., Sun., Thurs., andholidays gratis (catalogue l l / i ft.'). 

The gem of the collection is Raphael's Sposalizio (No. 270), 
the chief work of his first or Umbrian period. The numerous 
pictures of the Lombard school, and particularly the frescoes sawn 
out of churches, are also very valuable. The drawing of the head 
of Christ for the Last Supper (No. 267) shows with what beauty 
Leonardo could invest his figures. Among the oil-paintings, 
No. 265 by Bernardino Luini is a very meritorious work, and among 
the frescoes, Nos. 47 and 52, by the same master. The most in- 
teresting works of the early Italian school are No. 159 by Gentile 
da Fabriano, and Nos. 264 and 282 by Mantegna. The collection 
also affords an instructive survey of the progress of Carlo Crivelli 
(who flourished in 1468-93 ; 2nd room) , a master who connects 
the Paduan school with that of Venice. The most notable works of 
the latter school are No. 166 by Gentile Bellini, Nos. 284 and 261 
by Giovanni Bellini, and No. 300 by Cima da Conegliano ; and of 
a later period No. 209 by Bonifacio, No. 248 by Titian, and Nos. 
253, 254, 255 by Lorenzo Lotto. No. 456 by Domenichino, and 
No. 331 by Guercino , represent the Italian masters of the 17th 
century. The most important works of foreign schools are No. 447 
by Rubens, Nos. 442 and 446 by Van Dyck, and No. 449 by Rem- 
brandt. Each picture bears the name of the painter. 

I. and II. Ante-Chambers : 2-70. Frescoes by Bernardino 
Luini, some of them approaching the genre style (Nos. 2, 11, 13), 
scenes from the life of Mary (5, 19, 42, 43, 51, 63, 69, 73), 
*Madonna with St. Anthony and St. Barbara (47), God the Father 
(48), Angels (14, 26, 45, 49,54,68), and *St. Catharine placed in her 
sarcophagus by angels (52; with the inscription C. V. S. Ch., i.e. 
'Catharina Virgo Sponsa Christf); Bramantino (4); Marco da 
Oggionno (15, 20, 33); Foppa, St. Sebastian (71); Gaudenzio 
Ferrari, Adoration of the Magi (25). 

K>1 Route 19. MILAN. lirera. 

Room I.: 75. Borgognone, Coronation of the Virgin (1522); 
*87. Bernardino de' Conti, Madonna, with the four great church- 
fathers, SS. Jerome, Gregory, Augustine, and Ambrose, and the 
donors, Lodovico Moro, his wife Beatrice, and their two children 
(a drawing of one of the children's heads, now in the Ambrosiana, 
is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, p. 139); 88. Saldino, Madonna 
with saints ; 96. Marco da Oggionno, Fall of Lucifer; 98. B. Luini, 
Madonna with saints ; *106. A. Solario, surnamed da Milano, Ma- 
donna with Joseph and St. Jerome, painted in 1495 ; 107. G. Fer- 
rari, Martyrdom of St. Catharine; 116. Ben. Crespi (17th cent.), 
Circumcision ; 139. Nuvolone (17th cent.), The artist's family. 

Room II.: *159. Gentile da Fabriano, Madonna; 162. Antonio 
and Giovanni da Murano, Madonna, with the Child and saints ; 
*167. Bart. Montagna, Madonna enthroned, with angels playing 
on instruments and saints, one of the artist's master-pieces (1499). 

*168. Gentile Bellini, Preaching of St. Mark at Alexandria. 

In this piece we 'perceive that the art of Gentile (brother of Giovanni) 
on the eve of his dealh was better than it had ever been before. . . . The 
composition is fine, the figures have the individuality which he imparted, 
and the whole scene is full of stern and solid power. — 'History of Paint- 
ing in North Italy', by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

172. Palma Vecchio, Adoration of the Magi (completed by Ca- 
tena'); 173. Giovanni da Udine, St. Ursula and her virgin attend- 
ants; 175, 181. Giacomo Raibolini, Madonna with saints; 179. 
Stefano da Ferrara, Madonna; 182. Fil. Mazzola, Portrait; 185. 
Marco Palmezzano, Madonna; 186. Garofalo, Descent from the 
Cross; 187. Fra Carnevale, Madonna; 188. Giov. Santi (Raphael's 
father), Annunciation; 189. C. Crivelli, Christ on the cross ; 191. 
Cima da Conegliano, SS. Peter Martyr, Augustine, and Nicholas of 
Bari ; 192. Montagna, Madonna with saints, *193. C. Crivelli, Ma- 
donna and Child; 195. Timoteo Viti, Annunciation, with John the 
Baptist and St. Sebastian. 

Room III. : *206. Moretto, Madonna on clouds , SS. Jerome, 
Anthony Abbas, and Francis of Assisi, a work of lively and in- 
tellectual expression and vigorous colouring; *209. Bonifacio the 
Elder (d. 1540), Finding of Moses in the ark of bulrushes, in the 
style of Giorgione ; 212. Paris Bordone, Baptism of Christ ; 214. 
Moroni, Navagiero, Podesta of Bergamo (1565); 215. Bonifacio, 
Christ at Emmaus ; 217. Tintoretto, Pieta ; P. Veronese, *219. SS. 
Gregory and Jerome, *220. Adoration of the Magi, *221. SS. Am- 
brose and Augustine; 225. Calisto Piazza, Madonna and saints; 
*227. Paolo Veronese, SS. Anthony Abbas, Cornelius, and Cyprian, 
a monk, and a page, the finest 'conversazione' piece (see p. 238) 
by this master; 230. Tintoretto, SS. Helena, Macarius, Andrew, 
and Barbara; 234. Girol. Savoldo, Madonna and saints. 

Room IV.: Moretto, 235. St. Francis of Assisi, 239. As- 
sumption of the Virgin ; Paris Bordnne, 241. Madonna with the 
Saviour and St. Dominic, 242. Madonna and saints; Moroni, 250, 

Brera. MILAN. 11). Route. 135 

Portrait of a man, 256. Madonna and saints; *'248. Titian, St. 
Jerome, a characteristic example of Ms later style (about 1560). 

Room V., which lies beyond an antechamber with engravings, 
contains the chief treasures of the collection : *261. Oiov. Bellini, 
Madonna (an early work , with Greek inscriptions) ; 262. Luca 
Signorelli , Scourging of Christ ; 263 bis. Franc. Napoletano (a 
little known pupil of Leon, da Vinci), Madonna; 263. CesaredaSesto, 
Madonna; *264. Mantegna, Large altar-piece in twelve sections, 
at the top Madonna and St. John weeping over the dead body of 
Christ, below St. Luke and other saints, painted in 1454, and a 
proof of the early maturity of the artist, then 23 years old ; *265. 
Luini, Madonna; 266. A sketch after Michael Angelo (original at 
"Windsor); **267. Leon, da Vinci, Study for the head of Christ in 
the Last Supper, of great beauty in spite of decay and retouching. 

**270. Raphael's far-famed Sposalizio, or the Nuptials of the 
Virgin, painted in 1504 for the church of S. Francesco in Citta di 
Castello, where it remained till 1798. 

The composition closely resembles that of the Sposalizio of Perugino 
(now at Caen), in whose studio Raphael then worked. 'In both paintings 
the top is rounded, and in both a small polygonal temple, a charming 
forecast of Bramante's buildings, rises in the background. The central 
part of the foreground is occupied by the long-bearded high-priest, who 
joins the hands of the bridal pair ; Mary is attended by a group of graceful 
virgins, while near Joseph stand the rejected suitors, the most passionate 
of whom breaks his shrivelled wand. A closer examination of Raphael's 
work, however, divulges so many points of divergence, as to make the 
observer almost oblivious to its Peruginesque character. The transposition 
of the bride and bridegroom with their attendant groups to opposite 
sides of the canvas is a purely external difference and one of little signi- 
ficance, but the conception and drawing of the individual figures and the 
more delicate disposition of the grouping reveal the original and peculiar 
genius of the younger artist 1 . — '■Raffael und Michelangelo', by Prof. An- 
ton Springer. 

*272. Qiotto , Madonna , the central part of an altar-piece of 
which the wings are at Bologna (p. 327). 

*273. Mantegna, Pieta, painted about 1474. 

'It is a picture in which Mantegna's grandest style is impressed, 
foreshortened with disagreeable boldness, but with surprising truth, 
studied from nature, and imitating light, shade, and reflection with a 
carefulness and perseverance only equalled by Leonardo and Diirer; dis- 
playing at the same time an excess of tragic realism, and a painful un- 
attractiveness in the faces of the Marys.' — G. & G. 

274, 279. Gentile da Fabriano , SS. Jerome and Dominic ; 
280. Andrea Solario, Portrait; 281. Luca Signorelli, Madonna; 
*282. Mantegna, Madonna in a nimbus of angels' heads, a work of 
surpassing beauty, recently skilfully restored from a lamentable con- 
dition of retouching. 

Room VI. : 283. C. Crivelli, Madonna and saints (1482); *284. 
Oiov. Bellini, Pieta, an early and genuinely impassioned work; 
286, 289. Cima da Conegliano, Four saints ,• 287. Stefano da Zevio, 
Adoration of the Magi (signed, 1435); 288. Vitt. Carpaccio, St. 
Stephen and the scribes (1514); 290. Palma Vecchio, St. Helena 

136 Route 19. MILAN. Brera. 

and Constantine, St. Rochus and St. Sebastian; *297. Giov. Bel- 
lini, Madonna (a late work) ; *300. Cima, St. Peter, St. Paul, and 
John the Baptist. 

Room VII. : 306. Franc. Verla, Madonna with saints and 
angels; Vitt. Carpaccio, 307. Presentation in the Temple, 309. 
Betrothal of the Virgin ; 308. Giov. Mansueti, St. Mark baptising 
St. Anianus ; 315. Liberate da Verona, St. Sebastian. 

Lorenzo Lotto, *253. Portrait of a woman, *254, *255. Portraits 
of men. 

'The fine-chiselled features (of So. 253), extremely pure In drawing, 
charm by their mild expression. A delicate but healthy complexion is 
displayed in warm sweet tones of extraordinary transparence ; and masterly 
transitions lead the eye from opal lights into rich and coloured shadows. 
A half length in the same collection represents a man of lean and bony 
make with a swallow-tailed beard , a grey eye , close set features, and a 
grave aspect. ... A third half length, companion to these, offers another 
variety of type and execution. A man stands at a table in a pelisse with 
a fox skin collar; he is bear-headed and bearded. His right hand rests 
on the table and grips a handkerchief. The ruddy skin of the face is 
broken with touches now warm now cold by which the play of light and 
reflections is rendered with deceptive truth'. — C. & G. 

Room VIII: 324. Guido Reni, SS. Paul and Peter; 326. Albani. 
Dance of Cupids; *328. Lor. Costa, Adoration of the Magi (1499); 
331. Guercino, Abraham and Hagar; *333. Dossi, St. Sebastian; 
334. Fr. Francia, Annunciation (retouched). 

Room IX : 343. A. Govaerts, Forest landscape, with Abraham 
and Isaac (1615); 352, 353. Bernardino Bellotto (Canaletto), 
Landscapes (from the environs of Varese) ; 346, ascribed to 
Hobbema (more probably Jan van der Meer of Haarlem) , Forest 
landscape; 370, 381. J. Fyt , Game; 367. Jan Brueghel, Village 
street (1607); 384. Snyders , Stag -hunt; *449. Rembrandt, The 
artist's sister (1632); *447. Rubens, Last Supper. 

Room X : 390. Velazquez (?), Dead monk; 391. Salvator Rosa, 
St. Paul the Hermit; 446. A. van Dyck, Portrait of a woman; 

442. A. van Dyck, Madonna and Child, with St. Anthony of Padua; 

443. Jacob Jordaens, Abraham's sacrifice; no number, Giulio 
Campi, The Virgin enthroned, between two saints and the donor 
(1530); 424. L. Cambiaso, Adoration of the Shepherds; 426. 
C. Boccaccino, Virgin in a glory with four saints; 423. Castiglioni, 
Kxodus of the Israelites ; 432. Raphael Mengs, Annibali the mu- 
sician (1752); 415. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 402. Pietro daCortona, 
Madonna and saints ; 401. Gasp. Poussin, Forest landscape. 

Room XI : on the light, 486. Bagnacavallo, Betrothal of St. 
Catharine and Peter Martyr ; on the left, 479. Luca Longhi, Ma- 
donna with St. Paul and St. Anthony of Padua (1538) ; 463. Ann. 
Carracci, Christ and the woman of Samaria; 456. Domenichino, 
Madonna with St. John the Evangelist and St. Petronius. ■ — 
Room XII : By the window, Busts of Manzoni by Strazza and 
Hayez by Argenti; by the wall, bust of Longhi by Pacetti. 

To the left, farther on, are several rooms containing modern 

Museo Archeologico. MILAN. 19. Route. 137 

pictures, sketches of academicians, casts from the antique, Renais- 
sance and modern sculptures. (An annual exhibition of art takes 
place in these rooms, generally in September.) — Room XX : Ca- 
nova, Vestal Virgin ; Thorvaldsen , The Graces and Cupid. - — 
Room XXIV contains a copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper 
by Marco da Oggionno. — The last but one of the rooms with mod- 
ern pictures contains portraits, the best of which are those of 
Niccolini by Ussi, Cavour and Manzoni by Hayez, and D'Azeglio 
by Sala. — Returning hence to the ante-chamber , the visitor 
enters the Galleria Oggioni to the right : Luini , Holy Family ; 
Crivelli, Coronation of Mary (1493). 

The Museo Archeologico on the ground-floor (admission daily 
12-3, 50 c. ; Sundays free ; entrance in the small Piazza di Brera, 
or through a passage to the right on the ground -floor) contains 
a rich but imperfectly arranged collection of antique , mediae- 
val , and modern works of art , including some fine Renaissance 

1. Room. Wall of the door (right) : Sculptures from Porta Tosa 
(12th cent.) helow a terracotta arch ; by the last pillar, late-Greek tomb- 
relief; adjoining it a Renaissance 'putto' between inscriptions and sculp- 
tures. Window-wall : Mediaeval sculpture from the tympanum of a church ; 
J. Gothic bell of 1352 ; in the middle, four ancient porphyry columns from 
S. Cristoforo. Next wall : Roman and mediaeval architectural fragments. 
Fourth wall: Portions of the monument of Gaston de Foix (who fell at 
the battle of Ravenna in 1512, see p. 341), from the monastery of S. 
Marta, the most important being pE.) a recumbent figure of the hero by 
Bambaja. D. Monument of Lancino Curzio (d. 1513), by the same master. 
F. Marble frame-work of a door from the Palazzo Medici, with the arms 
and portraits of Francesco Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti , attributed 
to Michelozzo, the builder of the palace. In the corner, C. Monument of 
Bishop Bagareto by And. Fusina (1517). — By the pillars to the right, and 
between them : Ancient Roman sarcophagus ; T. Roman cippus. Last pillar : 
Fragment of a cippus, a youth leaning on a staff (Greek) ; to the left, Head 
of Zeus (nose modern). B. Monument of Regina della Scala, wife of Ber- 
nabo Visconti; bust of a lady (15th cent.). In the centre: A. Large mon- 
ument of Bernabo Visconti, erected by himself during his lifetime (1354), 
resting on twelve columns, and richly gilded; on the sarcophagus are 
reliefs, in front the four Evangelists, at the back the coronation of Mary ; 
at the sides the Crucifixion and a Pieta; above, the equestrian statue of 
Visconti. — II. Room. Above the door, Statuettes from the Porta Orient- 
ale ; on the right , suits of armour and bronze implements from the 
graves of Gauls discovered near Sestri Calende in 1867; in the cabinets, 
relics from tombs excavated in the Nuovo Giardino Pubblico, terracottas, 
crystal, ivory-carvings; in the corner, bronzes, including a head by Mi- 
chael Angelo; sculptures in marble and ivory; majolica; mediaeval gold- 
smith's work; Egyptian antiquities. 

A little to the S.W., in the Piazza del Carmine, is the Gothic 
church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. D, 3, 4) of the 15th cent., 
now modernised, containing a Madonna in fresco by Luini. — To 
the N.W. is the church of S. Simpliciano (PI. D, 3), a fine Roman- 
esque structure, containing a triumphal arch adorned with 'putti' 
by Luini, and a Coronation of the Virgin by Borgognone (in the 
apse). — Farther on, in the direction of the Porta Garibaldi, is 
the church of S. Maria Incorouata (PI. D, 1), with four aisles, 

138 Route 19. MILAN. Bill. Ambrosiana. 

built by Francesco and Bianca Sforza. The Capella Bossi contains 
the tombs of Giov. Tolentino (1517) and Archbishop Gabr. Sforza. 

To the W. of the Piazza del Duomo , beyond the Via Carlo Al- 
berto (p. 131), lies the *Piazza de' Mercanti (PI. E, 5), the 
central point of the mediaeval city, and formerly provided with 
five gates. In the centre of the Piazza is the building which 
was formerly the Palazzo delta Ragione , a large hall erected in 
1228-33 by the podesta (or mayor) Tresseno, to whom an eques- 
trian relief was placed on the S. side with the inscription , 'qui 
solium struxit, Catharos ut' (the Cathari were the Wal- 
densians). The ground-floor is now the corn-exchange, above which 
is the Archivio Notarile. On the N. side of the piazza is the ancient 
Palazzo dei Giureconsulti with a tower, erected in the 16th cen- 
tury, with the exchange and telegraph-office on the ground-floor ; 
on the S. side are the Loggia degli Osii, erected in 1315, and the 
Collegio dei Nobili (1625). 

We proceed hence to the S.W., through the archway and the 
Via dei Ratti, to the Via and Piazza della Rosa. 

The celebrated *Biblioteca Ambrosiana (PI. D, E, 5), open 
on week-days 10-3 o'clock from Nov. 12th to Aug. 31st; to strang- 
ers occasionally at other times (fee 1 fr. ; entrance, Piazza Rosa 2; 
picture-gallery, or Pinacoteca, open to the public in summer on 
Wed., 10-2.30; entrance from the reading-room to the right in the 
court), contains 160,000 vols, of printed books, and 8000 MSS. 
and palimpsests, or codices rescripti, some of them very valuable. 
Director : Cav. Sacerdote Ceriani, the Orientalist. The library was 
founded in 1609 by the archbishop Cardinal Federigo Borromeo, to 
whom a statue was erected in front of the building in 1865. 

The Biblioteca contains among other treasures the "Codice Atlantic/), 
being a collection of original drawings and MSS. of Leonardo da Vinci; 
Virgil with marginal notes by Petrarch; fragments of a MS. of Homer 
illuminated, of the end of the 4th cent.; a number of miniatures; 
letters of S. Carlo Borromeo, Tasso, Galileo, Liguori , etc. Then, Christ 
crowned with thorns, al fresco, Bernardino Luini; Cupid in marble, R. 
Schadow ; several reliefs (fragments of the monument of Gaston de Foix, 
p. 137} and bust of Byron by Thorvaldsen ; mosaics, coins, old woodcuts , 
and drawings by celebrated masters. — First Floor. First door on the left — 

Cabinet of Bronzes, containing busts of Canova and Thorvaldsen, the 
latter by the master himself, and pictures of no great value: 46. Raphael 
Mengs, Pope Clement XIII.; 41. Venetian Master, St. Sebastian; 24. Lo- 
renzo Lotto (V), Madonna. — Second door to the left: entrance to the — 

"Pinacoteca. I. and II. Room, Engravings. — III. Room: Cariani, Bear- 
ing of the Cross; "Botticelli, Adoration of the Holy Child (round picture); 
Barocci, Birlh of Christ; "'Ambrogio Borgognone, Madonna and saints. — 
IV. Room: Landscapes by J. Brueghel and Brill and a fine portrait by 
Moroni. — V. Room : Paintings of the 17th century. — We return through 
the III. Room, to the VI. Room. On the sides of the entrance, large por- 
trait-heads of a man and a woman, in chalk, by Boltraffio (ascribed to 
Da Vinci); Q. Ferrari, Marriage of the Virgin. On the wall to the right: 
Jac. Bassano, Adoration of the Shepherds; ' Bonijacio Veronese (ascribed 
to Giorgione), Holy Family, with Tobias and the angel. On the window- 

S. Maurizio. MILAN. 19. Route. 139 

wall are drawings of the School of Da Vinci, and a few small specimens 
from his own hand. Opposite is ""RuphaeVs Cartoon of the 'School of 
Athens', which should be carefully studied. The dilapidated condition of 
the fresco in the Vatican makes this cartoon of great interest and value, 
since here only do we gain the full key to the artistic motives of the 
painter. The deviations of the fresco from the cartoon, with the ex- 
ception of the sitting figure added at the foot of the staircase, are un- 

On the next wall: Bramantino , Madonna with saints, Adoration of 
the Holy Child (an early work); Gian Petrino and Marco d'Oggionno, Madon- 
nas. Beyond the door : School of La Vinci, Portrait (said to lie of Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti); 'Luini, Youthful Christ in an attitude of benediction ; 
below, Luini, John the Baptist, and above, Luini, Holy Family (after Da 
Vinci's Cartoon in London) ; "Leonardo da VinciP), Portrait of a girl (Bea- 
trice d'Este?). — VII. Room: Drawings, including several by Diirer. 

At the back of the library is the -venerable church of S. Sepolcro 
(PI. D , 5), dating from the 11th century, with a few pictures by 
Oian Petrino in the sacristy. The Via del Bollo leads hence to the 
W. to the Piazza S. Borromeo , in which is situated the Palazzo 
Borromeo, containing some important pictures especially of the 
school of Milan (admission not easily obtained). In the piazza 
are also the small church of 8. Maria Podone, and a statue of S. 
Carlo Borromeo. 

The Via S. Borromeo and the Via S. Maria alia Porta next lead 
to the Corso Magenta, in which, to the right, is the Palazzo Litta 
(PI. 0, 5), with an imposing rococo facade and a handsome court, 
now occupied by the Amministrazione delle Ferrovie dell' Alta 
Italia. Opposite, on the left, rises the small *Chiesa del Monastero 
Maggiore (PI. C, 5) or S. Maurizio, erected in 1503-1519 by Oiov. 
Dolcebuono, a pupil of Bramante. 

The Interior contains numerous frescoes. Second last Chapel on the 
right: Scourging of Christ and scenes from the martyrdom of S. Catha- 
rine, painted by Luini about 1525. The high-altar-piece, with the Adora- 
tion of the Magi, is by Antonio Campi. The "Frescoes at the sides are by 
Luini : above in the centre the Assumption of the Virgin ; below to the 
left SS. Cecilia and Ursula at the sides of the tabernacle, with a beauti- 
ful figure of an angel. In the lunette above is a kneeling figure of the 
donor, Alessandro Bentivoglio (d. 1532 ; expelled from Bologna and buried 
here), with SS. Benedict, John the Baptist, and John the Evangelist. 
Above, martyrdom of St. Maurice. Below to the right, SS. Apollonia and 
Lucia at the sides of the tabernacle, with a pieta; in the lunette, Ippolita 
Sforza, wife of Bentivoglio, with SS. Scholastica, Agnes, and Catharine. 
Above, King Sigismund presents a model of the church to St. Maurice. 
The frescoes in the chapels at the sides of the entrance-door are by 
Aurelio Luini and his pupils. — Behind the high -altar lies the Nuns' 
Choir, of the same size as the church itself. At the high-altar is a 
series of *9 frescoes of the passion; below, the life-size figures of SS. 
Apollonia, Lucia, Catharine, Agatha, Sebastian, and Rochus, all by Luini. 
Inside between the arches are 20 medallions of saints, by Borgognone. In 
the arches of the gallery above are "26 medallions of holy women, of the 
school of Leonardo da Vinci, probably by Bollraffio. 

Farther on in the Corso Magenta, not far from the Porta Magenta, 
on the right, is situated the church of *S. Maria delle Grazie (PI. 
B, 5), an abbey-church of the 15th cent., the Gothic nave of which 
alone belongs to the original structure. The choir, transept, and 
dome are attributed to I'ramante. 

140 Route 19. MILAN. S. Ambrogio. 

The 4th chapel on the right contains frescoes by Oaudenzio Ferrari 
(on the right the Crucifixion , on the left Christ crowned with thorns, 
Christ scourged), executed in 1542, his last works; on the dome, angels 
with the instruments of the passion ; and an altar-piece (Descent from 
the Cross) by Garavaggio. In the 6th chapel, frescoes by Fiamingo. To 
the right, on the organ above, a Madonna by Luini. In the N. aisle John 
the Baptist by Bugiardini. The choir-stalls and some of the monuments 
also deserve notice. The sacristy contains two frescoes by Luini, and good 
wood paintings on the cabinets. 

A large door marked 'Cenacolo', to the W. of this church, 
is the entrance to the refectory of the suppressed monastery of 
Sla. Maria delle Orazie (now a cavalry-barrack) , containing the 
celebrated **Last Supper op Leonardo da Vinci (shown daily 
9-4, admission 1 fr. ; on Sundays, 12-3. and Thursdays gratis; vis- 
itors knock at the door to the right ; the 'custode del cenacolo' is 
generally to be found in the refectory). The picture is unfortunately 
in bad preservation, chiefly from having been painted on the wall 
in oils (before 1499). A fresco by Giov. Donato Montorfano (Cruci- 
fixion) of 1495, opposite the Last Supper, is in much better condi- 
tion. The kneeling figures of duke Lodovico il Moro (p. 134) and 
his wife Bianca Maria with their children are by Leonardo da Vinci, 
the trace of whose hand is still distinctly distinguishable. 

Deplorable as is the condition of the Last Supper, the chief work 
executed by Leonardo during his stay at Milan, the original alone ex- 
hibits to its full extent the emotions which the master intended to ex- 
press, and which even the best copies fail to reproduce. The motive of 
the work has been well explained by Goethe: 'The shock by which the 
artist represents the company at the sacred repast as deeply agitated has 
been produced by the Master's words, One of you shall betray me. They 
have been pronounced; the whole party is in dismay, while he himself 
bows his head with downcast eyes. His whole attitude, the motion of 
his arms and hands , all seem to repeat with heavenly resignation, and 
his silence to confirm, the mournful words — It cannot be otherwise. 
One of you shall betray me! 1 Comp. also p. lii. 

The Via delle Oche and the Via S. Vittore lead hence to the 
S.E. to the Piazza S. Ambrogio, with the church of — 

*S. Ambrogio (PI. C, 6), founded by St. Ambrose in the 4th 
cent, on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus, and dating in its present 
Romanesque form, with its peculiar galleries, from the 12th century. 
The fine atrium in front of the church, containing ancient tomb- 
stones, inscriptions , and half-obliterated frescoes (probably by Ze- 
nale), seems, like the facade, to have preserved the architectural 
forms of the original building. The gates of this church are said to 
be those which St. Ambrose closed against the Emp. Theodosius 
after the cruel massacre of Thessalonica (389). There is a portrait 
of the saint on the left side of the principal entrance. The Lom- 
bard kings and German emperors formerly caused themselves to be 
crowned here with the iron crown , which since the time of Fre- 
derick Barbarossa has been preserved at Monza (p. 147). The ancient 
pillar at which they took the coronation-oath before being crowned, 
is still preserved under the lime trees in the piazza. 

Interior. On the right and left of the side-entrance on the right : 
frescoes by ihatdenzio Ferrari, representing the Bearing of the Cross, the 

S. Eustorgio. MILAN. 19. Route. 141 

three Maries, and the Descent, from the Cross. 2nd Chapel on the right 
( Cappella delle Dame) : a kneeling "Statue of St. Marcellina , by Pacetti. 
5th Chapel on the right : "Legend of St. George , frescoes by Bernardino 
Lanini. In the entrance to the sacristy is the Cappella S. Satiro with 
mosaics of the 5th century. 6th Chapel : Madonna with St. John and 
Jerome, by Luini. By the pulpit are a bronze eagle, a figure of St. Ambrose 
(12th cent.), and an early Christian sarcophagus of the 6th century. The 
canopy over the high-altar, which is adorned with reliefs of the 8th cent., 
recently gilded, is borne by four columns of porphyry. The high-altar still 
retains its original decoration intact, consisting of reliefs on silver and 
gold ground (in front), enriched with enamel and gems, executed in the 
Carlovingian period by Volfoimis, a German (covered, shown only on 
payment of 3 fr.). In front of the high -altar is the tombstone of Emp. 
Lewis II. (d. 875). The choir contains an ancient episcopal throne. By 
the high-altar is an "Ecce Homo, al fresco, by Luini, under glass. In 
the Tribuna "Mosaics of the 9th cent., earlier than those of St. Mark's at 
Venice: Christ in the centre, at the sides the history of St. Ambrose. — 
At the entrance to the Crypt, Christ among the scribes, a fresco by Bor- 
gognone; opposite, the tomb-stone of Pepin, son of Charlemagne. The 
modernised crypt contains the tombs of SS. Ambrose, Protasius, and 
Gervasius. — Adjacent to the left aisle is an unfinished cloister, designed 
by Bramante, and afterwards built over, with capitals of blackish-green 

A little to the S.E. is situated the spacious Macello Pubblico 
or slaughter-house (PI. B, 6, 7). 

The Via Latizone (with the Palazzo Visconti on the left) leads 
hence to the Corso di Porta Ticinese, in which we proceed to the 
right in the direction of the gate. On the left we soon perceive a 
large ancient *Colonnade (PI. D, 7) of sixteen Corinthian columns, 
standing detached from other buildings, the most important relic of 
the Roman Mediolanum, near which is the entrance to — 

*S. Lorenzo (PI. D, 7), the most ancient church in Milan. Whether 
the handsome interior once formed the principal hall of the thermae, 
or of a palace of Maximian (4 th cent.), to which the above-mentioned 
colonnade belonged, or a very ancient Christian place of worship, 
like S. Vitale at Ravenna, is uncertain. It was subsequently altered 
at least three times , the last time by Martina Bassi in the 16th 
century. It is octagonal in form, and covered with a dome. On 
the four principal sides are large semicircular apses in two stories, 
each borne by four columns alternately octagonal and round, and 
the whole structure is simple and dignified. At the back of the 
high-altar is the Cappella S. Ippolito, containing the tomb of Maria 
Visconti. — To the right of the church is the Chapel of St. Aqui- 
linus, containing mosaics of the 6th and 7th cent. (Christ and 
the Apostles), and an ancient Christian sarcophagus supposed to be 
that of the founder, the Gothic king Ataulph (411-16). The 
entrance to the chapel is adorned with an antique marble *Coping. 

Farther S. is the Porta Ticinese, originally intended to commem- 
orate the Battle of Marengo but inscribed in 1814 'Paci Populorum 
Sospitae'. Adjacent rises the ancient church of S. Eustorgio (PI. 
D, 8), founded in the 4th cent., re-erected in the Gothic style by 
Tosano Lombardi in 1278, renewed in the bad taste of the 17th cent, 
by Richini, and recently again restored. The facade is modern. 

142 Route 19. MILAN. S. Alessandro. 

[st Chapel to the right, Mural monument of Giac. Stefano Brivin 
(d. 1481) ; 4th Chapel to the right, Monument of Stefano Visconti; 6th 
Chapel, Monuments of Gaspare Visconti and his wife Agnes (d. 1417). 
Farther on, on the same side, the Cappella de 1 Magi, containing a relief 
of 1347 and a late-Romanesque sarcophagus, in which the 'bones of the 
Magi' were preserved until they were presented to the city of Cologne by 
Frederick Barbarossa after the conquest of Milan in 1162. By the high- 
altar are reliefs of the Passion, dating from the 14th century. At the 
back of the choir is the *Cappella Portinari , with a tine cupola and a 
charming frieze of angels, by Michelozzo (after 1462). It contains the 
magnificent Gothic tomb of St. Peter the Martyr by 67. Balduccio of Pisa 
(1339) ; the walls are adorned with frescoes by Vine. Foppa. 

S. Maria presso S. Celso (PI. E, 8), near the Porta Lodovica, 
possesses a handsome atrium attributed to Bramante, and a facade 
the fine upper part of which was constructed by Galeazzo Alessi. On 
the right and left of the portal are Adam and Eve by Stoldo Lorenzi. 

In the Interior is a picture by Paris Bordone, St. Jerome adoring the 
Child (2nd altar on the right); Gaudenzio Ferrari, Baptism of Christ (be- 
hind the high-altar) ; Borgognone, Madonna adoring the Child, surrounded 
by John the Baptist, St. Rochus, and the donors of the picture (1st cha- 
pel on the left); above it, Sasso/errato, Madonna. The 2nd chapel on the 
left contains a sarcophagus with the relics of St. Celsus. In the sacristy 
are some fine specimens of goldsmith's work. 

Adjacent to this church is 5. Celso, a Romanesque edifice, 
partly removed in 1826 and now possessing few remains of the ori- 
ginal structure. 

The Corso S. Celso (PI. E, 7, 8) leads back from this point 
to the interior of the city. To the right in the Piazza S. Eufemia 
is the church of that name (PI. E, 7), dating from the 5th cent., 
but entirely modernised. A little to the S. is the church of S. 
Faolo, a richly ornamented and characteristic; building of the 
middle of the 16th century. The architectural decorations not only 
of the facade but also, and particularly, of the interior, already il- 
lustrate the principles of the later baroque style. 

The frescoes are by the brothers Giulio, Antonio, and Vincenzo Campi 
of Cremona, who, as precursors of the Bolognese school, introduced 
eclecticism into painting. At the high-altar, Birth of Christ by Ant. 
Campi (1580). 

Farther towards the N. is situated S. Alessandro (PI. E, 6; 
in the Via Amedei, to the right), erected in 1602; it is a reduced 
and in the interior successful copy of St. Peter's at Rome, with two 
W. towers. It is the most sumptuously decorated church in Milan, 
but destitute of works of art. High-altar adorned with precious 
stones. — ■ Adjacent is the Palazzo Trivulzio, containing a fine art- 
collection in which the most noteworthy objects are a portrait by 
Antonello da Messina, a Madonna by Mantegna , and the tomb of 
Azzo Visconti (d. 1329) from S. Gottardo. The extensive library 
contains a MS. of Leonardo da Vinci. 

We return by the Via Lupetta and the Via Torino to the Piazza 
del Duomo. To the right in the Via Torino is the small church of 
S. Satiro (PI. E, 5, 6), founded in the 9th cent., and re-erected 
by Bramante and his pupil Suardi in the 15th century. The ap- 
parent choir is only painted in perspective. The octagonal *Sacristy 

Corso Vitt. Emanuele. MILAN. 19. Route. 143 

with a handsome frieze by Caradosso Foppa, halfway up the wall, 
is also by Bramante. At the end of the left transept is a curious 
little building with a cupola, belonging, like the belfry, to the 
original structure ; it contains a Descent from the Cross, in ter- 
racotta, by Caradosso. 

The church of S. Giorgio al Palazzo (PI. D, 6), in the Via 
Torino, contains in the 1st chapel on the left, a St. Jerome by 
Gaud. Ferrari; in the 3rd chapel on the left, *Frescoes by Luini: 
above the altar, Entombment and Crowning with thorns ; at the 
sides, Scourging and Bcce Homo, in the dome, Crucifixion. — 
Farther to the N., in the Piazza S. Marta, is a Monument by Luigi 
Belli, erected in 1880 in memory of the Italians who fell at Mentana. 

To the S. in the Piazza del Duomo, opposite the cathedra], are 
the Palazzo Reale and the Archiepiscopal Palace, both already men- 
tioned (p. 131). The Piazza Beccaria (PI. F, 5), near the Piazza 
Fontana which adjoins the Pal. Arcivescovile on theE., is adorned 
with a statue of Beccaria (d. 1794 ; comp. p. 133) by Grandi, erected 
in 1871. Adjacent is the Palazzo di Oiustizia (PI. F, 5), built by 
Vine. Seregni; on the portal is a tablet commemorating the Italian 
patriots committed by the Austrians to the fortress of Spielberg in 

The Via Brolo leads hence to the S. to the Piazza S. Stefano, 
with the simple Renaissance church of that name (PI. F, 6). The 
Via dell' Ospedale leads S.W. to the Corso di Porta Romana. 

The *Ospedale Maggiore (PI. F, 6), a vast and remarkably fine 
brick structure , half Gothic and half Renaissance in style, begun 
in 1457 by Antonio Filarete of Florence , is one of the largest 
hospitals in existence , and contains no fewer than nine courts. 
The extensive principal court, surrounded by arcades, is by Richini 
(17th cent.); the court to the right of it is ascribed to Bramante. 
The edifice is entirely covered externally with terracotta, in a style 
frequently observed in other Milanese buildings, but its facade, 
with its rich window-mouldings, is superior to any other structure 
of the kind at Milan. In the chapel are two paintings by Francesco 
de Vico, containing portraits of Francesco and Bianca Maria Sforza, 
the founders of the hospital. 

Farther on, to the S. (entrance in the Corso Porta Romana), is 
the church of S. Nazaro (PI. F, 6, 7), with a large fresco by Ber- 
nardino Lanini, *Martyrdom of St. Catharine, painted in imitation 
of the similar picture in the Brera by Lanini's master Gaud. 
Ferrari; a handsome carved altar; and ancient Swiss stained-glass 
windows to the right of the main entrance. A side-passage leads 
to the octagonal sepulchral chapel of the Trivulzi (1519), built by 
Girolamo della Porta. 

On the N.E. side of the cathedral begins the broad and bustling 
*Corso Vittorio Emanuele (PI. F, G, 4, 5), which, with its pro- 

144 Route l'J. MILAN. Giardini Pubblici. 

longation, the Corso Venezia, leads to the Giardini Pubblici and the 
station. This is the principal business-street in Milan, containing 
the best shops. At No. 22 is an antique statue, known as 'L'uomo 
di pietra'. Farther on, to the left, is the church of — 

S. Carlo Borromeo (PI. F, 4), a rotunda in the style of the 
Pantheon at Rome, consecrated in 1847. The adjacent Oalleria de 
Cristoforis, now occupied with shops, was erected by Pizzala in 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Via Monforte , is 
the small church of S. Babila (PI. G, 4), which is supposed to oc- 
cupy the site of an ancient temple of the sun. Adjacent is an old 
Column with a lion , the cognizance of this quarter of the town. 
In the Via Monforte is situated the Palazzo di Prefettura (PI. G, 
H, 4), with a modern facade. — To the S. of this point, in the Via 
del Conservatorio, is the church of S.Maria della Passione (PI. H, 5), 
with a spacious dome by Crist. Solari (1530), and a facade of the 
17th century. 

It contains a "Last Supper by Gaud. Ferrari (left transept), a Pieta 
by Luini (behind the high-altar; with a predella, representing scenes 
from the life of Constantine and Helena, the earliest known work of 
this master, in the style of Braniantinn), and the tomb of Abp. Birago 
by Fttsina (1495; right transept). The 14 pilasters are adorned with 
figures of saints by Daniele Crespi, a pupil of Procaccini. The ceiling of 
the sacristy was painted by Ambrogio Bovgognone. 

The Conservatoire of Music occupies the old monastery buildings. 

In the vicinity is the church of S. Pielro in Oessate (PI. G, 5), 
re-constructed in the 15th cent., and containing frescoes of the 15th 
cent, and the monument of Senator Grifo (d. 1493). 

The Corso Vittorio Emanuele is prolonged to the Porta Venezia 
by the Corso Venezia (PI. G, H, 2, 3, 4). On the left, on this 
side of the canal, is the Archiepiscopal Seminary (PI. F, G, 4), with 
a fine court by Gius. Meda (16th cent.). In the Via del Senato, 
which diverges to the left, is the Permanent Art Exhibition 
mentioned at p. 127, with a colossal equestrian statue of Napo- 
leon III., by Barzaghi, in the court. Then in the Corso Venezia, 
more to the left, Nos. 59-61, the Pal. Ciani (PI. G, 3), com- 
pleted in 1861, with rich ornamentation in terracotta. Farther on, 
on the right, is the Pal. Saporiti(P\. G, 3), another modern build- 
ing, with Ionic columns, and reliefs by Marchesi. 

The *Giardini Pubblici (PL F , G, 2, 3), between the Porta Venezia 
and the Porta Nuova, and the chestnut avenue of the Bastione di 
Porta Venezia , which skirts the gardens and extends to the Porta 
Nuova, are the favourite promenades of the Milanese, especially on 
Sunday afternoons. Towards sunset they are the scene of a fashion- 
able 'Corso'. Electric light. A broad flight of steps ascends to the 
older part of the gardens , opened in 1785, in the centre of which 
is the Salone (PL F, G, 4), a square building containing the new 
municipal Museo Artistico and a small collection of relics of the 
struggle of 1848 (open daily 1-4, adm. 1 fr., Sundays 20c). 

Museo Civico. MILAN. 19. Route. 145 

Gallery and Room I. : Drawings by early and modern masters. — 
Room II. : Works of the Milan school of the 17th cent. ; the large town 
banner of St. Ambrose; coins, chiefly Milanese from the Koman period 
onwards; fine medals. — Rooms III. and IV. : Modern paintings,* bust of 
Manzoni by Slrazza. — Room V. : Ceramic collection , old and modern 
Fayence , porcelain, glass, wood-carvings, woven fabrics. — Room VI.: 
Old paintings. To the left, miniatures and small Dutch pictures. Then 
"52. Pawl Potter, Two pigs; 55. A. van Dyck, Henrietta Maria, consort of 
Charles I. of England; 67. P. iVeefs, Interior of a Gothic church; 81,82. 
Zuccarelli, River-scenes; "83. Lor. Lotto, Portrait of a youth; 88. Licinio 
Pordenone, Portrait of a woman; "95. Antonello da Messina, Portrait; 106. 
Cariani (in Lotto's manner), Lot and his daughters; 122. Andrea Schiaoone, 
Venus on a dolphin; 134-137. Bellotto, Landscapes; 162. Procaecini, St. 
Gregory carried up by angels on clouds; "200. Foppa, Madonna; "216. 
Cori'eggio, Madonna with the Child and the youthful St. John (an early 
work). — Room VII. To the right, Borgognone, large altar-piece, Ma- 
donna between SS. Sebastian and Jerome; Sassoferrato, Madonna; Oian 
Petrino, St. Mary Magdalene. On the opposite wall are remains of frescoes 
of the Milanese school of the 16th century. — Room VIII. Modern pictures. 

The new part of the Giardini Pubblici, between the Via Palestro 
and Via Manin , is adorned with a statue of the Milanese poet 
Carlo Porta and an Italia by Puttinati. — In the Piazza Cavour, 
outside the S.W. entrance , rises a bronze statue of Cavour by 
Tabacchi on a lofty pedestal of granite; the figure of Clio in front 
is by Tantardini (1865). — The Villa Reale (PL G, 3} , a plain 
modern building in the Via Palestro, contains a few works of art. 

In the Via Manin, to the W., is the Museo Civico (PI. F, 2; 
admission on Tues.,Wed., and Sat., 11-3 o'clock, 1 /2^-j on Thurs. 
gratis), containing natural history collections : on the 1st floor 
palaeontology and ethnography (also a phrenological collection); on 
the 2nd floor zoology, comprising one of the finest collections of 
reptiles in Europe, founded by Jan (d. 1866). At the entrance are 
busts of Jan and Cristoforis, former directors. — Opposite stands 
the Palazzo Melzi, containing a few paintings by Cesare da Sesto, etc. 

At the N.W. angle of the city lies the spacious Piazza d'Abmi 
(PI. B, 0, 3), or drilling-ground, 783 yds. long and 748 yds. wide, 
with the Castello, once the seat of the Visconti and the Sforza, and 
now a barrack. The corner-towers and part of the walls connecting 
them on the S.W. side are the sole remains of the original build- 
ing. On the N.E. side of the Piazza is the Arena (PI. C, 2) , a 
kind of circus for races, etc., which was constructed under Na- 
poleon I., and can accommodate 30,000 spectators (fee i/ 2 fr.). 

Opposite the castle , on the N.W. side of the Piazza is the 
Arco del Sempione (PI. B, 2; ascent 50 c.) , a triumphal arch in 
the Roman style constructed entirely of white marble from designs by 
L. Cagnola , begun in 1804 by Napoleon as a termination to the 
Simplon route (p. 26), and completed by the Emp. Francis in 1838. 
Most of the sculptures are by Pompeo Marchesi. 

To the N.W. of the city (comp. PI. C, D, 1) lies the Cem- 
etery (Cimitero Monumentale) , designed by C. Macciachini , 50 
Baedeker Itaiv I. Kt.i» Rail.. aq 

146 Route 20. SARONNO. From Milan 

acres in area, enclosed by colonnades, and one of the finest 'campi 
santi' in Italy. (The guide, who speaks French, demands a fee of 
1^2 fr- f° r eac h person.) Fine view of the Alps. The numerous 
and handsome monuments , among which those of the Sonzogno, 
Turati, Brambilla, Verazzi, Nasoni, Pagnoni, and Cicogna families 
deserve special mention , form an admirable museum of modern 
Milanese sculpture. In the last section is situated the l Tempio di 
Cremazione' , for the burning of dead bodies, presented to the town 
in 1876 by a Swiss resident (custodian 50 c). 

Two systems of cremation are in use. In that of Paolo Garini the 
process takes 2 hrs. and costs (including a mural tablet) 94 fr. ; in Varini's 
gas-process the time occupied is less than 1 hr. and the cost is 50 fr. A 
sepulchre for the urn in perpetuity costs 40 fr. Paupers are cremated with- 
out charge. 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco. 

A. From Milan to Como via Sabonno. 

281/2 M. Railway in 1» '4-21/4 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 90 c. 
return [andata e ritorno], 5 fr. 75, 3 fr. 70, 3 fr. 10 c). — The trains start 
from the Stazione Erba, Foro Bonaparte (PI. C, 4). 

As far as (3 M.) Bovisa see p. 150. — 5 M. Novate; 6 M. Bol- 
late; Q l / 2 M. Oarbagnate ; 11 M. Caronno. 

13'/2 M. Saronno (Albergo Madonna), a large village on the 
Lura, with 7200 inhab., known in Italy for its excellent ginger- 
bread (amaretti). — A quadruple avenue of plane-trees leads W. 
from the station to the *Santuabio dblla Bbata Vbbginb, a cele- 
brated pilgrimage-church, built at different times between the 
end of the 15th and the end of the 17th cent., chiefly in a pom- 
pous baroque style. It contains a series of admirable frescoes. 

The paintings in the interior of the dome represent a concert of 
angels, and are by Gaudenzio Ferrari. Round the drum are several wooden 
statues by Andrea Fusina Milanese. The frescoes immediately below the 
drum are by Lanini, those in the next section by Cesare da Sesto and 
Bernard. Luini (SS. Rochus and Sebastian). The remaining frescoes are 
all by Luini, who, as the story goes, sought an asylum in the sanctuary 
of Saronno after killing a man in .self-defence, and had to work at the 
bidding of the monks. In the passage leading to the choir are depicted 
the Marriage of the Virgin and Christ among the doctors; in the choir 
itself, the "Adoration of the Magi and the "Presentation in the Temple. 
Above, in the panels and lunettes, are Sibyls, Evangelists, and Church 
Fathers. A small apse built out from the choir contains paintings of *S. 
Apollonia to the right, and *S. Catharine to the left, each with an angel. 

From Saronno to Laveno, see p. 162. 

I51/2 M. Rovello; 17 M. Rovellasca ; 19V 4 M. Lomazzo ; 20 M. 
Caslino; 211/4 M. Cadorago ; 23 M. Fino; 233/ 4 M. Portkhetto; 
25^2 M. Grandate; 27 7 2 M. Camerlata , at the foot of a moun- 
tain-cone, bearing the ruined Castello Baradello, once a residence of 
Frederick Barbarossa (p. 149). — 28'/2M. Como. The train stops first 
at Porta delTorre (p. 149), and then goes on to the Stazione Ferrovia 
Nord on the bank of the lake. 

to Como. MONZA. 20. Route. 147 

B. From Milan to Como and Lecco "via Monza. 

From Milan to Como , 30 M., railway in l'/4-l 3 / 4 hr. (fares 5 fr. 40, 
3 fr. 80, 2 fr. 45 c. ; express, 6 fr., 4 fr. 55 c). Through-tickets may be 
obtained at the railway-station of Milan for Como, Tremezzo, Cadenab- 
bia, Bellagio, Menaggio, and Colico. — From Milan to Lecco 32 M. 
railway in l»/ 4 -2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 5, 2 fr. 60 c). 

The line traverses a fertile plain, luxuriantly clothed with vine- 
yards, mulberry-plantations, and fields of maize, and intersected 
by innumerable canals and cuttings for purposes of irrigation. 
— 2V2 M. Greco ; 47 2 M. Sesto - San-Giovanni. 

8 M. Monza {Alb. del Castello , Falcone, near the station) is a 
town with 15,500 (incl. suburbs 28,000) inhabitants. Leaving the 
station and following the Via Italia to the right, we pass the church 
of S. Maria in Istrada (2nd on the right), with a Gothic brick facade 
of 1327 , and soon reach the *Cathedkai, , the chief object of 
interest. It was erected in the 14th cent, in the Lombard Gothic 
style by Marco da Campione on the site of a church founded in 595 
by the Lombard queen Theodolinda, and contains double aisles and 
transept, flanked with chapels on both sides. Above the portal is 
a very curious relief representing Queen Theodolinda amid her 
treasures ; below, the Baptism of Christ. 

Interior. In the left transept is the plain sarcophagus of Queen Theo- 
dolinda; in the E. transept a relief representing the coronation of Emp. 
Charles IV. (1355). — In a casket forming the centre of a richly-decorated 
cross over the altar, to the right of the choir, is preserved the celebrated 
Iron Crown, with which 34 Lombard kings were crowned. This venerable 
relic was last used at the coronation of the Emp. Charles V., of Napoleon 
in 1805, and of Emp. Ferdinand I. in 1838. It consists of a broad hoop of 
gold adorned with precious stones, round the interior of which is a thin 
strip of iron, said to have been made from a nail of the true Cross brought 
by the empress Helena from Palestine. In 1859 it was carried off by the 
Austrians, but after the peace of 18G6 was restored to its former repository. 
(Fee for seeing the crown , 5 fr.) — The 'Treasury (fee 5 fr. for any 
number of visitors) contains several objects of historical interest: a hen 
with seven chickens in gold , representing Lombardy and its seven .pro- 
vinces, executed by order of Queen Theodolinda; the queen's crown, fan, 
and comb; two silver loaves, presented by Napoleon I. after his corona- 
tion; the cross which was placed on the breast of the Lombard kings at 
the moment of their coronation; a richly- adorned book - cover with an 
inscription of Theodolinda; reliquary, cross, and missals of Berengarius; 
goblet of sapphire , with a stem of Gothic workmanship ; Gothic goblet 
of Gian Galeazzo Viseonti; fine diptychs of the 4-6th cent. ; Gothic carv- 
ings in ivory; 'ampullae' from the Roman catacombs (vessels with a 
dark-red deposit supposed to be the blood of martyrs); Byzantine pil- 
grim-flasks from Palestine; model of the iron crown. A cabinet outside 
the treasury contains the mummy of one of the Viseonti, who died in 1413. 

The handsome Broletto , or town-hall , of the 13th cent. , with 
round-arched windows and tower, is believed to be part of a palace 
of the Emp. Frederick I. and the Lombard kings. The royal Sum- 
mer Palace near Monza is a large building with an extensive and 
beautiful park, traversed by the Lambro. The church of the 
Madonna di Tirano contains frescoes by Luini , Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
and Cesare da Sesto. 

Tramway from Monza to Milan and to Barzanb, see p. 126. — Another 
tramway unites Monza with Vimercate. 


148 Route 20. COMO. 

The lines to Como and Lecco divide at Monza. The former line 
runs to the N.W., affording pleasant views, to the right, of the 
fertile Brianza (p. 150), with its numerous country-residences. The 
train passes through several tunnels. 11 M. Lissone- Muggio. 
To the right rises the long, indented Monte Resegone, to the left of 
which are the Monte Grigna and the mountains reaching to the 
Splugen. — 1272 M. Desio ; 14 1/2 M. Seregno, a town with 7600 in- 
habitants. From (18 M.) Camnago a branch-line diverges to Seveso 
S. Pietro (p. 151). 20 1/2 M. Carimate ; 21 V2 M. Cantii - Amago ; 
241/2 M. Cucciago ; 28 M. Albate - Camerlata (p. 149). — 30 M. 
Como; omn. to the quay 30 c, included in through-tickets. 

Como. — Arrival. The Stazione Mediterranean or principal station 
(St. Gotthard Railway), is 1/2 M. from the quay. The Stazione Ferrovia 
Nord lies to the right, 200 yds. from the quay (narrow-gauge line to Mi- 
lan, in 2 hrs., comp. p. 146). 

Hotels. 'Hotel Volta, R., L., & A. 5, B. f/2, D. 5, pens. 10 fr. ; 
Italia; Hotel-Pension Suisse, with cafe and restaurant, 1!., L., & A. 2'/2, 
B. 1 fr. ; Alb. del Cappello , good Italian cuisine. All these are at the 
harbour , where there are several Cafe's. " Trattoria Frapconi, at the end 
of a street leading straight to the harbour, in the cornerof the square. — 
Baths in the lake by the Giardino Pubblico, to the left, outside the pier. — 
Books, photographs, &c : Meyer <fr Zeller, Piazza Cavour, in the Hot. Volta. 
— Carriage with one horse to Erba and Bellagio (5-6 hrs.), 25 fr. and 
fee of 3 fr. 

Como (705 ft.), the capital of a province, with 25,600 inhab. 
and large silk-factories , the birthplace of the elder 'and younger 
Pliny and of the electrician and philosopher Volta (1745-1826 ; whose 
Statue by P. Marchesi is on the W. side of the town near the 
quay), lies at the S. end of the S.W. arm of the Lake of Como, 
and is enclosed by an amphitheatre of mountains. It was the 
Roman Comum, and of some importance in the middle ages. 

The *Cathedbal, begun in the Gothic style in 1396, and altered 
in the Renaissance style by Tommaso Rodari (choir , transept, 
outside of nave) in 1486, is built entirely of marble, and is one of 
the best in N. Italy. The S. portal is by Bramante ; the dome is 
modern. The greater part of the sumptuous plastic ornamentation is 
by Rodari and other contemporary Lombard artists. Over the magni- 
ficent W. portal are reliefs (Adoration of the Magi) and statuettes 
(Mary with S. Abbondio, etc.). At the sides of the main entrance 
are statues of the elder and the younger Pliny, erected in 1498. 

Interior. The gaudy vaulting , restored in 1838 at a cost of 
600,000 fr. , destroys the effect of the fine proportions , which resemble 
those of the Certosa near Pavia (p. 176). The windows of the portal 
contain good modern stained glass, representing the history of S. Abbon- 
dio; there are others to the right of the entrance and in the choir. — To 
the right of the entrance is the monument of Cardinal Tolomeo Gallic- ., a 
benefactor of the town, erected in 1861. Farther on, to the right, 2nd 
"Altar, di S. Abbondio, with handsome wood-carving, and scenes from the 
life of the saint; adjoining (1.) the "Adoration of the Magi., by Bern. Luini, 
and (r.) the Flight into Egypt, by Gaud. Ferrari. Over the (3rd) altar of 
St. Jerome a "Madonna by B. Luini. In the N. Transept the Altare del 
Croceflsso of 1498, with a fine stalue of St. Sebastian. In the Choir the 
Apostles, by Pompeo Marchesi. The Sacristy contains pictures by Guido 

MONTICELLO. 20. Route. 149 

Reni, Paolo Veronese, etc. In tlic Left Aisle, the altar of the Mater Dolo- 
rosa with an Entombment by Tommaso Rodari (1498). At the Altare di 
S. Giuseppe: 1. Q. Ferrari, Nuptials of the Virgin, in style resembling 
Raphael ; r. B. Luini, Nativity ; St. Joseph , a statue by P. Marchesi, and 
a basrelief below, the last work of this master ; by the third altar the 
busts of Pope Innocent XI. (Odescalchi) and Carlo Ravelli, bishop of Como. 

Adjoining the church is the Town Hall (Broletto), constructed 
of alternate courses of different-coloured stones, and completed in 
1215. Behind the cathedral is the Theatre, erected in 1813. In 
the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, which runs S. from the cathedral, is the 
rear of the church of S. Fedele, with a fine semicircular apse. The 
chief facade of the church , in the Piazza del Mercato, is as little 
worthy of attention as the completely spoiled interior. The Porta 
del Torre , a massive five-storied structure , is also worthy of note. 

On the promenade outside the town is the church Del Cro- 
cefisso, of the 17th cent., richly decorated with marble and gold; 
'/^hr. farther, to the left, on the slope of the mountain, is the fine 
old Basilica S. Abbondio , a Lombard structure of the 8th cent. , 
afterwards frequently altered. Beneath it the remains of a church 
bf the 5th cent, have been found. • — The Castello Baradello 
(p. 146), reached by a tolerable footpath in IY2 hr. , i s an ex_ 
cellent point of view. 

Excursions. On the E. bank a beautiful new road leads along the 
hillside, high above the lake, affording a variety of charming views, to 
(4'/2 M.) Torno (p. 153). — High above Como, to the N. E., lies the village 
of Brunette (2405 ft.), the home of itinerant barometer-vendors, enjoying 
a beautiful view towards the W., as far as Monte Rosa. It is reached in 
l'|2 hr. by a zigzag-road to the N. of the suburb of Borgo S. Agostino. 

From Como to Lugano, see p. 40; to Varese, see p. 164. 

From Como to Lecco, 26 M., railway in 2'/4-2i/2 hrs. (4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 
35, 2 fr. 15 c). — 3 M. Albate-Camerlata, see p. 148; 5 M. Albate-Trecallo; 
7'/'2 M. Cantii; 10 M. Brenna-Alzale , between the villages of these names; 
11 M. Anzano del Parco. To the left lies the Logo d Alserio. — 13'/2 M. 
Merone- Pontenuovo , the junction of the Milan and Erba line (p. 151). — 
15 M. Mojana; 15 3 /4 M. Casletto-Rogeno , on the S. bank of the Lago di 
Pusiano; 17 M. Hotteno; 18'/2 M. Oggiono, at the S. end of the Lago 
(FAnnone. The train then runs along the E. bank of this lake to (22 M.) 
Sala al Barro, the startiug-point for an ascent of Mte. Baro (p. 150), which 
rises to the E. The Lago d'Annone is connected with the Lake of Lecco 
by the Rilorlo, the course of which we follow beyond (22'/2 M.) Civale. 
The Mte. Resegone is prominent to the E. — 23'/2 M. Valmadrera. The 
train then penetrates a tunnel, crosses the wide Adda by a new bridge, 
and reaches (26 M.) Lecco (p. 150). 

The Railway from Monza to Lecco skirts the S.E. slopes of the 
beautiful range of hills of the Brianza (p. 150), studded with num- 
erous villas of the wealthy Milanese. — 12y 2 M. Arcore. From 
(15Y2 M.) Vsmate an omnibus runs in 3 / 4 hr. to Monticello (Hotel 
Monticello), a summer-resort a little to the N.W. — From (19 M.) 
Cernuseo - Merate a pleasant excursion may be taken to the lofty 
Montevecchia, situated towards the N.W. (i 1 /^ hr. ; the church of 
Montevecchia commands an excellent view of the Lombard plain, 
Milan, Cremona, Novara, and part of the Brianza, etc.; good wine, 
but a poor inn ; pleasant return-route by Missaglia, with a guide, 

150 Route 20. LKUUO. 

l'/ 4 hr. ; thence by carriage to Merate ; fine views). The village 
of Merate (Albergo del Sole), situated 1 M. from the station, was 
formerly fortified ; pretty villas. — 21 M. Olgiate-Molgora ; then a 
tunnel, beyond which a view of the valley of the Adda is obtained 
to the right. The train descends, crosses the river by an iron bridge, 
and joins the Lecco and Bergamo line at (27 l /. 2 M.) Calolzio. — 
30 M. Maggianico . 

32 M. Lecco. — Croce di Malta; Albergo d 'Italia, both in the 
Italian style, well spoken of; Leon d'Oro; Hot. Deux Toers. — Omn. 
between the station and the pier 50 c. 

Lecco is an industrial town with 8000 inhab. and silk, cotton, 
and iron manufactories, at the S. end of the Lake of Lecco orE. arm 
of the Lake of Como (p. 156), from which the Adda here emerges. A 
statue of Garibaldi, by Confalonieri, was unveiled in the piazza in 
1884. Pleasant walks, admirably described in Manzoni's 'I Promessi 
Sposi', to the hill of S. Oerolamo, with a pilgrimage-church and a 
ruined castle ( 3 /j hr.), etc. The Ponte Grande, a stone-bridge of 
ten arches, constructed in 1335 by Azzone Visconti, and furnished 
with fortified towers at the extremities, leads S. from Lecco to 
Pescate , where the road divides: the right branch, passing, the 
village of Malgrate (with many silk-factories) to the "W. of Lecco, 
leads to Como (p. 148), the left branch southwards to Milan. To 
the N. of Malgrate is the promontory of S. Dionigio. 

From Lecco we may ascend via Pescate to (2 hrs.) the top of Monte 
Baro (3150 ft.), which may also be ascended from Sala al Barro (p. 149). 
About two-thirds of the way up is a new inn. The top affords a fine *View 
of the Brianza. 

A little below Lecco the Adda again expands into the Lago di Garlale, 
and further down, into the small Lago di Olginale. A navigable canal con- 
nects Trezzo with Milan. — From Lecco to Bergamo, 20'/2 M., railway 
in I1/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 90 c), see p. 185. 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza. 

Railway from Milan to (27 M.) Incino-Erba (station, PI. C, 4) in l'/z- 
13/4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 25, 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 55 c. ; return-tickets 6 fr. 80, 4 fr., 
2 fr. 80 c). — High-road from Erba to Bellagio. 

Brianza is the name of the undulating, grassy, partially wooded, 
and extremely fertile tract, 12 M. in length, 6 M. in breadth, ex- 
tending between the Seveso and the Adda , and stretching to the 
N. to the triangular peninsula which divides the Como and Lecco 
lakes. The soil is very fertile, and the whole district studded with 
villas peeping out from vines, orchards, and mulberry plantations. 
In the centre are several small lakes (Lago d'Annone, Pusiano, 
Alserio, Segrino, and Montorfano). 

The Railway from Milan to Incino - Eeba traverses a well- 
cultivated and well-watered plain. As far as (2*^ M.) Bovisa it 
coincides with the line to Saronno (p. 146). 4'/ 2 M. Affori; 5 M. 
Bruzzano; b l j<i M. Cormanno. The train now crosses the small 
Seveso. 6 M. Cusano; 7'/2 M. Paderno ; 9 M. Palazzolo. Beyond 

BRIANZA. 21. Route. 151 

(10 M. ) Varedo the train again crosses the Seveso and reaches 
(11 M.) Bovisio. 12M. Cesano-Maderno. From (14 M.) Seveso 
S. Pietro a branch-line diverges to (IY4M.) Camnago (p. 148), a 
station on the Monza - Como railway, which our line crosses near 
(15 M.) Meda. 16 M. Cabiate; 17 '/ 3 M. Mariano. Near (I81/2 M.) 
Carugo-Giussano the country becomes hilly. 20 M. Arosio, pleas- 
antly situated amid vine-clad hills, some of which are crowned with 
villages and country-houses. 21 M. Inverigo, a pretty village, in the 
valley of the Lambro. On an eminence rises the *Botonda, one of 
the finest villas in the Brianza , with a park and admirably-kept 
garden, and commanding an extensive view. The Villa Crivelli is 
famous for its cypresses. The train now ascends the valley of the 
Lambro. 23 M. Lambrugo; 25^2 M. Pontenuovo , the junction of 
the Lecco and Como line (p. 149). The Logo d'Alserio is passed 
on the left and the Lago di Pusiano on the right. The train enters 
the charming plain of Erba (Pian d'Erba). 

27 M. Incino-Erba, the station for the village of Incino and 
the small town of Erba. Incino, the ancient Liciniforum, contains 
a lofty Lombard campanile. Erba (1020 ft. ; Albergo) lies a little 
to the N., on the road from Como to Lecco, which here traverses 
the fertile and terraced slopes of a small hill. It contains several 
handsome villas , among which is the Villa Amalia, on the N.W. 
side, commanding a charming view of the Brianza. 

From Erba to Bellagio , about 15 M. ; a highly interesting 
excursion. — We at first follow the road to Lecco (p. 150) , which 
before reaching the Lambro crosses the road from Seregno (p. 148) 
to Bellagio. The latter leads to the N., following the course of 
the Lambro. It soon enters a mountainous district, and the scenery 
becomes more attractive. Caslino , possessing considerable silk- 
factories (filatoje), rises picturesquely on the slope of the hill. 

4 M. Canzo (Croce di Malta) is almost contiguous to Asso, the 
two numbering together 3200 inhabitants. At the entrance of 
Asso is a large silk-manufactory. 

The road now gradually ascends for a considerable distance in 
the picturesque valley of the Lambro, the Vall' Assina, the slopes 
of which are well wooded ; it passes through several villages, (2 M.) 
Lasnigo, (2 M.) Barni, and Magreglio , where the ascent becomes 
more Tapid; first view of both arms of the Lake of Como from the 
eminence near the (1 M.) Chapel. 

Delightful *Survey of the entire E. arm to Lecco and far be- 
yond, from the back of the first church of (IV4 ^0 Civenna (Inn), 
with its graceful tower. The road now runs for 2M. along the shady 
brow of the mountain, which extends into the lake at Bellagio. 
Beyond the chapel , adjoining which is the tomb of the Trotti fam- 
ily , good views are obtained of the W. arm of the lake (of Como), 
the Tremezzina with the Villa Carlotta and Cadenabbia, the E. arm 
(Lake of Lecco), a large portion of the road on the E. bank, the 

1 52 Route 22. LAKE OF COMO. 

entire lake from the promontory of Bellagio to Domaso (p. 158), 
and the rising ground with the Serbelloni park. 

The road winds downwards for about 3 M., finally passing the 
Villa Oiulia (p. 156) on the right. From Civenna to the hotels at 
Bellagio on the lake (p. 155) 2 hrs. walk. 

A longer route, which will reward the pedestrian, is by the Monte 
S. Primo (5585 ft.). Ascent from Canzo with a guide in 4-5 hrs., descent 
to Bellagio 3 hrs. (fatiguing , over debris). Magnificent panorama from 
the 9ummit, comprising the Brianza as far as Milan, and the Lake of 
Como to the N. as far as the Alps from Monte Rosa to the Spliigen. 

22. Lake of Como. 

Flan of Excursion. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (p. 160) and the 
Lago Maggiore (R. 25) may be visited from Milan most expeditiously as 
follows : train or tramway in l 3 /i-2 hrs. to Como (Cathedral) ; proceed by 
steamboat in the afternoon in I1/2 hr. to Cadenabbia or Bellagio, the latter 
the most beautiful point on the Lake of Como, and spend the night there. 
In the evening and next morning visit Villa Carlotta and Villa Serbelloni ; 
by steamboat in 7* hr., or by rowing-boat, to Menaggio; thence by rail- 
way in 1 hr. to Porlezza, in time for the steamboat which starts for Lugano 
(p. 1G0) , arriving early enough to leave time for the ascent of Monte S. 
Salvatore. From Lugano by steamboat in l'/4 hr. to Ponte Tresa and thence 
by steam-tramway in 3 /4 hr. to Luino; steamboat from Luino in Ufa hr. 
to the Borromean Islands, thence in 1 hr. to Arona. Railway from Arona 
to Milan , see p. 165. The Circular Tour Tickets (see p. xvii) issued 
for this excursion are economical and convenient. 

Steamboat thrice daily from Como to Colico in 372-5 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 70, 

2 fr. 60 c); twice daily from Como to Lecco in 'A'/i-i hrs.; thrice daily 
from Lecco to Colico in 372-47* hrs. Stations between Como and Colico: 
Cernobbio (pier), Blevio, Moltrasio (pier), Torno, Urio, Carate (pier), Palanzo, 
Pognana, Torriggia, Jfesso, Argegno (pier), Sala, Campo & Zezzeno, Lenno, 
Azzano, Tremezzo e S. Giovanni (pier), Cadenabbia (pier), Bellagio (pier), 
Menaggio (pier), Varenna (pier), Gittana it- Regoledo, Bellano (pier), Acqua- 
seria , Rezzonico, Dervio, Cremia , Musso , Bongo (pier) , Gravedona (pier), 
Domaso, Colico (pier). Embarkation and landing free (the tickets have a 
coupon which is given to the boatman). Those who embark at inter- 
mediate stations must procure a ticket at the pier; otherwise they are 
liable to be charged for the whole distance from Como or Colico. Some 
of these stations are often passed without stopping, and the advertised 
hours are not rigidly adhered to. Some of the boats are handsome saloon- 
steamers, with good restaurants on board. 

Rowing-boats (barca). First hour f/2 fr. for one rower, 3 fr. for two, 
and 4'/2 fr. for three, each additional hour 1 fr. each rower. From Bel- 
lagio to Cadenabbia (Villa Carlotta) and back , each rower 27* fr. ; Bel- 
lagio to Tremezzo, Bellagio to Menaggio, and Bellagio to Varenna also 
272 fr. each rower; Bellagio to Villa Melzi, Villa Carlotta, and back, each 
rower 3 fr. — One rower suffices, unless the traveller is pressed for time; 
a second may be dismissed with the words 'basta uno ! ' When travellers 
are not numerous , the boatmen readily reduce their demands. In addi- 
tion to the fare, it is usual to give a 'buonamano' of 72 ft- or 1 fr. accord- 
ing to the length of the excursion. 

The *I.ake of Como (700 ft.), Italian Lago di Como or II Lario, 
the Lacus Larius of the Romans , is extolled by Virgil (Georg. ii. 
159), and is in the estimation of many the most beautiful lake in 
N. Italy. Length from Como to the N. extremity 30 M. ; greatest 
width between Menaggio and Varenna nearly 2t/ 2 M. ; greatest depth 
1930 ft. At Bellagio (p. 155) the lake divides into two branches, 

1 Z 3 ♦ '• ■■^ 


rill ^> 'ilk \i^>^i%¥^^^^M^$^W^^ 


22. Route. 153 

called respectively the Lakes of Como (W.) and Lecco (E.J. The 
Adda enters at the upper extremity and makes its egress near 
Lecco. The W. arm has no outlet. 

Numerous villages and the gay villas of the Milanese aristocracy, sur- 
rounded by luxuriant gardens and vineyards, are scattered along the banks 
of the lake. In the forests above, the brilliant green of the chestnut and 
walnut contrasts strongly with the greyish tints of the olive, which to the 
unaccustomed eye bears a strong resemblance to the willow. The moun- 
tains rise to a height of 7000 ft. The scenery of the lake, as seen from 
the deck of the steamboat, somewhat resembles that of a vast river, the 
banks on both sides being distinguishable. — The industrious inhabitants 
of the banks of the lake are much occupied in the production and manu- 
facture of silk. Tasteful articles in olive-wood are made at Bellagio. — 
The lake abounds in fish , and trout of 20 lbs. weight are occasionally 
captured. The 'Agoni' are small, but palatable. 

The prospect from the quay at Como is limited , but as soon as 
the steamer has passed the first promontory on the E. the beauty 
of the lake is disclosed to view. 

Lake of Como. 

W. Bank. 

Borgo Vico , the N.W. suburb 
of Como , with the large Villa 
Raimondi at the N. end belong- 
ing to the duke of Visconti- 
Modrone (strangers admitted). 

Villa Tavernola, beyond the 
mouth of the Breggia. Villa 
Cima, in a beautiful park. 

Cernobbio. — '-'Grand Hotel 
Villa d'Este et Reine d'Angle- 
terre, pens. 9-10 fr., with pleasant 
grounds, frequented by English and 
Americans; Hot. de la Reine Olga; 
Alb. Cernobbio. 

Cernobbio is a considerable 
village, surrounded by handsome 
villas : Belinzaghi, Baroggi, and 
others. High above lies the church 
of Rovenna. 

Villa Volpi, formerly Pizzo, on 
a promontory extending far into 
the lake. 

Villa Cavallini. 

Moltrasio (Alb. Caramazza), in 
a beautiful situation , with the 
factory-like Palazzo Passalacqua, 
rising above its terraced garden. 

Vrio; then ('unite (Alb. Lario), 

E. Bank. 

Borgo S. Agostino , the N.E. 
suburb of Como. A road has been 
constructed along the lake(comp. 
p. 149). Numerous wine-cellars. 
On the hill above is the village of 
Brunate (p. 149), commanding a 
fine view. 

Blevio , with its numerous 
villas, including those of Mylius, 
Ricordi , and Taglioni , with a 
Swiss cottage, formerly the prop- 
erty of the famous danseuse, 
now belonging to Prince Tru- 
betzkoy. Villa Pasta was the 
residence of the celebrated singer 
(d. 1865). 

Villa Taverna, with fine gar- 

Torno (Alb. Bella Venezia) has 
a pretty church and is surrounded 
by villas. 

Villa Pliniana , in the bay of 
Molina , at the entrance of a 

154 22. Route. 



W. Bank. 
with the Monte Bisbino in the 
background. — Villa Colobiano. 
The lofty pyramid was erected to 
the memory of Dr. Frank, a pro- 
fessor of Pavia (d. 1851) , with 
money left by him for the pur- 

Laglio, with Villa Vitali, for- 
merly Antonglna. — Germanello. 

Torrigia (Ristor. Casarico); on 
the promontory the Villa Elisa. 

Brienno , embosomed in laurels . 

Argegno (Alb. & Ristor. Telo; 
Alb. Barchetta), at the mouth of 
the Intelvi Valley, in which lies 
(8 l / 2 M., by road) Lanzo a" Intelvi 
(p. 161). 

Colonno ; then Sala, with the 
small island of 8. Oiovanni, or 
Comacina, frequently mentioned 
in the annals of mediaeval war- 
fare, now occupied by a small 
church. Monte Legnone, and 
Monte Legnoncino (p. 158) are 
distinctly visible towards the N.E. 

Campo lies in a bay formed by 
the promontory of Lavedo, which 
here projects far into the lake. 
On its extremity ( 3 / 4 M. from 
Campo or Lenno) glitters the Villa 
Balbianello, with its colonnade, 
the property of Count Arcomati 
(visitors admitted ; fine view). 

In the bay lie Lenno and Azza- 
no. On the slope above Mezzegra. 

Tremezzo. — *Alb. Bazzoni, 
cheaper than the large hotels in Ca- 
denabbia and Bellagio. 

Tremezzo, practically forming 
with Cadenabbia one place in- 
cluding the Villa Carlotta (see 
below), is situated in the Tre- 
mezzina, a beautiful district just- 
ly called the garden of Lombardy. 

E. Bank. 
narrow gorge, erected in 1570 by 
Count Anguissola, is now the 
property of the Marchesa Trotti. 
It derives its name of Pliniana 
from a neighbouring spring which 
daily changes its level , a pe- 
culiarity mentioned both by the 
younger and the older Pliny. 
The passages are inscribed on 
the walls of the court. 

Itiva di Palanzo and Pognana ; 
then Quarsano and Careno. 

Nesso, at the mouth of the Val 
di Sessa , which ascends to the 
Piano del Tivano (3800 ft,), with 
a high waterfall in a narrow 
gorge, frequently dry in summer. 

Beyond La Cavagnola we ob- 
tain the first view of Bellagio. 

Near Lezzeno is one of the 
deepest parts of the lake. 

Villa Besana. 

S. Giovanni , with the Villa 
Trotti (fine garden, visitors ad- 
mitted). The church has an al- 
tarpiece (Christ enthroned, with 
saints and the donors) by Gaud. 

Villa Balzaretti, formerly Pol- 
di-Pezzoli , contains the mauso- 
leum of the last of the Gonzagas, 
in the form of a round Roman- 
esque temple. Fine view. Visi- 
tors are admitted to the beautiful 

Villa Melzi, erected by Alber- 
tolli in 1810-15, for Count Melzi 
d'Erile , who was vice-president 
of the Italian Republic in 1802, 
and was made Duke of Lodi by 
Napoleon in 1807. It possesses a 
splendid garden, which, however, 
is closed to visitors at present. 

The Villa Melzi is •/•> M. to the 
S. of Bellagio. 

of Como. 


22. Route. 155 

W. Bank. 

Interesting excursion (there 
and back, 3-4hrs.) by Lenno to 
*S. Maria del Socccrso, a pilgrim- 
age church with beautiful view 
(the sacristan sells refresh- 
ments) ; return by Mezzegra. 

Cadenabbia. — "Bellevue, ad- 
joining the Villa Carlotta, with shady 
grounds on the lake (Engl, church 
service in summer); "Belle-Ile; "Bri- 
tannia, pens, from 7 fr. ; Hotel- 
Pension Cadenabbia, 7-8 fr. a day. 
Cafe" Lavezari. — Hotel-omnibuses at 
the pier. 

Cadenabbia, in a sheltered sit- 
uation halfway between Como and 
Colico, is now a favourite resort 
of the English. In the vicinity 
(S.W.), in a garden sloping down 
to the lake, stands the celebrated 
*Villa Carlotta, or Sommariva, 
from the Count of that name to 
whom it formerly belonged. In 
1843 it came into the possession 
of Princess Albert of Prussia, from 
whose daughter Charlotte (d. 
1855) it derives its present ap- 
pellation. The widower of the 
latter, Duke George of Saxe-Mei- 
ningen, is the present proprietor. 
Visitors ring at the entrance to 
the garden and ascend the broad 
flight of steps (accessible from 8 
to 6; fee 1 fr.). 

Interior. The Marble Hall con- 
tains a frieze decorated with cele- 
brated "-Reliefs by Thorvaldsen, re- 
presenting the Triumph of Alexan- 
der (for which a sum of nearly 
375,000 fr. was paid by Count Som- 
mariva); also several statues by 
Canova (Cupid and Psyche , Magda- 
lene, Palamedes , Venus) ; Paris by 
Fontana ; bust of Count Sommariva ; 
Mars and Venus, by Acquisti; Cupid 
giving water to pigeons , by Bien- 
aimi , etc. The Billiard Boom 
contains casts, and a small frieze 
in marble on the chimney - piece 
representing a Bacchanalian pro- 
cession, said to be an early work 
of Thorvaldsen. — In the Garden 

E. Bank. 

Bellagio. — "Grande Bretagne, 
and "Grand Hotel Bellagio , both 
well fitted up, and the property of 
companies, beautifully situated on 
the lake, with corresponding charg- 
es; Grand Hotel & Pension Villa 
Serbelloni, on the hill in the beauti- 
ful park mentioned below, com 
manning a fine view, a dependance 
of the Grande Bretagne, with the same 
charges, but inferior in comfort. 
"Genazzini , also beautifully situat- 
ed on the lake, R., L., & A. 41/2, B. 
l'/2, dej. 2Vz, D- 4, pens, from 8 fr. 
— Of less pretension: "Hotel & Pen- 
sion Florence, R., L., & A. 3, B.I74, 
D. 4, pens, with R. 7'/2 fr- i Pen- 
sion Suisse; Albergo del Vapore, 
all on the lake. — Beer at the Cafe 
des Elrangers, by the quay. ■— The 
large hotels send omnibuses to meet 
the steamers. 

Lace, Silk Ooods , and Olive-wood 
Carvings at numerous shops. 

Rowing Boats, see p. 152. 

English Church, opened in 188S. 

Bellagio (710 ft.), a small town 
with 3235 inhab. , at the W. base 
of the promontory which sep- 
arates the Lake of Como from the 
Lake of Lecco, is perhaps the 
most delightful point among the 
lakes of Upper Italy. 

Higher up stands the *Villa 
Serbelloni (now Hotel and Pen- 
sion, see above) , the park of 
which commands an exquisite 
View (admission for those not 
residing in the hotel 1 fr.). 
The path ascends by the Hotel 
Genazzini and reaches the top in 
25 minutes. Charming glimpses 
of Varenna, Villa Balbianello, 
Carlotta, etc. 

The belvedere of the Villa 
Belmonte , the property of an 
Englishman, commands another 
fine view (admission 1/2 ^ r 0- 

About 1 M. to the S. of the 
lower entrance to the Villa Ser- 
belloni , beyond the cemetery, 
we reach a small blue gate on 

1 56 Route 22. 



E. Bank. 
the left , leading to the *Villa 
Giulia, the property of Count 
Blome of Vienna, with beautiful 
*Gardens (fee i/ 2 -l fr.). — Ex- 
cursion to the Monte S. Primo, an 
ascent of 4 hrs., see p. 152. 

W. Bank. 
Saloon several modern pictures {Ha- 
yez , Romeo and Juliet ; Lordon, 
Athalie), and a marble relief of Na- 
poleon when consul, by Lazzarini. 

The ''Garden, which stretches to 
the S. to Tremezzo, and to the N. 
towards the Hotel de Bellevue, con- 
tains the most luxuriant vegetation; 
on the S. side of the Villa is a 
splendid magnolia ; pleasant view 
towards Bellagio. Gardener 1 fr. 

Behind Cadenabbia rises 11 
Sasso S. Martino , a rock on 
which stands the Madonna di S. 
Martino, a small church , com- 
manding a beautiful view; ascent 
lt/a hr. (we proceed via Qriante 
to the small chapel of S. Rocco 
and then follow the paved track). 

The Monte Cotaiga or Crocione 
(5600 ft.), a more lofty mountain to 
the W., commands a striking view of 
the Monte Rosa chain , the Bernese 
Alps and Mont Blanc, the lakes and the 
plain of Lombardy (a fatiguing as- 
cent of 6-7 hrs. ; guide 5 fr. •, in order 
to avoid the heat the traveller should 
start at 2 or 3 a.m.). 

From Cadenabbia to (2 M.) 
Menaggio, good road, with views. 

Here, at the Punta di Bellagio, the S.W- and S.E. arms of the 
lake unite. The latter, the Lago di Lecco, though inferior to the 
other in picturesqueness and luxuriance of vegetation , presents 
grander mountain scenery. The E. bank is skirted by a road (rail- 
way in progress) constructed in 1832 in continuation of the Stelvio 
road (p. 158), and carried along the rocks at places with the aid 
of tunnels and embankments. Steamers ply on the lake twice a 
day from (Como) Bellagio to Lecco and back, and thrice a day from 
Colico to Lecco and back (comp. p. 152). The steamboat-stations 
are Lierna, Limonta, Vassena, Onno, Mandello, Abbadia, and Lecco 
(p. 150), some of which are not always called at. 

On the chief arm of the Lake of Como, as we proceed towards 
Colico, the first steamboat-stations are Menaggio and Varenna. 

W. Bank. 

Menaggio. — 'Grand Hotel 
Victoria, well managed, R.,L., & A. 
41/2, B. l'/ 2 , dej. 3, 1). 5, pens. 7'/2 fr. 
(English Church Service); *H6t. Me- 
naggio, both beautifully situated, 
with gardens on the lake; Cokona, 

E. Bank. 
Varenna (*Albergo Reale; Ho- 
tel Marcioni), is charmingly sit- 
uated on a promontory , sur- 
rounded by gardens (Isimbardi , 
Lelia, Venini), at the mouth of 

of Como. 


22. Route. 1 57 

W. Bank. 

moderate. — Hotel-omnibuses meet 
the steamers. 

Menaggio (1300 inhab.), with 
an extensive silk manufactory, 
has two steamboat-piers , one 
near the Hotel Victoria and the 
other, to the S., near the Hotel 
Menaggio , for the Steam Tram- 
way to Porlezza (Lugano ; see 
p. 160). Fine view of Bellagio. 
On the lake, to the S. of the vill- 
age , is the handsome Villa My- 
lius. — A good road, diverging 
to the right from the Cadenabbia 
(Como) road, ascends in windings 
to (Y2 hr.) Loveno Superiore, near 
the church of which stands the 
Villa Vigoni, formerly Mylius, 
commanding a magnificent *View 
of Bellagio, Menaggio, and of the 
three arms of the lake (apply to 
the gardener; fee 1-2 fr.). The 
garden-saloon contains two ad- 
mirable reliefs by Thorvaldsen 
(Nemesis) and Argenti. A still 
more extensive view is obtained 
from a conspicuous chalet outside 
the park. Adjacent are the Villa 
Massimo d'Azeylio , containing 
paintings by the late owner (d. 
1866), and the Villa Garoviglio, 
containing archaeological collec- 

The steamer next passes a 
wild , yellowish-brown cliff , II 
Sasso Rancio ('the orange-rock'), 
which is traversed by a danger- 
ous footpath. This route was un- 
dertaken in 1799 by the Rus- 
sians under General Bellegarde, 
on which occasion many lives 
were lost. 

S. Abbondio. — Mastenna. 

Rezzonico , with Villa Litta, 
and a restored chateau of the 
13th century. 

E. Bank. 

the Val d'Esino, commanded by 
the lofty ruins of the Torre di 
Vezio, with a small village and a 
beautiful view (ascent '/4 nr 0- 
In the vicinity , especially to- 
wards the N., some tunnels have 
been hewn in the rock for the 
passage of the Stelvio road. Most 
of the marble quarried in the 
neighbourhood is cut and pol- 
ished in the town. 

About 3/ 4 M. to the S. of Va- 
renna the Fiume Latte ('milk 
brook', from its colour) is preci- 
pitated in several leaps from a 
height of 1000 ft. , forming an 
imposing cascade in spring, but 
sometimes dried up in summer 
(50 c). 

The "Monte Grigna (7905 ft.; 8 hrs.) 
is a very fine point. From Varenna 
a bridle-path leads on the right bank 
of the Esino via Perledo to (2'/2 hrs.) 
Esino ("Alb. Monte Godeno, moder- 
ate), prettily situated. Thence (guide 
desirable; 9 fr.) to the Alp Cainallo 
iy 2 , Alp Prada l'/ 2 , Club Hut of the 
Italian Alpine Club (Capanna dij/on- 
codine; 6150 ft.) 1/2 hr., and to the top 
in 2 hrs. more (the last part rather 
trying). Superb view of the whole 
Alpine chain from the Mte. Viso 
to the Ortler (the Mte. Rosa group 
particularly fine), and of the plains 
of Lombardy to the distant Apen- 
nines. We may descend to the W. 
(steep) to the new club-hut Capanna 
di Releccio (5840 ft.) in the Val Xeria 
and to Mandello , or to the B. to 
Pasttiro in the Val Sassina (see below). 
— The neighbouring Moncodine , a 
little lower, and ascended in 1 hr. 
less (guide 7 fr.), affords nearly the 
same view. 

Oittana is the station for the 
hydropathic establishment of 
Regoledo, situated 500 ft. above 
the lake. 

Bellano (Roma ; Bellano), with 
3000 inhab. and considerable 
factories , lies at the mouth of 
the Val Sassina , which is tra- 

158 Route 22. 


W. Bank. 

Cremia, with tlie handsome 
church of S. Michele (altar-piece 
* St. Michael , by Paolo Vero- 
nese) ; then Pianello. 

On rocks rising precipitously 
above Musso are situated the 
ruins of three castles, Rocca di 
Musso , the residence of Giov. 
Giac. de' Medici in 1525-31, 
'the Castellan of Musso', who from 
this castle ruled over the entire 
Lake of Como. 

Dongo (Alb. Dongo) , a large 
village in a sheltered situation, 
at the mouth of a valley of the 
same name. Above it, on the 
height to the N.W. , lies Garzeno, 
whence a path crosses the Passo 
di S. Jorio to (9 hrs.) Bellinzona. 

Gravedona (Alb. Gravedona, 
Alb. del Lauro) is picturesquely 
situated at the mouth of a gorge. 
The handsome Palazzo del Pero 
with four towers, at the upper 
end, was built by the Milanese 
Cardinal Gallio. Adjoining the 
venerable church of S. Vincenzo 
rises the Baptistery of St. Maria 
del Tiglio, an interesting build- 
ing of the 12th cent., containing 
two Christian inscriptions of the 
5th century. 

Domaso, charmingly situated, 
possesses several handsome vil- 
las, particularly the Villa Venini 
and Villa Miana. Finally Gera. 

E. Baxk. 
versed by a bridle-path to Taceno 
(thence road to Lecco via, In- 
trobbio). The Pioverna forms a 
waterfall (195 ft.) before reach- 
ing the lake (Orrido di Bellano ; 
fee). By the pier is a monument 
to Tom. Grossi , the poet, who 
was born at Bellano in 1790 (d. 
1853), by Tantardini. 

Dervio, at the mouth of the 
Varrone, is situated at the base 
of the abrupt Monte Legnone 
and its spur, the Monte Legnoneino 
(5680 ft.). 

Monte Legnone (8505 ft.), the high- 
est mountain of Lombardy, may be as- 
cended hence in 7 hrs. (with guide ; 
fatiguing but interesting). In the 
evening we mount to (2 hrs.) Sueglio, 
on the slope of Mte. Legnoneino, 
where tolerable quarters for the night 
are found; thence by Introzzo and 
Aveno to the (3 hrs.) Club Hut at the 
Porta del Met'li, and the (1 hr.) sum- 
mit, with magnificent view. — The 
ascent on the N. side , from DeUbio 
(p. 159), is easier. A bridle-path 
leads through the Val della Lesina 
to the (4 hrs.) Alp Cappello , and 
thence across the Bocehetla di Leg- 
none in 3 hrs. to the summit. 

Corenno, Dorio, and Ogliasca, 
all picturesquely situated , with 
ruined castles. — Fiona. 

Colico (j4n<?efo ; Hotel Risi, well 
spoken of, R. 2i/ 2 , B. 1 fr. ; Re- 
staurant de la Poste) , corap. 
p. 44. The Monte Legnone, men- 
tioned above, may be ascended 
hence without difficulty in 
7-8 hrs. 
From Colico to Cliiavenna, and over the Spliigen to Coire , see R. 5. 

From Colico to Sondrio and Bormio. 

Fkom Colico xo Sondkio, 25'/2 M., railway in l 3 /4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 65, 
3 fr. 25, 2fr. 10 c); fkom Sondrio to Bokmio, 41 M., diligence once daily 
(to Tirano, several times daily) in 10 hrs. 

The Val Tellina, which is now traversed by a railway, belonged to the 
Grisons down to 1797, then to Austria, and since 1859 has been united to 
Italy. The broad valley is watered by the Adda, the inundations of which 
often cause considerable damage, and make the lower part of the valley 
marshy and unhealthy. An aromatic red wine is yielded by the vines on 
the slopes of the valley. 

VAL TELLINA. 22. Route. 159 

5 M. Delebio, on the Leshia, which descends from Mte. Legnone (ascent 
of Mte. Legnone, see p. 158). — 8 M. Cosio-Traona , the latter place 
lying at the base of the mountains beyond the Adda. — 10 M. Morbegno 
(Ancora), with 4500inbab., is noted for its silk-culture and has a church 
of the 16th cent, with a few good pictures. — 12 M. Talamona. The line 
then crosses the Adda, here joined by the Masino. and skirts the base of 
the mountains to the north. 15 M. Ardenno-ifasino; 19>/2 M. <S. Pietro-; 22'/2 M. Castione-Andevenno. Farther on the train skirts the hill 
of Sasxetla, noted for its wine and crowned with a church, to — 

25'/2 H. Sondrio (1140ft.; "Posta, with a garden; Maddalena), with 
6900 inhab., the capital of the Val Tellina, situated on the Malero, an 
impetuous torrent, at the mouth of the picturesque Val Malenco. A 
large building outside the town, once a nunnery, is now private property. 
The old residence of the bailiffs is now a barrack. 

Beyond Sondrio the churches of Monlagna and Pendolasco rise on the 
left. Between S. Giacomo and Tresenda, about halfway up the N. slope 
of the valley, rises the ancient watch-tower of Teglio, which gives its name 
to the valley (Val Teglino). At Tresenda the road over the Passo d'Aprica 
diverges to the right (p. 198). The road next crosses the Poschiavino. which 
descends from the Bernina glaciers, and soon reaches Madonna di Tirano 
("S. Michele) , a small village with a large and handsome pilgrimage- 
church of the 17th century. Interesting fairs , lasting 3 days , are held 
here at Whitsuntide and at the end of October. The mountain-road which 
here diverges to the right leads to Poschiavo, and across the Bernina to 
the Upper Engadine; see Baedeker's Switzerland. The '■Confine Svizzero' 
is 3 A M. to the N.W. of Madonna di Tirano. About >/ 4 hr. after leaving 
Madonna di Tirano we reach — 

I6V2 M. Tirano (1505 ft.; Albergo Italia, by the post-office; Posta; 
Stelvio, by the lower bridge), a small town with old mansions of the 
Visconti, Pallavicini, and Salis families, where inundations of the Adda 
have also frequently occasioned serious damage. 

The road now ascends more rapidly along the vine-clad slopes, pass- 
ing Sernio, Lovero, and Tovo. To the S.W. rises the precipitous Monte 
Masuccio (9240 ft.), a landslip from which in 1807 blocked up the narrow 
channel of the Adda, and converted the populous and fertile valley into 
a vast lake. At Mazzo the road crosses to the right bank of the Adda, 
and at the large village of (l 1 /* M.) Grosotto (Leone d'Oro) it crosses the 
Boasco, which here issues from the Val Grosina. To the right, at the mouth 
of the latter, is the imposing ruined castle of Venosta. Beyond (IV2 M.) 
Grosio the road recrosses to the left bank. In l J /2 hr. more we reach — 

28'/2 M. Bolladore (2840 ft. ; Posta ; Hdtel des Alpes). On the hill on the 
other side of the river rises the picturesque church of Sondalo. Beyond 
Mondadizza we again cross the Adda. The valley now contracts ; to the 
E. lies lie Prese, at the mouth of the Val di Bezzo. We now enter the 
defile of Serra di Morignone, about 1 M. in length, which separates the Val 
Tellina from the l Paese Freddo\ or 'cold region', of Bormio. We cross 
the Adda for the last time by the Ponte del Diavolo. The road enters the 
green Valle di Sotto, passes the hamlets of Morignone and S. Antonio, and 
at Ceppina reaches the level, green valley of Bormio, enclosed by lofty 
mountains, the lower slopes of which are clothed with pines, and the 
upper in part with snow. The road traverses the valley, crosses at (2 II.) 
S. Lucia the muddy Frodol/o, just above its confluence with the Adda, 
and in 20 min. more reaches — 

41 M. Bormio, Ger. Worms (4020 ft.; "Posta; "Alb. della Torre, Piazza 
Cavour), an antiquated little Italian town , with numerous dilapidated 
towers, picturesquely situated at the entrance to the Val Furva. — The 
diligence goes on hence, ascending in numerous windings, to (2 M.) the — 

*New Baths of Bormio or Bagni Nuovi (4330 ft.), a handsome building 
on a terrace commanding a fine survey of the valley of Bormio and the 
surrounding mountains (Engl, church service in summer) The Bagni 
Vecchi, or old Baths of Bormio, are a little higher up (4750 ft.), perched 
on the rocks below the road ; a picturesque footpath, shorter than the 
road, ascends to them in '/t hr. Both baths are much frequented in July 

160 Route 23. PORLEZZA. 

and August, and are closed in the middle of October (R. 3, D. 4 fr.). 
The springs, containing salt and sulphur (92-100° Fahr.), rise in the Dolo- 
mite cliffs near the old baths, whence the water is conducted to the new 
baths in pipes. They are mentioned by Pliny as known to the Romans. 
The old baths hewn in the rock are interesting. — From Bormio over 
the Stelvio to Meran or Innsbruck, see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

23. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via Lugano 
to Luino on the Lago Maggiore. 

Steam Tkamway from Menaggio to Porlezza in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 
45 c). Steamboat from Porlezza to Lugano in 1 hr. and thence to Ponte 
Tresa in 50 min. more (fares 4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 70 c). Steam Tkamwat from 
Ponte Tresa to Luino in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 45 c). Through-tickets 
9 fr. 80, 5 fr. 60 c. ; return, Sunday, and circular tickets at a reduced rate 
(to be had on board any of the steamers). — Swiss custom-house examin- 
ation on board the steamers in the Lake of Lugano, Italian custom-house 
at Porlezza or Ponte Tresa. 

Menaggio, see p. 156. The railway-station is at the S. end of 
the village; the ticket-office is in the Hotel Menaggio. The train 
waits for the steamer when the latter is late. The line at first as- 
cends rapidly (5 : 100) to the hills above the lake, then turns sharp- 
ly, and runs towards the N. Fine view to the right of the central 
part of the Lake of Como, with Bellagio in the middle. Farther on 
the line describes a wide bend, affording a view (right) of the Val 
Sanagra, with Loveno and the Villa Vigoni in the foreground 
(p. 157). We then thread a tunnel 110 yds. long. At s tat. Qrandola 
(1260 ft.) we reach the highest point of the line, 610 ft. above the 
Lake of Como, whence the train descends rapidly (4 : 100), via, Bene- 
(irona (on the small Lago del Piano), Piano, and S. Pietro. It next 
crosses the Cuccione and Beggo, and reaches — 

Porlezza (Alb. del Lago, mediocre), on the N. arm of the Lake 
of Lugano, with the Italian custom-house for travellers in the other 
direction. The railway-station is close to the steamboat-pier. 

The *Lake of Lugano (890 ft.) , called by the Italians Lago 
Ceresio after its doubtful Latin name, is scarcely inferior in beauty 
to its more celebrated neighbours Como and Maggiore, though its 
scenery is of a somewhat severer cast. The steamer (poor restau- 
rant) proceeds towards Osteno, sometimes calling at Cima, at the 
foot of the steep hills on the N. bank. 

Osteno (Hotel d'Osteno) , on the S. bank of the lake , is fre- 
quently visited from Lugano on account of its remarkable grotto 
(return-fare 2 fr. 35 c. ; ticket for the grotto, obtained on board 
the steamer, 75 a). 

The "Grotto of Osteno (locally called the Orrido or Pescara, 'fisher- 
men's gorge') is 7 min. from the landing-place. We pass through the village ; 
outside the gate we descend to the right before the stone-bridge, iind cross 
the brook. The mouth of the gorge, in which there are two small water- 
falls, is near a projecting rock. Visitors embark in a small boat and enter 
the grotto, the bottom of which is occupied by the brook. The narrow 
ravine through which we thread our way is curiously hollowed out by the 
water. Far above, the roof is formed by overhanging bushes, between which 
glimpses of blue sky arc obtained. The gorge is terminated by a waterfall. 

ORIA. 23. Route. 161 

— The Tufa Grottoes of Rescia may also be visited before the steamer 
returns from Porlezza. Boat (with two rowers, there and back 2>/2 fr.) 
round the promontory to the E. of Osteno in l fa hr. to the hamlet of Re*cia; 
thence by a narrow path to the grottoes in 5 min. (torches 1/2 fr.)- The 
dome-shaped grottoes, encrusted with calcareous sinter and stalactites, 
are connected by a low passage (caution necessary). From the second is 
seen a pretty waterfall in a gorge. In the vicinity are tufa-quarries, con- 
taining interesting fossils. 

A road leads from Osteno to the S.W. to (6 M.) Lanzo d'Intelvi 
(3115 ft.; Gaffe Centrale , moderate, dej. 2 fr.; l l ji M. above it is situated 
the ' : H6l. Belvedere, pens. 8-10 fr.), a pleasant spot for some stay (English 
Church Service in summer), with a fine view of the Lake of Lugano and 
the Alps with Mte. Rosa. |Those whose destination is the Hotel Belvedere 
take the footpath to the right, about 3 /t M. before reaching Lanzo, which 
soon joins the road ascending to the hotel.] A road also leads to it from 
(7 M.) Maroggia (p. 40), and another from Argegno on the Lake of 
Como (8V2 M. ; see p. 154). Near Lanzo (20 min.) are the baths of Pa- 
raviso. Bridle-path to Mte. Oeneroso (p. 140), 5>/2 hrs. 

The steamer now steers obliquely across the lake, leaving to the 
right Cresoyno and Loggio on the N. bank, to S. Mamette (Stella 
d I Italia), beautifully situated at the mouth of the picturesque 
Vol Soldo, -with Castello high above it (p. 39). 

The finest part of the lake lies between S. Mamette and Lugano. 
Beyond OriaJ with the Villa Bianci, the station for Albogasio, we 
enter Switzerland. Bellarma, to the right, is the first village on 
Swiss soil; the slopes of Mte. Caprino (p. 39), to the S., are also 
in Switzerland. The steamer touches at Gandria, at the foot of 
Mte. Bre (p. 38) , with its gardens borne by lofty arcades and its 
vine-terraces, and then turns into the pretty bay of Lugano, leav- 
ing Castagnola (p. 38) to the right. The Mte. S. Salvatore rises 
conspicuously on the S. side of the bay. 

Lugano, see p. 36. The station of the St. Gotthard Railway 
lies high above the town, 1 M. from the steamboat-quay. 

As we leave Lugano we enjoy a fine retrospect of the town, with 
Mte. Bre (p. 38) to the N. The steamer rounds the promontory of 
S. Martino , the spur of Monte S. Salvatore, on the right; to the 
left rises Monte Caprino (p. 39). On some trips the steamer calls 
at Campione, an Italian enclave in Swiss territory. To the left rise 
the steep flanks of Mte. Oeneroso (p. 40). The arch of the dyke 
(p. 40) through which the boat now passes, with lowered funnel, 
frames a picturesque glimpse of scenery. The vessel touches at 
Melide on the W. and sometimes at Bissone on the E. bank. 

At this point a line view is obtained of the arms of the lake 
opening to the S.E. and the S.W., with Mte. S. Giorgio (3590 ft.) 
rising between them. The steamer enters the S.W. arm and stops 
at Morcote, a small town with arcaded houses, picturesquely situat- 
ed on the vine-clad slopes of Monte Arbostora and commanded by a 
church and a ruined castle. 

Brusin-Arsizio, on the E. bank, and Porto Ceresio, the port of 
Varese (p. 163), situated on Italian soil in a bay of the S. bank, 
are not called at by the express-steamers. Farther on the lake 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. 11 


bends to the N. On the W. (Italian) bank lies Brusin-Piano, 
which is also left unvisited by the express-steamers. Opposite 
is Figino , to the N.E. of which Mte. S. Salvatore again comes 
into sight. 

Turning to the left, the vessel now steers through the Stretto 
di Lavena , a narrow channel leading into the westernmost bay 
of the lake, which is almost completely enclosed by mountains, 
with the village of Lavena on the left, and the sheer Monte Cas- 
lano (1710 ft.) on the right. At the "W. end of the bay is — 

Fonte Tresa, consisting of two villages, the larger of which is 
Swiss and the smaller Italian, divided by the river Tresa which 
issues from the lake here. The railway-station and steamboat- 
quay are on the Italian side. Italian custom-house examination. 

The Road feom Logano to Ponte Tkesa (6 M.), which may be re- 
commended to pedestrians, ascends to the Restaurant du Jardin in Soregno 
(see p. 37), descends past the small Lake of Muzzano , and traverses the 
broad valley of the Agno. Crossing this stream, which flows into the W. 
arm of the L; ke of Lugano, we reach the small town of Agno, beyond 
which the road crosses the Magliaso and passes the church of Magiiasina. 
Finally we pass through the Swiss part of Ponte Tresa, cross the bridge 
to the left, and reach the railway-station. 

The Steam Tramway prom Pontk Tresa to Luino , at first 
ascending a little, follows the fertile green valley of the rapid and 
clear Tresa, which here forms the boundary between Italy and 
Switzerland. Several torrents are crossed, and numerous villages 
and churches are seen perched among the rocks. Beyond the 
station of (3'/2 M.) Cremenaga, the train passes through two tun- 
nels and crosses the river, the right bank of which is now also 
Italian. The valley contracts, and the banks become steeper. 6M. 
Creva, with important manufactories. Crossing finally the Bellin- 
zona-Novara line (pp. 77, 76; station to the left), we arrive at 
(7y 2 M.) Luino, where the station adjoins the Lago Maggiore 
steamboat-quay (see p. 77). 

24. From Milan to Laveno and Arona. 

1. From Milan to Laveno. 

a. Via Saronno and Varese. — 45>/2 M. Railway in 2'/2-3 hrs. 
(fares 7 fr., 4 fr. 70, 2 fr. 80 c). 

From Milan to (1372 M.) Saronno, see p. 146. — The line fol- 
lows thence the Milan and Lavenoroad, passing(16 M.) Gerenzano, 
(17i/ 2 M.) Cislago, (191/2 M.) Mozzate, (20i/ 2 M.) Locate, (21 '/ 2 M.) 
Abbiate Guazzone, and (22'/ 2 M.) Tradate. Then follow: 2i'/ 2 M. 
Venegono Inferiore; 26 M. Venegono Superiore; 27y 2 M. Vedano. 

About I'/z M. to the W. of Venegono Superiore, and 3 /i M. to the 
S.W. of Vedano, is Castiglione d'Olona (no tolerable inn), with 1500 
inhab. and some interesting works of art. The choir of the high-lying 
Collegiate Church contains "Frescoes by Masolino of Florence (1428): 
at the sides of the windows scenes from the life of St. Stephen ; on the 
vaulting, Birth of Christ, Annunciatiun, Assumption of the Virgin, Mar- 
riage of the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, and Angels playing musical 

VARESE. 24. Route. 163 

instruments; on the left is the monument of Card. Brunda Castiglione liy 
Leonardus Griffus (1443). The sacristy contains some valuable church- 
furniture and an Annunciation on panel ascribed to Masolino. — The 
sacristan (1 fr.) conducts visitors across the court to the "Baptistery, in 
which there are well-preserved frescoes by Masolino (1435). Outside, the 
Annunciation; within, on the right, the daughter of Herodias begging 
the head of John the Baptist and bearing it to her mother. The rocky 
cave in the background is the saint's tomb; on the vaulting, early fathers; 
farther to the right, John the Baptist in prison, and preaching before 
Herod. On the rear wall is a "Baptism of Christ (the three figures 
undressing themselves to the right are interesting indications of the 
awakening study of the human form); below, on the left, John preaching 
Christ as the Messiah ; above, God the Father between angels. — In front 
of the Chiesa di S. Sepolcro, in the lower part of the town, stand two 
gigantic figures of saints. 

29 M. Malnate. 

32 M. Varese. — Hotels. "Grand Hotel Varese (Excelsior), a 
large establishment, formerly the Villa Eecalcati, in an open situation 
outside the town, with a splendid view of the Monte Rosa and the whole 
chain of the W. Alps, R-, L., & A. 5'/2, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr. ; omnibus 
at the station. — In the town : Europa; Angelo; Leon d'Oeo ; Gambero, 
well spoken of, E., L., & A. l 3 /t fr. — Cafes: Siberia, Pini, etc., under the 
arcades in the main street. 

English Church Service in the Hotel Varese. 

Varese (1250 ft. above the sea-level) is a thriving place with 
13,500 inhab. (including the suburbs) and silk, paper, furniture, 
and. other manufactories. In summer the pleasant environs attract a 
number of wealthy Milanese families, who possess villas here and in 
the neighbourhood. The principal church of S. Vittore, which was 
rebuilt about 1600, with a tower 246 ft. in height, contains a St. 
George by Crespi , and a Magdalene by Morazzone. The Oiardino 
Pubblico commands fine views. Among the villas may be men- 
tioned: Palazzo Veratti, known as La Corte, on the Laveno road; 
Villa Ducale Litta , on the road to Biume Superiore ; Villa Ponti, 
to the N.E., on the road to Biume Inferiore ; then , near the latter 
village, Villa Litta Modignani, which still bears traces of a skirmish 
fought here on 26th May , 1859 ; Villa Taccioli , Poggi , and 

Walks. To the Colle Campiglio, l>/2 M. to the S. , on the road to 
Masnago and Laveno, commanding a fine view ; thence via Masnago and 
Casciago (where the Villa Castelbarco affords a fine "View of the Five 
Lakes and the chain of Mte. Rosa) to Luinate, whence a beautiful view 
to the S.W. is obtained of the Lake of Varese and the small adjacent 
Lake of Biandrone , and also of the farther distant lakes of Monate and 
Comabbio. To S. Albino, l 3 /4 M. to the S. of Varese, with a view of the 
lake ; to the Lago di Varese (Osteria della Schiranna), 2'/2 M. ; then, skirting 
the lake, to Oropello, Oltrona, Voltorre (where there is an old monastery 
of the Canonici Lateranensi with interesting Romanesque cloisters), and 
Oavirate, 71/2 M. (see below). 

The most interesting excursion, however, is by S. Ambrogio and Fo- 
gliardi to the "Madonna del Monte (2885 ft.), a celebrated resort of pil- 
grims , 7'/2 M. to the N.E. (carriage-road to Fogliardi , then a bridle- 
path). Fourteen chapels or stations of various forms, adorned with frescoes 
and groups in stucco, have been erected along the broad path by which 
the monastery and church on the mountain are attained. The view hence 
is not less celebrated than the peculiar sanctity of the spot. The small 
lakes of Comabbio, Biandrone, and Monate, that of Varese, two arms of 


1 04 Route 24. LA.VENO. 

the Lago Maggiore , part of the Lake of Como , and the expansive and 
fruitful plain as far as Milan are visible. — A far more comprehensive 
view, including the glacier-world also, is obtained (best by morning-light) 
from the Tre Croei (3965 ft.), 1 hr. to the U.W. of the Madonna. Several 
taverns adjoin the monastery. Donkeys and guides (unnecessary) are to 
be found at the foot of the mountain. Comp. the Map, p. 162. 

From Vaeese to Como, I8V2 M. Railway in 11/4 hr. (3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 20, 
1 fr. 55 c). — The line crosses the Olona. At (3 M.) Malnale the line to 
Milan (p. 163) tranches off to the right. — 6V2 M. Solbiale. — 10 M. Olgiate 
is the highest point on the line (about 790 ft. above the Lake of Como), 
in a fertile region with numerous villas. — ll'/2 M. Lut ate Caccivio; 12'/ 2 M. 
Civello; 14 M. Grandate; 15'/ 2 Camerlata. Finally (17V2 M.) Como (Porta 
del Torre) and (I8V2 M.) Como (Stazione Ferrovia Nord); comp. p. 148. 

From Varese to Oallarate (Milan), see below. 

F'rom Varese to Porto Ceresio, T/2 M., diligence twice daily in 
l'/4 hr. (fares 3>/2 or 3 fr. ; one-horse carr. 10, two-horse 20 fr.). This is a 
very picturesque drive. The road leads by Biume Inferiors, Induno (with 
the Villa Medici) and Arcisate to Bitusehio, where the Villa Cicogna, with 
a large park in the Italian style, commands a splendid view of the Lake 
of Lugano. It then crosses the Brivio , passes Besano, and soon reaches 
Porto Ceresio on the Lake of Lugano (p. 161). 

The next railway-stations beyond Varese are (34 M.) Casbeno 
and (37 V2 M.) Barasso , with numerous villas. The train then 
passes near the N.W. extremity of the Lago di Varese and reaches 
^38!/2 M.) Gavirate , near which are quarries of 'marmo majo- 
lica', a kind of marble used for decorative purposes. View of 
Monte Rosa. 40 i / 2 M. Coquio; 42 M. Oemonio. Farther on, the 
Boesio, which flows through the Val Cuvio, is crossed, and, beyond 
(43 M.) Cittiglio, its right bank skirted. The line then leads past 
the S. base of the Sasso del Ferro to — 

45'/2 laveno (p. 168), on the E. bank of the Lago Maggiore, a 
station on the Bellinzona and Genoa line (p. 77) and also a steam- 
boat-station. — Boat to the Borromean Islands, see p. 166. 

b. Via Gallarate. — 451/2 M. Railway in 2-2'A hrs. (fares 8 fr. 25, 
5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 75 c). — Tramway to Gallarate (passing many of the rail- 
way-stations) in 2 3 /4 hrs. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c.) ; to Saronno and 
Tradate in 2'/2 hrs. 

Milan, see p. 125. — 4 M. Musocco; 9 M. Rhb (p. 76), with 
the church of the Madonna dei Miracoli by Pellegrini ; IIY2 M. 
Vanzago ; 15 M. Parabiugo. 17y 2 M. Legnano , where Frederick 
Barbarossa was defeated by the Milanese in 1176; the principal 
church contains a fine altar-piece , one of the best works of Luini. 
— 21 M. Busto Arsizio (Albcrgo del Vapore, tolerable), the church 
of which , designed by Bramante, contains frescoes by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari. Branch -line to Novara (p. 76). — 25y 2 M. Gallarate, 
a town with 8000 inhab. , at the S.E. base of a range of hills 
which form the limit of the vast and fruitful Lombard plain, 
planted with maize, mulberries, and vines. It contains a tech- 
nical school and carries on large manufactures of textile fabrics. 
The line to Arona (see p. 165) diverges here. 

From Gallarate to Varese, ll'/2 M., railway in 40 min. (fares 1 fr. 
70, 1 fr. 5, 50 c). The train passes through a mountainous region. — 5 M. 
Albiz.aii:; 9'/2 M. Gat-ada. — ll'/2 M. Varese, see p. 163. 


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LAGO MAGGIORE. 25. Route. 165 

29i/ 2 m Besnate; 31'/.> M. Crugnola-Cimbro ; 3f> M. Ternate- 
Varano, on the little lake of Comabbio ; 38'/ 2 M. Pregano-Trave- 
dona, the latter being on the E. bank of the little lake of Monate ; 
40i/ 2 M. Besozzo; 43y 2 M. San Oiano. • — 45i/o M. Laveno , see 
p. 163. 

1. From Milan to Arona. 

42 M. Railway in 2-2'/ 2 hrs (fares 7 fr. 60, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c). 

From Milan to (25y 2 M.) Oallarate , see p. 164. — 30y 2 M. 
Summa Lombardo , where Hannibal overthrew P. Cornelius Scipio 
in B. C. 218. — 33 M. Vergiate. Tunnel. — 36 M. Sesto Calende, 
junction of the line from Bellinzona to Genoa (p. 77). The train 
now crosses the Ticino, which issues here from Logo Maggiore, and 
then skirts the S. bank of the lake. 

42 M. Arona (740 ft. ; *Alb. Reale d' Italia cf Posta, *Alb. San 
Oottardo, moderate, both on the quay; Ancora, behind the S. 
Gottardo; Cafe adjoining the Alb ergo Reale; Cafe du Lac, near 
the quay; Caffe delta Stazione; Munich beer opposite the station), 
an ancient town on the "W. bank, about 3 M. from its S. extremity, 
with 3720 inhab., extends upwards on the slope of the hill. In 
the principal church of S. Maria , the chapel of the Borromean 
family, to the right of the high-altar, contains the *Holy Family 
as an altar-piece, by Gaudenzio Vinci (1511), a master rarely 
met with (or Gaud. Ferrari?); it is surrounded by five smaller 
pictures, the upper representing God the Father, at the sides 
eight saints and the donatrix. 

On a height overlooking the entire district , J / 2 nr - t0 the N. 
of the station and pier, is a colossal Statue ofS. Carlo, 70 ft. in 
height, resting on a pedestal 42 ft. high, erected in 1697 in honour 
of the celebrated Cardinal , Count Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of 
Milan (born here in 1538, died 1584, canonised 1610). 

The head, hands, and feet of the statue are of bronze, the robe of 
wrought copper. Notwithstanding its enormous dimensions , the statue is 
not devoid of artistic merit. The various parts are held together by iron 
cramps attached to a pillar of masonry in the interior. The enterprising 
visitor may enter the interior and climb to the head of the statue, which 
will hold three persons; but the ascent is far from pleasant. 

The adjacent church contains a few relics of S. Carlo. The 
extensive building in the vicinity is an Ecclesiastical Seminary. 

From Arona to Oleggio (Novara), see p. 77. 

25. Lago Maggiore. 

Plan for a circular tour round the three lakes, see p. 152. The finest 
part of the Lago Maggiore is the W. bay, with the Borromean Islands, 
which are best visited from Pallanza, Stresa, or Baveno by small boat. 

Railways. — From Bellinzona to Locarno, 14 M., in 3y 4 hr. (fares 
2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 15 c). Through-tickets including the steamboat on 
Lago Maggiore are issued for Pallanza (5 fr. 90, 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 15 c), etc. 
(comp. p. 166). 

From Bellinzona to Sesto-Calende via Luino, 47>/2 M., in 2 2 3 /i hrs 
(fares 8 fr. 45, 5 fr. 95, 3 fr. 90 c); to Luino in I'/j-IV* hr. (fares 4 fr. 
50, 3fr. 20, 2 fr. 10 c), — Intermediate stations: 2>/2 M. Giubiccco; 5V2 M, 

166 Route l>5. LOCARNO. Lago Mayyiore. 

Cadena-zo; IC/2 M. Magadino; Vi l k M. S. Naziaro; W/2 M. Ranzo-Gera; 
17 M. Pino, the first Italian station; 21 M. Maccagno; 25 M. Luino, with 
both the Italian and the Swiss custom-houses; 29 M. Porto Valtravaglia ; 
34 M. Laveno; 367-2 M. Leggiuuo-Monvalle ; 40'/ 2 M. Ispra; 43Vs M. Taino- 
Angera; 47 M. Sesto Caltnde. Stations on this line are denoted by a 
capital R. in the following description. 

From Luino to Lugano, see pp. 162, 161: from Laveno to Varese, see 
pp. 164, 163. 

Steamboat twice daily in summer from Locarno to Laveno, and seven 
or eight times daily from Laveno to Intra, Pallanza, the Borromean Is- 
lands, Stresa, and Arona. From Locarno to Arona 5'/2 hrs., from Luino to 
Isola Bella 23/ 4 (from Laveno 1>/.i) hrs. ; from Isola Bella to Arona l>/« hr. 
(tare from Locarno to Arona 5 fr. 85 or 3 fr. 20 c, from Luino to Isola Bella 
2 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 30 c, from Isola Bella to Arona 1 fr. 70 c. or 1 fr., landing 
and embarking included). The steamboat is the best and cheapest convey- 
ance to Isola Bella. Strict punctuality is not always observed. Some of 
the boats are saloon-steamers, with restaurants on board. — Stations 
(those in Italics not always touched at): Locarno, Magadino, Ascona (small 
boat stat.), Gerra, Brissago, Cannobbio, Maccagno, Luino, Cannero, Oggeb- 
bio, Ghiffa (small boat stat.), Porto Valtravaglia, Intra, Laveno, Pallanza, 
Suna (small boat stat.), Feriolo (small boat stat.), Baveno, Isola Superiore, 
Isola Bella, Stresa, Belgirate, Lesa, Meina, Angera, Arona. 

Boat (barca). For 2 hrs., 2>/2 fr. for each rower; for 1-3 pers. 2 rowers 
are required; 4-6 pers. 3, more than 6 pers. 4 rowers. More favourable 
terms may sometimes be obtained, and in every case a bargain should be 
struck before the boat is entered. A small fee is usually expected in ad- 
dition to the stipulated fare (comp. p. 152). 

From Bbllinzona to Locarno (fares, see p. 165). The train 
follows the Lugano line (p. 36) as far as (2 ! /2 M.) Oiubiasco , then 
diverges to the right and traverses the broad lower valley of the 
Ticino. — 5 L /2 M. Cadenazzo, the junction of the line skirting the 
E. bank of the lake to Luino, Novara, and Genoa (R. 11). — The 
Locarno branch of the railway crosses the Ticino below Cugnasco, 
and the Verzasca, which dashes forth from a gorge on the right, 
beyond (10 M.) Gordola. It then skirts the Lago Maggiore to 
(14 M.) Locarno, where the railway-station is a few hundred paces 
from the steamboat-pier. 

Locarno. — '-Grand Hotel Locarno, with garden, view of the lake, 
and English Chapel, B., L., & A. 41/2-6, lunch 3, D. 5 fr.; "Hotel-PENsiON 
Reber , with garden on the lake , moderate , pens. 6-7 fr. ; *Corona , on 
the lake, R., L., & A. 4, B. IV2 fr. ; "Hot. Suisse, in the chief piazza, 
moderate; Pens. Villa Righetti, on the way to the Madonna; Albergo 
S. Gottarijo ; furnished rooms at Giul. Borghettfs. — Rail. Restaurant. 

Locarno (680 ft.; pop. 2800, Rom. Cath.) , suitable for a pro- 
longed stay, is situated at the mouth of the Maggia, the deposits 
of which have formed a considerable delta. Politically Locarno is 
Swiss, but the character of the scenery and population is thoroughly 
Italian. The busy market held at Locarno every alternate Thursday 
affords the visitor an opportunity of observing a variety of costumes 
of the peasantry of the neighbourhood. Great national festival on 
8th Sept., the Nativity of the Virgin. The Collegiate Church con- 
tains a few good pictures. The pilgrimage-church of *Madonna del 
Sasso (1170 ft.), on a wooded. eminence above the town, commands a 
remarkably tine view (f/o hr. ; steep paved path, with the 'stations'). 
The church contains an *Entombment by Ciseri. The view from 

Lago Maggiore. CANNOBBIO. 25. Route. 167 

Mte. della Trinita , 10 min. higher up, is still more picturesque. 
The chapel contains a marble group of the Resurrection by Rossi. 

The Lago Maggiore (645 ft. ; greatest depth 2800 ft.), the Locus 
Verbanus of the Romans , is about 37 M. long and averages 2-3 M. 
in width (area 81 sq. M.). The canton of Ticino possesses only 
the N. bank for a distance of 9 M. ; this portion of the lake is also 
called the Lake of Locarno. The W. bank beyond the brook Val- 
mara, and the E. bank from Dirinella belong to Italy. Its principal 
tributaries are on the N. the Ticino (Tessin) and the Maggia, and 
on the W. the Tosa. The river issuing from the S. end of the lake 
retains the name of Ticino. The banks of the N. arm are bounded 
by lofty mountains , for the most part wooded, whilst the E. shore 
towards the lower end slopes gradually away to the level of the 
plains of Lombardy. The W. bank affords a succession of charming 
landscapes. The water is of a green colour in its N. arm, and deep 
blue towards the S. 

The names of the steamboat-stations are printed below in bolder 
type, but some of them are not always touched at (comp. p. 166). 
— Opposite Locarno , at the mouth of the Ticino , lies Magadino 
(R. ; Hotel Bellevue, on the lake), comprising two villages, Maga- 
dino Inferiore and Superiore. 

The W. bank of the lake, to the S. of Locarno, is studded 
with country-houses, villages, and campanili. On the bank of 
the lake runs the road from Locarno to Pallanza. In an angle lies 
Ascona, with its castle and seminary ; higher up, on the slope, Ronco. 
Passing the two small Isoledi Brissago, the steamer reaches Gera 
(R.) on the E. bank, and then, on the W. bank, Brissago (Hotel 
Suisse) , a delightful spot , with picturesque white houses , and a 
fine group of cypresses near the church. The slopes above are 
covered with fig-trees , olives , and pomegranates , and even the 
myrtle flourishes in the open air. Brissago is the last Swiss station. 
The Italian custom-house examination is made on board the 

Opposite Brissago , on the E. bank , lies the Italian village of 
Pino (R.). 

S. Agata and Cannobbio {Hotel Cannobbio , R. l^foS, pens. 
6fr. ; Albergo delle Alpi, moderate; * Villa Badia, l 1 /^^. to the N., 
pleasant and quiet, pens. 6-7 fr.) are also on Italian territory. The 
latter is one of the oldest and most prosperous villages on the lake, 
situated on a plateau at the entrance of the Val Cannobbina, and 
overshadowed by richly-wooded mountains. In the church Delia 
Pietft, the dome of which is in the style of Bramante, is a *Bearing 
of the Cross, with a predella representing worshipping angels, 
by Gaud. Ferrari (about 1525). Pleasant walk of !/2 nr - U P tne 
beautiful Val Cannobbina to the hydropathic of La Salute (open 
from June 10th to Oct. 1st), and thence to the (20 min.) Orrido, 
a wild rocky scene with a bridge and in spring a waterfall. 

168 Route 25. LUINO. Lago Maggiore. 

The steamer now steers to the E. bank, and stops at Maccagno 
(R. ; Alb. della Torre), with a picturesque church and an ancient 
tower, whence we may visit the (2 hrs.) loftily situated Lago cTEylio 
(2950 ft. ; *Hotel ; fine view). The viaducts and tunnels of the 
St. Gotthard Railway are now seen skirting the lake. Passing Cas- 
neda, in a wooded ravine, we next reach — 

LuinO (R.). — The Steamboat Pier adjoins the small station of the 
Fd'am Tramway to Ponte Tresa (Lugano ; see p. 36). By passing to the 
left of this station and the statue of Garibaldi and following the wide 
new 'Via Principe di Napoli' we reach the (10 min.; omnibus 40 c.) Sta- 
zione Internazionale, the station of the Bellinzona and Genoa line, 
where the Italian and Swiss custom-house examinations take place (-Re- 
staurant, lunch 3 fr.). 

Hotels. "Grand Hotel Simplon, on the lake, to the S. of the town, 
with a garden-, Hotel de la Poste, R., L., & A. 5 fr. ; Vittoiu a , well 
spoken of, these two near the steamboat-pier. — Near the Stazione Inter- 
nazionale: Tekmincs Hotel, belonging to the keeper of the railway-restau- 
rant; Milano, dej. 3, D. 3 fr. •, Axcoka. 

Luino or Luvino, a busy little town with 2800 inhab., is situat- 
ed at the base and on the slopes of the mountain, a little to the N. 
of the mouth of the Tresa. It affords good headquarters for a pro- 
longed stay on account of its ample railway and steamer facilities. 
'The Statue of Garibaldi, near the pier, commemorates his brave hut 
futile attempt to continue the contest here with his devoted guerilla 
band after the conclusion of the armistice between Piedmont and 
Austria on Aug. 15th, 1848. The principal Church is adorned with 
frescoes by Bernardino Luini, a native of the place (c. 1470-1530). 
Among the numerous tasteful villas in the vicinity is the Palazzo 
Crivelli, to the N. , surrounded by pines. At the mouth of the Mar- 
gorabbia, y 2 M. to the S., lies Germignaga, with the large silk- 
spinning (filanda'} and winding (ftlatoja) factories of E. Stehli-Hirt 
of Zurich. (Admission by application to Mr. Bodmer, the manager.) 

On the W bank rise two grotesque-looking castles (Castelli di 
Cannero), half in ruins, the property of Count Borromeo. In the 
15th cent, they harboured the five brothers Mazzarda, notorious 
brigands, the terror of the district. — Cannero (Alb. Tre Re) is 
beautifully situated in the midst of vineyards and groves of chestnuts, 
which extend far up the slopes of the mountain. The W. bank 
is clothed with the richest vegetation , and studded with in- 
numerable white houses and a succession of picturesque villages. 

The next stations are Oggebbio and Ghiffa (*II6tel Ghiffa) on 
the "W. bank, and Porto Valtravaglia (R. ; Osleria Antica~) on the 
E. In a wooded bay beyond the last lies Calde, with the ancient 
tower of the Castello di Calde on an eminence. Then, to the E., — 

Laveno (R. ; Posta , well spoken of ; Moro), a village of some 
importance , beautifully situated in a bay at the mouth of the 
Boesio, formerly a fortified harbour for the Austrian gunboats. The 
ruinous fort on a headland l 1 ^ M. to the W. commands a charming 
view of the lake and the mountains beyond. To Varese and to 
Milan, see pp. 164-162. 

Lago Magyiore. PALLANZA. 25. Route. 169 

Behind Laveno rises the green Sasso del Ferro (3485 ft.) , the most 
beautiful mountain on the lake, easily ascended in 2'/2 lirs., and com- 
manding a magnificent view of the lake, the plain as far as Milan, and 
the Monte Eosa chain. — Interesting excursion to the convent of S. 
Calerlna del Sasso, l 1 /* hr. to the S of Laveno, high above the lake. 
Imbedded in the vaulted roof of the church is a rock, which fell upon 
it in the last century and has remained there ever since. 

Boat from Laveno to the Borromean Islands and Pallanza (p. 170) 
with three rowers, 10-12 fr.; to Isola Bella l'/2 hr., thence to Isola Madre 
20 min., to Pallanza 20 min. more. 

As the boat approaches Intra, the valley, which here opens to 
the W., suddenly discloses a view of the N. neighbours of Monte 
Rosa: first the Strahlhorn, then the Mischabel and Simplon. They 
are lost to view as the steamboat turns the point between Intra 
and Pallanza , but soon re-appear and remain visible until Isola 
Bella is reached. 

Intra (*H6tel de la Ville et Poste , Vitello e Leone d'Oro, now 
united, R. & A. 2 l /. 2 -3 l / 2 , B. lV4ir.; Hotel Intra; Agnello) , a 
flourishing town (5700 inhab.) with manufactories chiefly belonging 
to Swiss proprietors, is situated on alluvial soil, between two 
mountain-streams, the 8. Giovanni and 8. Bernardino. On the 
quay is a marble statue of Oapt. Simonetta. The garden of the 
*Villa Franzosini, 1 M. to the N., contains a magnificent magnolia, 
65 ft. in height, and 3 / 4 M. beyond it is the "'Villa Ada of M. 
Ceriani, also noteworthy for its wealth of vegetation (palms, huge 
Eucalypti, etc.). On the promontory of Castagnola (see below), 
IY2 M. to the S., is the Villa S. Remigio, the residence of the 
Browne family (visitors admitted; *View from the balcony). 

Pleasant walk from Intra to the N. by the new road (shaded short- 
cuts for walkers), via Arizzono to (3 3 /4 M.) Bee (1935 ft.; "Alb. Bee), with a 
line view of Lago Maggiore, and to (3 M.) Premeno (2600 ft. ; "H6tel- Pension 
Premeno, finely situated). Above it (10 min.) is the Tornico, a plalform 
laid out in honour of Garibaldi, with a good spring and a beautiful view 
of the Alps. A few min. higher is the "Bellavista, an admirable point of 
view, commanding the lake to the E., and the beautiful and fertile Val 
Intragna to the W., with its numerous villages. 

To the S. of Intra the Punta della Castagnola , with its wealth 
of luxuriant vegetation, stretches far into the lake. The finely sit- 
uated Hotel Garoni (see below), on the Punta, lies ll/ 2 M. from 
Intra, and ^ M. from Pallanza. At the foot of the hill is the Bir- 
reria della Castagnola. The little Isola 8. Giovanni, near Pallanza, 
with its chapel, house, and gardens, is one of the Borromean Islands. 

Pallanza. — <! Gkand Hotel Pallanza, a large house, finely situated, 
'/« M. from the landing - place , with the Villa Montebello and several 
other dependances, E. & L. 2>/ 2 -12, B. IV2, I). 5, warm bath 2>/2, lake- 
bath I1/2, board in summer 1 1 ,'2-12 I /2, in winter 7-10'/2 fr. — *H6t. Uaroni, 
V2 M. to the S.E., splendidly situated on the Punta della Castagnola (see 
above), with grounds, pens. 7-12 fr. (Engl, landlady). — 'Posta, on the 
lake (Engl, landlady), E., L., & A. 3, B. l'| 4 , D. 4, pens. 5-8 fr. ; Hot. 
Milan, also on the lake, E. 2, D. incl. wine 3>/2 fr. ; Italia ; S. Gottakdo ; 
'Pens. Villa Maggioke. pens. incl. wine 5'/2-7 fr., L. & A. extra. 

Diligence to Gravellona, 4 times daily, see pp. 26, 29: the Hotel 
Pallanza also sends a private omnibus (1/2 fr.). 

Boat with one rower to the Isola Madre and back 2^2, with two 4 1 /? fr-, 

170 Route 25. BORROMEAN ISLANDS. Logo Maggiore. 

to Isola Bella and back 31/2 or 6; to both islands and back 4 or 7; to 
Stresa and back 3'/2 or 6 ; to Laveno and back 3'/2 or 7, etc. The traveller 
should ask to see the tariff before embarking. The hotels also possess 
boats, for which the charges are similar. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Pallanza. 

Pallanza, a thriving little town with 3200 inhab., delightfully 
situated opposite the Borromean Islands, commands a view of them, 
the lake , and the Alps to the N. As the most sheltered and 
warmest spot on the Lago Maggiore , it enjoys a repute as a 
winter-resort, especially as an intermediate stage between the 
Riviera and more northerly climes. The banks of the lake are 
skirted by pleasant promenades. The nursery gardens of Rovelli, 
Cerutti, and others deserve a visit. 

Pleasant walk by the shady avenue of chestnut-trees leading to the 
Madonna di Campagna; by the church to the right round the Monte Rosso 
(7220 ft.) , and up the left bank of the S. Bernardino, to the picturesque 
bridge of Sanlino and the ancient Roman bridge between Cossogno (Inn, 
good wine) and Rovegro (2 hrs.), whence we may return via Bieno, Gavan- 
done, and Suna. 

The lake here forms a large bay to the W. , into which falls the 
impetuous Tosa (Toce). On the N.E. bank lies Suna (*Pens. Came- 
niscK), on the S. W. Feriolo. — Then 

BavenO. — Hotels. :: Gkabb Hotel Bellevue, E., L., & A. 5-7, D. 
5 fr., well managed, with garden; "Grand Hotel Baveno, a large house 
below the Villa Clara; "Beaurivage, with garden; *Hotel Pension Suisse 
(beer), B. from I 1 /*) B. 1, lunch 2, D. 3, pens, from 5 fr. — Diligence to 
Gravellona, twice daily, see p. 29. 

Boats to the Borromean Islands, same charges as from Stresa (p. 171). 
Halfway between Baveno and Stresa is a ferry, where the charge for the 
short crossing (10 min.) is 1-2 fr. 

English Church Service in the chapel in the garden of the Villa Clara. 

Baveno , a village with 2000 inhabitants , is adapted for a 
stay of some time. The extensive granite-quarries here, visible 
from the steamer, supplied some of the columns in Milan Cathedral, 
and in the church of S. Paolo fuori in Rome. The handsome * Villa 
Clara (proprietor Mr. Henfrey) was occupied by Queen Victoria 
for some weeks in the spring of 1879 and by the Crown Prince 
Frederick of Germany in Oct., 1887 (visitors admitted to the beau- 
tiful garden and the church on showing their visiting-cards). 

The steamer now approaches the — 

*Borromean Islands. The steamers touch regularly only at the 
most southern of these, the Isola Bella, which with the Isola Madre 
is the property of the Borromeo family (adm. to both islands only 
after 9 a.m., and when the proprietor is at home, not after 6 p.m.). 
The westernmost, the Isola dei Pescatori or Superiore, is touched 
at occasionally (p. 171). To the N. is the Isola S. Giovanni, men- 
tioned at p. 169. 

In the 17th cent. Count Vitaliano Borromeo (d. 1690) erected 
a chateau on ""Isola Bella and converted the barren rock into beauti- 
ful gardens , rising on ten terraces 100 ft. above the lake , and 
stocked with lemon-trees, cedars, magnolias, orange-trees, laurels, 
cork-trees, camphor-trees, eucalypti, magnificent oleanders, and 

Lago Mayyiore. STRESA. 25. Route. 171 

other luxuriant products of the south. The view is very beautiful 
(evening-light most favourable). Shell-grottoes, fountains (dry), 
and statues meet the eye in profusion, but in questionable taste. 
The Chateau , which is somewhat disproportionate to the size of 
the island, is richly decorated, and contains a collection of pictures 
more numerous than valuable. The N. wing is unfinished. The view 
through the arches of the long galleries under the chateau is very 
striking. A servant hurries visitors through the apartments (fee 
•/2 fr-, for a party 1 fr.), and consigns them to a gardener, who 
shows the garden with equal dispatch for a similar fee. 

The Picture Gallert , amidst its numerous copies, contains a few 
good Lombard pictures : Gian Pietrino, Lucretia and Cleopatra ; Gaud. Fer- 
rari, Madonna; Procaccini, Head of St. John; "Bollraffio, Portrait of a 
woman; Borgognone, Christ blessing; Gregorio Schiavone, Madonna between 
John the Baptist and St. Justina (an interesting work bearing the forged 
signature Bernardimis Betinonus). 

Adjoining the chateau are the *H6tel du Dauphin , or Delfino 
(R., L., & A. 3, B. IY4, D- 4, pension 7 fr.), and the Ristor. del 
Vapore (tolerable). Excursion by boat to Isola Madre and back with 
two rowers, 3 fr. 

The *Isola Madre (not a steamboat-station) on its S. side re- 
sembles the Isola Bella , and is laid out in seven terraces with 
lemon and orange-trellises ; on the upper terrace is an uninhabited 
'Palazzo' (beautiful view). On the N. side there are charming 
walks in the English style , with most luxuriant vegetation (fee 
1 fr.). — The Isola dei Pescatori or Superiore (Osteria Verbano) 
is entirely occupied by a small fishing-village, the only open spaces 
being a place for drying the nets, a small avenue, and the churchyard. 

The scenery around the Borromean Islands rivals that of the Lake of 
Como in grandeur, and perhaps surpasses it in softness of character. Monte 
Rosa is not visible; the snow-mountains to the N.W. are the glaciers and 
peaks of the Simplon; of the nearer mountains the most conspicuous are 
the white granite-rocks near Baveno (p. 170). The traveller coming from 
the N. cannot fail to be struck with the loveliness of these banks, studded 
with innumerable habitations, and clothed with southern vegetation (chest- 
nuts, mulberries, vines, figs, olives); the extensive lake with its deep blue 
waters and beautiful girdle of snowy mountains combining the stern 
grandeur of the High Alps with the charms of a southern clime. Rousseau 
at one time intended to make the Borromean Islands the scene of his 
'Nouvelle Heloise', but considered them too artificial for his romance , in 
which human nature is pourtrayed with such a masterly hand. 

Opposite Isola Bella, on the "W. bank, lies • — 

Stresa. — Hotels. "Hotel des Iles Boeeomees, '/a M. from the land 
ing-place, comfortable, with beautiful garden, R., L., & A. from 4, B. l'/z, 
D. 5 fr., pension (room 2-3 fr. extra) in summer 7'/s fr. ; "Hotel Milan, 
with garden, near the steamboat-pier, R., L., & A. 4-572, D. 5, pension 
6-7 fr. (room extra); Albergo Reale Bolongaro, Italian; Hot. dTtalie & 
Pens. Suisse, R. from IV2, A. •/», L. i/s, pens. 6 fr. ; S. Gottardo , R. 
from l'/j, pens. 5-6 fr. These three are well spoken of. 

Boat (barca) with one rower 2fr. for the first hour, and 50 c. for each 
additional l fe hr. ; to Isola Bella 2 fr. and fare by time for the stay there 
and for any prolongation of the excursion. 

Diligence to Gravellona twice daily (see p. 29). 

Photographs : C. Bacmeister, Alb. S. Gottardo. 

English Church Service in summer at the Hotel des Iles Borromees. 

172 Route 26. MONTE MOTTERONE. 

Stresa is another suitable spot for a lengthened stay. The 
handsome Rosminian Monastery (875 ft.) above the town is now a 
school. The church contains the monumsnt of Ant. Rosmini 
(d. 1855), with an admirable statue by Vela. Beautiful cypresses 
in the Churchyard. Among the finest villas in the environs are the 
Villa of the Duchess of Oenoa , by the church , and the Villas 
Landriani, Lomellini , Amalia, Baisini , and Imperatori. Above 
the lake, ^'2 M. to the S., is the beautifully situated Villa Palla- 
vicino and 1 / i M. farther the Villa Vignolo , with fine gardens 
(visitors admitted). — Ascent of Monte Motterone, see below. 

As the boat steers its course along the W. bank , the con- 
struction of the high-road, in many places supported by piers of 
masonry, attracts attention owing to the difficulties which had to bo 
overcome. The banks gradually become flatter, and Monte Rosa makes 
its appearance in the W. The next place on the W. bank is — 

Belgirate (*Orand Hotel and Pension Belgirate) , with 700 in- 
hab. , surrounded by the villas Fontana , Principessa Matilda, 
and others. — Then follow Lesa and Meina (Albergo Zanetta), 
and , on the E. bank , Angera (R.) , with a handsome chateau of 
Count Borromeo. The steamer finally stops at the station beyond 

Arona , and thence to Milan, see pp. 165, 164; to Novara 
(Genoa, Turin), see pp. 76-74. 

26. From Stresa to Orta and Varallo. 

IV2 Day. 1st Day: From Stresa over the Mte. Motterone to Orta, 
7-8 hrs. — 2nd Day: From Orta to Varallo 4'/2 hrs. — Carriage and pair 
from Stresa via Gravellona to Orta, with stay, 30 fr. 

Stresa, see above ; Baveno, see p. 170. — The Lago Maggiore 
is separated from the Lake of Orta by Monte Margoz-olo or Mer- 
gozzolo , which may be crossed by a pleasant route from Stresa to 
Orta in 5-6 hrs. : road to (6 M.) Oignese (2525 ft. ; Alb. Alpino, 
fine view), whence the Mte. Motterone may be ascended in 2 hrs.; 
thence with a guide (2-3 fr.) to Coiro in 2 hrs. ; descent from 
Coiro by a path, easily found, to (3/ 4 hr.) Armeno (see below). 

Farther on, to the N., this mountain culminates in the grassy 
*Monte Motterone or Mottarone (4890 ft.), a magnificent point of 
view, easily ascended from Stresa or Baveno in 3 V2-4 hrs. (guide 
3 fr., donkey with a'tendant 5 fr.). The route from Baveno leads 
by Romanico , Loita, and Camp ino , mostly through wood, to So- 
meraro, where it joins the route from Stresa. The latter diverges 
to the left opposite Isola Bella , beyond a bridge over the broad 
channel of the Roddo , and ascends through wood to the villages 
of (3/ 4 hr.) Someraro (1500 ft.) and (25 min.) Levo (1915 ft.). We 
emerge from the wood '/o hr. farther on , and ascend over pastures 
(with the hotel in sight in front of us) past the Alpe del Oiardino 
to the (1 hr.) chapel of S. Eurosia (3685 ft.) , without a tower, 

ORTA. 2 ft. Route. 173 

where we turn to the right. 20 inin. Alpe del Motlarone (milk); 
V 2 hr. *Albergo Moltarone, kept by the brothers Ouglielrnina, 
10 min. below the summit (4675 ft.; R., L., & A. 3, B. li/ 2 , D - 
3 3 /4, pens., inch wine, 9 fr.). 

The "View from the top, the 'Itigi of Northern Italy', embraces the 
Alps from the Col di Tenda and Monte Viso on the W., to the Ortler 
and Adamello on the E. (panorama by Bossoli , in the hotel). The most, 
conspicuous feature is the Mte. Rosa group; to the right of it appear the 
Cima di Jazzi, Strahlhorn, Kimpflschhorn, Allalinhorn, Alphubel, Misch- 
abel (Taschhorn, Dom, Nadelhorn), Pizzo Bottarello, Portjengrat, Bietsch- 
horn, Mte. Leone, Jungfrau, Helsenhorn, Fiescherhorner; then more distant, 
to the E. of the peaks of Mte. Zeda, the Rheinwald Mountains, Bernina, 
Disgrazia, Mte. Legnone, Mte. Generoso, Mte. Grigna. At our feet lie seven 
different lakes, the Lake of Orta, Lago di Mergozzo, Lago Maggiore, Lago 
di Monate , Lago di Comabbio , Lago di Biandrone, and Lago di Varese ; 
farther to the right stretch the extensive plains of Lombardy and Pied- 
mont, in the centre of which rises the lofty cathedral of Milan. The 
Ticino and the Sesia meander like silver threads through the plains, and 
by a singular optical delusion frequently appear to traverse a lofty table- 
land. — The mountain itself consists of a number of barren summits, 
studded with occasional chalets , shaded by trees. At its base it is en- 
circled by chestnut-trees, and the foliage and luxuriant vegetation of the 
landscape far and wide impart a peculiar charm to the picture. 

On the W. side a path, rather tteep at places (guide advisable), 
descends direct to (2 hrs.) Omeyna (Alb. Manin, well spoken of), 
at the N. end of the Lago d'Orta (rail, stat., see p. 76). Travellers 
bound for Orta soon reach a broad bridle-path on the S. side of the 
hill (guide unnecessary), descending by Cheggino (2120 ft.) to (2t/ 2 
hrs.) Armeno (1720 ft. ; Alb. dell' Unione) on the high-road, which 
they follow to the S. From (12 rnin.) the point where the road 
forks , the left branch leads to Miusino (see p. 29) , the right by 
Carcegna, crossing the railway to Gravellona (the station of Orta- 
Miasino lying on the left), to (4 M.) — 

Orta (850 ft. ,- *H6tel Belvedere, on the Sacro Montr, see below ; 
* Hotel S. Giulio , kept by Ronclielti, in the market-place on the 
lake, R. & A. 4, B. li/ 2 , D. 4'/ 2 fr. ; Leon d'Oro; Due Spade, un- 
pretending; beer at the Cafe d'Orta, in the market), a little town, 
with marble-paved streets and a Villa of the Marchese Natta, pic- 
turesquely situted at the foot of the Sacro Monte (p. 174), on a 
headland extending into the *Lake of Orta. Opposite Orta lies 
the rocky Isola S. Giulio (boat there and back 1 Y2 fr- 5 als0 steam- 
boat-stat.), with an ancient church , founded by St. Julius, who 
came from Greece in 379 to convert the natives, and frequently 
restored. It contains several good reliefs, old frescoes, a fine Ro- 
manesque pulpit , and in the sacristy a Madonna by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari. On the hill is a seminary for priests , with a garden 
affording charming views of the lake. — On the lake (174 M. in 
breadth , 7!/ 2 M. in length), now called Lago Cusio, after its sup- 
posed ancient name , a steamer plies three times daily : to the S. 
to Jscla S. Giulio, Pascolo , and Buccione (p. 174); and in the 
opposite direction to Bella , Pettrnasco, Ronco, Oira, and Omegna 
(see above). 

174 Routed. VARALLO. 

Above Orta rises the 'Sacro Monte or Santuario (1315 ft.; ascent in 
>/4 hr. from the market-place or through the garden of the Villa Natta: 
fee for opening the upper door), a beautifully wooded hill, laid out as a 
park. In the 16th cent. 20 chapels were erected here in honour of St. Francis 
of Assisi, each containing a scene from his history in painted life-size 
figures of terracotta, with a background 'al fresco'. Though of little art- 
istic value, these groups are on the whole spirited and effective. The best 
are in the 13th, 16th, and 20th chapels ; in the last is represented the canon- 
isation of the saint, with the assembly of cardinals. One of the 'Custodi 
del Monte' will open the chapels if required O/2-l fr.), but a sufficiently 
good view is obtained through the openings in the doors. Various points 
on the hill command charming surveys of the lake; to the W., above the 
lower hills, peeps the snowy Monte Rosa. On the W. side of the plateau 
are the "Hotel Belvedere and a small Cafi-Restaurant. 

Picturesque excursions may be made from Orta to the (1 hr.) Madonna 
delta Bocciola (1565 ft.), situated on the hill above the station; to the 
(l'/4 hr.) Torre di Buecione (1500 ft. ; an ancient watch-tower dating from 
Emp. Frederick Barbarossa) at the S. end of the lake (boat to Buecione 
l'/2 fr. ; also steamer), both points commanding good views. By Bella 
(see below) to ('/2 hr.) Alzo, with extensive granite- quarries (branch- 
railway from Gozzano , see p. 29) , and to (1 hr.) the Madonna del Sasso 
(2090 ft.), the pretty church of the hamlet of Boletlo, on a lofty cliff, 
commanding a fine survey of the entire lake. — Porter to the top of the 
Motterone (0 hrs.) 6, donkey 10 fr. ; over the Motterone to Baveno or 
Stresa, 10 and 15 fr. 

Railway from Orta to Domo d'Ossola and Novara, see p. 29. 

From Orta over the Colma to Varallo, 4'/2 ^ rs -i a beauti- 
ful walk (donkey 6, to the Colma 3 fr. ; guide, 5 fr., unnecessary). 
On the W. bank of the lake , opposite Orta , the white houses of 
Fella (Alb. del Pesce , unpretending) peep from amidst vines, 
chestnuts , and walnuts. (Boat from Orta 1 fr.) The path to the 
Colma crosses the Pellino at the upper end of the village , beside 
a paper-factory, and ascends steeply. At (12 min.) the fork we 
take the level path to the left to (20 min.) a mill, above which 
we cross a brook descending on the right. A paved path now 
ascends steeply to (40 min.) Arola (2020 ft.), which commands a 
lovely view in the direction of the lake of Orta. We turn to the 
left 5 min. beyond the village, descend a little, and then keep on 
for 1/2 hr. on the same level, skirting the gorge of the Pellino, 
which here forms a pretty waterfall. We next ascend through wood, 
between crumbling blocks of granite, to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) wooded Col di 
Colma (3090 ft.). The height to the left commands a splendid 
view, embracing Monte Rosa, the lakes of Orta and Varese, and 
the plain of Lombardy. In descending (to the right), we overlook 
the fertile Val Sesia, with its numerous villages. The path leads 
through groves of chestnuts and walnuts to ( 3 / 4 hr.) Civiasco (2350 ft. ; 
several Cantine), whence a fine new road (short-cut by the old path 
descending to the left), the first part of which affords a magnificent 
view of Mte. Rosa, leads to ( 3 / 4 hr.) — 

Varallo (1480 ft.; pop. 3200; * Italia , R. & A. 3»/ 2 , D. 4 fr.; 
*Croce Bianca, good cuisine; Posta , B. l'/2 fr-> Parigi; Falcone 
Nero), the capital of the Val Sesia, at the mouth of the Mastallone, 
here crossed by a stone-bridge. The Sesia, often dry in summer, is 

CERTOSA DI PAVIA. 27. Route. 175 

crossed by a suspension-bridge near the railway-station. The Piazza 
Vitt. Emanuele , at the entrance to the town from the station , is 
embellished by a monument to Victor Emmanuel. Over the high- 
altar of the collegiate church is a Marriage of St. Catharine by 
Gaudenzio Ferrari (1484-1549) , a native of the neighbouring Val 
Duggia. The churches of *S. Maria delle Grazie (in the choir), S. 
Maria di Loreto , and S. Marco also contain frescoes by this master 
(those in the last being of his earlier period). A marble statue of 
Ferrari , by Vedova, stands at the beginning of the ascent to the 
Sacro Monte. 

The "Sacro Monte (Sanluario di Varallo; 1995 ft.), a great resort of 
pilgrims and sight-seers, rising in the immediate vicinity of the town, is 
ascended in 20 min. by a paved path shaded by beautiful trees, and 
commands a delightful view. On the top of the hill and on its slopes are 
a church and 4G Chapels, or oratories, containing scenes from the life of 
the Saviour in painted life-size figures of terracotta, beginning with the 
Fall in the 1st chapel , and ending with the Entombment of the Virgin 
in the 46th. This 'Nuova Gerusaletnme nel Sacro Monte di Varallo' was 
founded in 1486 by Bernardino Caloto, a Milanese nobleman, with the 
sanction of Pope Innocent VIII.; but as a resort of pilgrims it did not 
come into vogue until after the visits of Cardinal Borromeo (p. 165) in 
1578 and 15S4, from which period most of the chapels date. The hill 
now belongs to the town (Cafe-Restauranl at the top). 

27. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) via Pavia. 
Certosa di Pavia. 

Railway from Milan to Genoa via, Pavia and Voghera, 92 M., in 
4-7 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 5, 11 fr. 95 , 7 fr. 65 c. ; express 18 fr. 85, 13 fr. 25 c.) ; 
from Milan to Pavia, 22>/ 2 M., in s/ 4 -l nr . (fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 2 fr. 
5 c. ; express 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 15 c). 

Steam Tramway from Milan to Pavia (via Binasco) in 2'/2 hrs. (fares 
2'/2 or f/2 fr.), starting every 3 hrs. from the Porta Ludovica and Porta 
Ticinese (PI. C, D, 8), at Padna from the Piazza Petrarca and Porta di 
Milano. The tramway-station for visitors to the Certosa is Torre di 
Mangano, on the Naviglio di Pavia, about 1 M. from the monastery (om- 
nibus from the station to the Certosa and back 1 fr.). 

Milan , see p. 125. The train to Pavia at first follows the Pia- 
cenza line, and then diverges to the S.W. The country is flat; 
underwood and rice-fields are traversed alternately. Beyond (4y 2 M.) 
Rogoredo the Cistercian church of Chiaravalle is seen on the right, 
a fine edifice of the 13th cent., with a domed tower. The interior is 
adorned with frescoes by Milan painters of the 16th cent, and con- 
tains choir-stalls of 1465. — 9'/2M. Locate; I2V2M. Villamaggiore. 

On the road, to the W. of the line, lies Binasco, a small town with 
an ancient castle, in which, on 13th Sept., 1418, the jealous and tyrannical 
Duke Fil. Maria Visconti caused his noble and innocent wife Beatrice 
di Tenda (p. 116) to be executed. 

17^2 M. Stazione delta Certosa (Fratelli Rizzardi's Restaurant, 
good), whence two routes lead to the entrance (W. side) of the 
Certosa (walk of '/ihr. ; also omn. from the station, 1/2 fr.). A visit 
to the Certosa (Hot. -Rest. Milano), which is open 8-5.30 in sum- 
mer and 9-4 in winter, occupies l 1 /^"^ hrs. (gratuities forbidden). 

The *Certosa di Pavia, or Carthusian monastery, the splendid 

1 76 Route 27. CERTOSA Dl PA VIA. From Milan 

memorial of the Milan dynasties, founded in 1396 by Gian Galeazzo 
Visconti (p. 124), and suppressed under Emperor Joseph II., was 
restored to its original destination in 1844 and presented to the 
Carthusians. Since the recent suppression of the Italian monasteries 
it has heen maintained as a 'National Monument'. A vestibule, 
embellished with sadly -damaged frescoes by Bern. Luini (SS. 
Sebastian and Christopher) , leads to a large inner court, at the 
farther end of which rises the celebrated facade of the church. 

The **Facade , begun in 1473 by Amlrogio Borgognone, is 
perhaps the most masterly creation of its kind of the 15th century. 
Its design, independent of the antique orders of architecture, is in 
the graduated Lombard-Romanesque style of church-fronts, with 
projecting pillars and transverse arcades, while within these well- 
defined structural features it embraces a wonderful and judiciously 
distributed wealth of ornament (Burckhardt). Thirty of the most 
distinguished Lombard masters from the 15th to the 17th cent, 
have had a share in its embellishment, the most eminent of whom 
are: Ant. Amadeo and Andr. Fusina (15th cent.); Giacomo della 
Porta and Agostino Busti, surnamed II Bambaja (to whom the princi- 
pal portal is ascribed), and Cristofano Solari, surnamed II Oobbo 
(16th cent.). The plinth is adorned with medallions of Roman em- 
perors, above which are reliefs representing Biblical history and 
scenes from the life of Gian Galeazzo. Below the beautiful win- 
dows is a row of angel's heads , and above them are niches with 
numerous statues. This is unquestionably the finest decorative 
work of the kind in N. Italy, although inferior to the facades of the 
cathedrals of Orvieto and Siena , especially as the upper part is 
wanting. The reliefs are on the whole superior to the statues. 

The body of the church, begun in 1396 by Marco di Campione 
in the Gothic style, consists of a nave with aisles and 14 chapels, 
and is surmounted by a dome, borne by ten slender columns. The 
interior, 272 ft. long and 174 ft. broad, is sumptuously and taste- 
fully fitted up. The handsome coloured enrichments were probably 
designed by Borgognone ; the mosaic pavement is modern. The 
dome can only be ascended on special permission, obtained at the 
prefecture in Pavia. 

The Chapels and altars are richly adorned with valuable columns 
and precious stones. 2nd Chapel on the right: good altar-piece in six 
sections by Macrino cTAlba (1496); 4th Chapel on the right, "Crucifixion 
by Ambrogio Borgognone; 5th Chapel on the right, "St. Sirus with four 
saints, by the same. The 2nd Chapel on the left (counting from the en- 
trance) formerly contained a picture by Perugino in six sections, of which 
the central part, above, representing "God the Father, is alone original, 
the other parts being now in France and England. The other frescoes and 
paintings by Borgognone, Procaccini, Guercino, Bianchi, Crespi, father and 
son, and others are of no great value. 

The transept and choir are separated from the rest of the church by 
a beautiful Screen of iron and bronze. Right Transept : magnificent "Monu- 
ment of Giangaleazzo Visconti, designed in 1490 by Galeazzo Pellegrini, but 
executed chiefly by Antonio Amadeo and Giacomo della Porta, and not 
completed till 1562. Left Tkanskpt: Monuments of Lodovico Moro and 

G-eogra)ih iastalt 

Wagner* I> eT> e 9 . 1 en p ia.e, 

to Voghera. PA VIA. 27. Route, ill 

his wife "Beatrice d'Este (d. 1497), by Crist. Solari. — The "Choir con- 
tains a tine altar with carving of the 16th century. The "Choir-stalls are 
adorned with inlaid figures of apostles and saints, from drawings by Bor- 
gognone. The handsome bronze candelabra on the marble altar-rail are by 
Libero Fonlana. The old sacristy to the left of the choir contains a fine 
carved ivory altar-piece, in upwards of 60 sections, by Leon, degli Ubriachi 
of Florence (16th cent.). — The door to the right of the choir, handsomely 
framed in marble, leads to the Lavatorio, which contains a rich foun- 
tain and the -Madonna and Child in fresco by Bern. Luini. To the right 
of the lavatory is a small burial-place. 

The Sageestia Nuova, or Oratorio, is entered from the S. end of 
the transept: altar-piece, an "Assumption by A. Solario, but the upper 
part is said to be by Bernardino Campi of Cremona. Over the door, Ma- 
donna enthroned, by Bart. Montagna; the side-pictures by Borgognone. 

The front part of the "Cloisters (della Fontana) possesses slender 
marble columns and charming decorations in terracotta. Fine view hence 
of the side of the church and the right transept with its trilateral end. The 
Refectory is also situated here. — Around the large Cloisters, farther 
back, are situated 24 small houses formerly occupied by the monks, each 
consisting of three rooms with a small garden. 

The battle of Pavia, at which Francis I. of France was taken 
prisoner by Lannoy, a general of Charles V., took place near the 
Oertosa on 24th Feb. 1525. 

22'/2 M. Pavia, junction of different lines (see p. 179). 

Pavia. — Hotels. Croce Bianca (P). a; B, 4), E. 2 fr. and upwards, 
D. 5, B. 2'/ 2 , S. 4, L. 1, omnibus 1 fr. ; Lombardia (PI. b; B, 3); Tre Ee 
(PI. c; B, 5). — Cafe" Demetrio, Corso Vittorio Emanuele. 

Cab per drive SWc, per hour l'/afr. — Omnibus to the town 25c. 

The names of most of the streets have been altered recently; the 
old names are generally given in red lettering below the new. — A visit 
to the chief points of interest in the town occupies about 3 hrs. 

Pavia, with 29,800 inhab., capital of the province of the same 
name, situated near the confluence of the Ticino and the Po, the 
Ticinum of the ancients, subsequently Papla, was also known as 
the Cittct di Cento Torri from its numerous towers, of which only a 
few still exist. In the middle ages it was the faithful ally of the 
German emperors, until it was subjugated by the Milanese, and it 
is still partly surrounded by the walls and fortifications of that 

Leaving the railway-station, we enter the Corso Cavoub. (PI. 
A, 4) through the Porta Borgorato or Marengo (in a wall to the 
right is the statue of a Roman magistrate), and following the Via 
Jacopo Brossolaro to the right reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The Cathedral (PI. 4; B, 4), rising on the site of an ancient 
basilica, begun in accordance with a design by Bramante, and con- 
tinued by Cristoforo Rocchi in 1486, but never completed, is a vast 
circular structure with four arms. 

In the Interior, on the right, is the sumptuous "Area di S. Agostino, 
adorned with 290 figures (of saints, and allegorical), begun, it is supposed, 
in 1362 by Bonino da Campiglione , by whom the figures on the tombs of 
the Scaliger family at Verona (p. 203) were executed. To the right 
of the entrance is a wooden model of the church as originally projected. 
— The cathedral is at present undergoing a thorough restoration. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. 12 

178 Route 27. PAVIA. From Milan 

The gateway to the left of the church is in the late-Romanesque 
style. Adjoining it rises a massive Campanile, begun in 1583. 

We may now proceed to the Corso Vittorio Emanuble, a street 
intersecting the town in a straight direction from N. to S., from the 
Porta di Milano to the Porta Ticinese , and leading to the covered 
Bridge (14th cent. ; a pleasant promenade with picturesque view) 
over the Tieino, which is here navigated by barges and steamboats. 
A chapel stands on the bridge, halfway across. 

S. Miohblb (PI. 7 ; B, 5), to which the third side-street to the 
right leads (coming from the bridge), a Romanesque church errone- 
ously ascribed to the Lombard kings, belongs to the latter part of the 
11th century. 

The facade is adorned with numerous very ancient reliefs in sand- 
stone, in ribbon-like stripes, and a curious gabled gallery. The nave and 
aisles are supported by eight pillars, from which rise double round arches. 
The short choir, under which there is a crypt, terminates in an apse. 
Over the centre of the transept rises a dome. The pillars of the nave 
bear traces of ancient frescoes. The interior has lately been restored. 

The traveller may now ascend the Corso Vitt. Emanuele past 
the handsome Oalleria (PL 32) founded by Gazzaniga, and built 
by Balossi (completed in 1882) , to the University (PL 31 ; 
B, 4), founded in 1361 on the site of a school of law, which had 
existed here since the 10th century. The building is much hand- 
somer than that of Padua; the quadrangles of the interior are sur- 
rounded by handsome arcades and embellished with numerous 
memorial-tablets, busts, and monuments of celebrated professors 
and students. In the first court are statues of the professors Bordoni, 
Porta , and Panizzi ; in the second a statue of Volta and several 
memorial reliefs of professors attended by students. — Opposite the 
university, in the Piazza d'ltalia, rises a statue of Italy. 

The Corso next leads in a N. direction, past the Theatre, to the 
Piazza Castello, with a monument to Garibaldi, by Pozzi, unveiled 
in 1884, and to the old Castle (PL C, 3), erected by the Visconti in 
1360-69, now used as a barrack, and containing a handsome court 
of the 14th century. — Adjacent, at the corner of the Passeggio 
di S. Croce, is the church of S. Pietro in Cielo d'Oro, with a Ro- 
manesque facade. 

At the back of the university lies the Ospedale Civico, and 
farther E. , in the Via Defendente Sacchi (formerly Canepanova) 
the church of S. Maria di Canepanova (PL 15 ; C, 4), a small dome- 
covered structure designed by Bramante (1492). — More to the N., 
at the corner of the Corso Cairoli (formerly Contrada del Collegio 
Germanico), is the Romanesque church of S. Francesco (PL 8 ; C, 
4), of the 14th cent., with a facade in the pointed style. In the 
vicinity stands the Collegio Ohislieri (PL 18; C, 4), founded in 
1569 by Pius V. (Ghislieri), a colossal bronze statue of whom has 
been erected in the piazza in front. On the E. side of the Piazza 
Ghislieri is the Istituto di Belle Arti , containing collections of 
natural history, antiquities, etc. 

to Voghera. PAVIA. 27. Route. 179 

In the Via Roma, to the W. of the university, to the right, is 
the Jesuits' Church (PI. 11 ; B, 4). — At the end of the short Via 
Malaspina is the Casa Malaspina , at the entrance to the court of 
which are busts of Bo'ethius and Petrarch. The interior contains a 
small collection of engravings and paintings. 

Tradition points this out as the place in which Boethius, confined by 
the Emperor Theodoric, composed his work on the 'Consolation of Philo- 
sophy 1 , and Petrarch once spent an autumn here with his daughter and 
son-in-law. His grandson, who died at the Casa Malaspina, was interred 
in the neighbouring church of S. Zeno. A short poem of Petrarch in allu- 
sion to this event, in six Latin distiches, is one of the many inscriptions 
on the wall opposite the entrance. 

The Via Roma terminates in the Piazza del Carmine, with the 
church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 6; B, 4), a brick edifice of 
fine proportions, flanked with chapels, and dating from 1375. 

In the S.E. part of the town is the Collegio Borromeo (PI. 16 ; 
C, 5, 6), with its beautiful court, founded by St. Carlo Borromeo 
in 1563; the vestibule is decorated with frescoes by Fed. Zuccari. 

From Pavia to Veecelli, see p. 78. 

Feom Pavia to Alessandria via Valenza , 40'/2 M., by railway in 
2'/2 hrs. (fares 7fr. 35, 5fr. 15, 3fr. 35 c). The line crosses the Ticino and 
intersects the Lomellina, or broad plain of the Po, in a S.W. direction. 
Stations Cava-Carbonara, Sairano , Zinasco, Pieve-Albignola , Sannazzaro, 
Ferrera, Lomello, Mede,Castellaro, Torre-Beretti, Valenza; see p. 78. Hence 
to Alessandria and Genoa, see p. 78, and pp. 79, 80. 

From Pavia to Brescia via Cremona, 77 M., railway in 4>/2-6 hrs. 
(fares 14 fr. 5, 9fr. 80, 6 fr. 35 c). — None of the stations are worthy of 
note except Cremona itself. 

The line intersects the fertile plain watered by the Po and the Olona. 
Stations Motla San Damiano, Belgiojoso, with a handsome chateau; near 
Corteolona the Olona is crossed. Then Miradolo, Chignolo on a small 
tributary of the Po, Ospedaletto, and Casalpusterlengo , where the line 
unites with that from Piacenza to Milan (R. 41). — 29'/2 M. Codogno pos- 
sesses large cheese-manufactories (to Piacenza, see p. 291). Near Pizzighet- 
tone, a fortified place, the Adda, which is here navigable, is crossed. This 
district is considered unhealthy. Stations Acquanegra and Cava Tigozzi. 

46 M. Cremona (see p. 180) is a terminus , from which the train 
backs out. To Treviglio (Milan and Bergamo) and Mantua, see below. 

From Cremona to Brescia the line proceeds due N., following as far 
as Olmeneta the line from Cremona to Treviglio (see p. 180). Near Ro- 
becco d'Oglio the Oglio, a considerable affluent of the Po, is crossed. Vero- 
lanuova, Manerbio; then across the Mella to Bagnolo and S. Zeno Folzano. 

77 M. Brescia, see p. 186. 

From Pavia to Stradella, via Bressana-Bottarone (see below), 20 M., 
railway in l'/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 65 c). Slradella, see p. 78. 

From Pavia to Cremona, via Codogno (p. 291), 46 M., railway in 2>/2- 
4 hrs. Cremona, see p. 180. 

From Pavia to Vogheka, 16 M., railway in V2 _3 /4 ^ r - (fares 
2 fr. 95, 2 fr. 5, 1 fr. 30 c. ; express 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 35 c). The 
train crosses the Ticino, the Po, and a small tributary of the latter. 
Stations Cava Manara , Bressana-Bottarone (branch to Stradella, 
p. 78), Calcababbio. Voghera, and journey to Tortona, see p. 78 ; 
Novi, and journey to Genoa, see p. 80. 



28. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona. 

100 M. Railway in 5-6 hrs. ; fares 18fr. 15, 12fr. 70, 8fr. 15c. 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 182. Our train diverges 
here from the main line to the S.E. — 24t/ 2 M. Caravaggio, birth- 
place of the painter Michael Angelo Amerighi da Caravaggio (1569- 
1609), with the pilgrimage-church of the Madonna di Caravaggio. 
It is also connected with Milan by a steam-tramway, running via 
Treviglio. — 27 M. Capralba; 29^2 M. Casaletto-Vaprio. 

34!/ 2 M. Grema (Alb. Pozzo), an industrial town (7800 inhab.) 
and episcopal residence , with an ancient castle. The Cathedral 
possesses a fine Romanesque facade, and contains a St. Sebastian 
by Vine. Civerchio (at the second altar on the left). The church of 
S. Maria delleGrazie is adorned with interesting frescoes. — About 
3 /4 M. from the town stands the circular church of S. Maria delta 
Croce, with effective subsidiary buildings in brick, built about 
1490 by Oiov. Batt. Battagli of Lodi, a contemporary of Bramante. 
The interior, octagonal in form, is adorned with paintings by Campi. 
— Crema is connected by tramways with Brescia and with Lodi. 

37 M. Madignano ; 40 M. Castelleone; 45 M. Soresina; bO l / 2 M. 
Casalbuttano ; 54'/ 2 M. Olmeneta ; 61 M. Cremona, the station of 
which is outside the Porta Milanese (PI. B, C, 1). 

Cremona. — "Italia (PI. b ; E, 3), good rooms and cuisine, moder- 
ate charges; Sole d'Oko (PI. a; F, 3); Cappello (PI. c; E, 4). — Cab per 
drive 1 /i fr., for i/s nr - 1 fr., for each additional '/a hr. V2 fr. 

Cremona, the capital of a province and an episcopal see, with 
31,100 inhab., lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Po, and 
carries on considerable silk-manufactures. 

The original town was wrested by the Romans from the Gallic Ceno- 
mani and colonised by them at various periods , the first of which was 
at the beginning of the second Punic war (B.C. 218). It suffered seri- 
ously during the civil wars, and was several times reduced to ruins, but 
was restored by the Emp. Vespasian. The Goths and Lombards, especial- 
ly King Agilulf, as well as the subsequent conflicts between Guelphs 
and Ghibellines, occasioned great damage to the town. Cremona espoused 
the cause of Frederick Barbarossa against Milan and Crema, and subse- 
quently came into the possession of the Visconti and of Francesco Sforza, 
after which it belonged to Milan. On 1st Feb., 1702, Prince Eugene 
surprised the French marshal Villeroi here and took him prisoner. In 
1799 the Austrians defeated the French here. 

The manufacturers of the far-famed Violins and Violas of Cremona 
were Andrea Amati (1510-80) and piccolo Amati (1696-1684), Giuseppe Guar- 
neri (c. 1690), and Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737; see p. 181). 

Cremona was the birthplace of Sofonisba d 'Anguissola (1535-1626), who, 
like her five sisters, practised the art of painting, and was highly esteemed 
by her contemporaries. She afterwards retired to Genoa, and even in her 
old age attracted the admiration of Van Dyck. In the 16th cent. Cremona 
possessed a school of art of its own, which appears to have been influenced 
by Romanino (p. 187) especially, and also by Giulio Romano. 

In the Piazza dbl Comune (PI. F, 4) rises the Torrazzo, a tower 
397 ft. in height, one of the loftiest in Italy, erected in 1261-84, 
and connected with the cathedral by a series of logge. Extensive 
view from the top. — Opposite the tower is the Gothic *Palazzo 

CREMONA 28. Route. 181 

Pubblico (PI. 12) of 1245 (restored), containing a few pictures by 
masters of the Cremona school and a rich marble chimney-piece by 
G. C. Pedone (1502). Adjacent is the Palazzo de' Qonfalonieri, 
of 1292. 

The *Cathedral (PI. 3 ; F, 4), of 1107, in the Romanesque-Lom- 
bard style , has a rich main fafade embellished with columns and 
tasteful brick facades on the transepts, especially the S. 

The Interior with its aisles, and transepts also flanked with aisles, 
is covered with frescoes by masters of the Cremona School, such as Boccac- 
cino (1500), father and son, and the later masters Campi, Altobello, Bembo, 
and Oatti. Over the arches of the nave, on both sides, are long series of 
frescoes. Left wall , above the first four arches : Boccaccino the Elder, Life 
of the Virgin, in eight scenes ; 5th arch, Bonifazio Bembo, The Magi, and 
Presentation in the Temple; beyond the organ, Altobello di Melone, Flight 
into Egypt, and Massacre of the Innocents ; above the last arch, Boccaccino, 
Christ teaching in the Temple. The colossal figures in the apse are also by 
Boccaccino. Eight wall : Melone, Last Supper, Christ washing the Disciples'' 
feet, Christ on the Mt. of Olives, Christ taken by the soldiers, Christ before 
Caiaphas ; above the 4th arch, Cristoforo Moretto Cremonese, Christ led 
out to be crucified, Scourging of Christ; 5th arch, Romanino, Crown of 
Thorns, Ecce Homo ; above the last three arches, towards the facade, 
* Pordenone' s three celebrated Passion Scenes : Christ before Pilate, Christ 
and Veronica, Christ nailed to the Cross. On the front wall a colossal 
Crucifixion and Entombment by Pordenone. — The two pulpits are em- 
bellished with important Lombardic reliefs, from an old altar, ascribed to 
Amadeo. First Chapel to the right: altar-piece by Pordenone , Madonna 
between two saints, with the donor worshipping. 

In the vicinity are the octagonal Battistero (PI. 1 ; F, 4) of 1167, 
and the Campo Santo (PI. 2), with curious old mosaics : Hercules 
and Nessus ; Piety wounded by Cruelty ; Faith tearing out the 
tongue of Discord, etc. 

The adjacent Square Roma (PI. E, F, 3) is laid out with gar- 
dens (music on Sun. and Thurs. evenings). No. 1 in this square, 
indicated by a memorial tablet, is the house in which Antonio 
Stradivarius made his violins for many years and died in 1737. 

From the Palazzo Pubblico the Contrada Ariberti leads to the 
W. to the Palazzo Reale (formerly Ala di Ponzone), which contains 
natural history and other collections, a cabinet of coins, and a few 
pictures (daily 9-3 , except Sun.). Farther up the Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele , in the second cross-street to the left , is the richly- 
painted church of S. Pietro al Po (PI. 10; D, E, 5), designed by 
Ripari in 1549-70. Over the third altar to the right, Madonna and 
four saints, by Joh. Franciscus Bembus (1524), an otherwise un- 
known imitator of Fra Bartolommeo. The rich ceiling-decorations 
are by the brothers Campi. 

In S. Agostino e Giacomo in Braida (PI. 6 ; D, 3), 14th cent., 
with aisles and barrel-vaulting : first chapel on the right, Pieta, 
by Giulio Campi; last side-altar but one, Madonna and two saints 
by Perugino (1494) ; left, between the third and fourth altars, por- 
traits of Francesco Sforza, and between the fourth and fifth, of his 
wife Bianca Maria Visconti. Frescoes (restored) by Bonif. Bembo. 

The Contrada S. Margherita (passing on the right the small 

182 Route 28. CREMONA. 

church of that name, built and painted by Oiulio Campi, 1546) 
leads hence to the Piazza Garibaldi (PI. C, D, 2) with the church 
of St. Agatha (PI. 5 ; in the right aisle, Marriage of St. Catharine 
and St. Joseph ; at the sides of the high-altar, four large *Frescoes by 
Oiulio Campi, painted in 1536 in the style of Pordenone), whence 
the Corso di Porta Milano leads N.W. to the gate of that name and 
the station. 

Among the many fine palaces are Pal. Sansecondo, Pal. Crotti 
(formerly Raimondi), containing sculptures by Pedone, Pal. Stanga 
a S. Vicenzo, and Pal. Dati (now part of the large hospital), with 
fine court and staircase, all in the Corso di Porta Milano. 

About l'/i M. to the E., near the Mantua road, is the church of S. Si- 
gismondo, with frescoes and pictures by Campi, Boccaccino, and other Cre- 
mona masters ; "Altar-piece by Oiulio Campi, Madonna with saints, and 
below, Francesco Sforza and his wife, founders of the church. — Near the 
village of Le Torri lies the beautiful Villa Sacerdoti. 

From Cremona to Mantua, 39 M., in about 2 lira. The chief station 
is Piadena (see below). Mantua, see p. 212. 

From Cremona to Brescia or Pavia, see p. 179. 

From Cremona to Piacenza (tramway five times daily in 2'/4 hrs.). 
The road intersects the plain on the right bank of the Po, after crossing 
the river with its numerous islands, leads by Monticelli, S. Nazzaro, and 
Caorso, and crosses the river formed by the Chiavenna and Riglio. At 
Roncaglia we cross the Nure and proceed to the W. to Piacenza (p. 291). 

66 M. Villetta-Malagnino ; 70 M. Oazzo and Pieve S. Qiaeomo; 
75 M. Torre de' Picenardi; 79 M. Piadena. 

From Piadena to Brescia, railway in course of construction. 

From Piadena to Pauma , 25 M. , railway in iy 2 -2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 55, 
3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 5 c). — 4 M. <S'. Giovanni in Croce. At (IO1/2 M.) Casalmaggiore 
the Po is crossed, and near (io 1 ^ M:.) Colomo the brook Parma. I8V2 M. 
'Jorile S. Polo. 25 M. Parma, see p. 29G. 

81 M. Bozzolo, with an old castle of theGonzagas. Before (88M.) 
Marcaria we cross the Oglio. — 931/2 M. Castellucchio. 

About 2V2 M. to the E. of Castellucchio, 5 M. from Mantua, is the 
church of <S. Maria delle Qrazie, founded in 1399, a famous resort of pil- 
grims, containing curious votive offerings in the form of life-size figures in 
wax, bearing the names of 'Charles V, 'Ferdinand V, 'Pope Pius II', the 
'Conne'table de Bourbon', etc. Also a few monuments. 

The train now crosses the Mincio. — 100 M. Mantua, see p. 212. 

29. From Milan to Bergamo. 

331/2 M. Railway in l'/z-l'A hr. (fares 6 fr. 15, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 75 c). 
Finest views to the left. — Tramway, see p. 126. 

Milan, see p. 125. — 7 M. Limito; 9y 2 M. Vignate; 12 M. 
Melzo. At (16 M.) Cassano, a large village with palatial houses, 
the train crosses the blue Adda. From (20 M.) Treviglio (in S. Mar- 
tino an altar-piece by Buttinone and Zenale) a branch-line runs to 
Cremona, see R. 28; direct line to Verona, see p. 185; also tram- 
way to Lodi. — 26 M. Verdello; 3372 M. Bergamo. 

BERGAMO. 29. Route. 183 

Bergamo (1245 ft.; Alb. d'ltalia, B. from 2, B. iy 2 fr.; *Cappello 
d'Oro # Cavour, moderate, both in the new town; Trattoria Giar- 
dinetto, by the Porta S. Agostino, with garden and view; Caffe Cen- 
trale ; Cab 2 1 / 2 fr. per hour), the ancient Bergomum , a Venetian 
town from 1428 to 1797, now a provincial capital with 23,800 
(with suburbs 39,700) inhab., lies at the junction of the Valle 
Brembana, watered by the Brembo, and the Valle Seriana, named 
after the rapid Serio. This is one of the busiest of the smaller 
trading and manufacturing towns in Italy. The once famous fair 
(Fiera di S. Alessandro, middle of August to middle of September) 
has lost its importance. The town consists of two distinct parts, the 
Citta Alta, picturesquely situated on hills (cable-tramway recently 
opened), and the much larger new quarters in the plain (Borgo S. 
Leonardo, Borgo Pignolo, Borgo S. Tommaso), with cotton, silk, and 
other factories, an interesting piazza (la Fiera; PI. D, 4, 5), at- 
tractive shops, lively cafe's, and a new Protestant church. 

From the railway-station a broad street leads to the Piazza Ca- 
vour (PI. D, 5), with a statue of Victor Emmanuel by Barzaghi. 
A lane leads hence to the left to S. Alessandro in Colonna (PL 12; 
0, 4), containing a fine Assumption by Romanino. The Contrada 
Torquato Tasso leads to the right from the Piazza to S. Bartolom- 
meo. Behind the high-altar is a large altar-piece by Lor. Lotto 
(1516), *Madonna surrounded by ten saints. The predelle (Entomb- 
ment , Stoning of Stephen , Miracle of St. Dominic) are now in 
the sacristy ; also a Pieta and saints by Borgognone. — Farther on 
is S. Spirito, a fine Renaissance building without aisles. 

Interior. Left, fifth altar: Scipio Laudensis, Madonna between SS. Pe- 
ter and Paul. Large "Altar-piece by Borgognone (1508): Descent of the 
Holy Ghost, God the Father, Annunciation; on the left, The Baptist and 
St. Jerome; on the right, SS. Augustine and Francis. Eight, 4th Chapel: 
'Lotto, Madonna and four saints; above, angels in a glory (1521); 5th 
chapel, Previtali, Madonna and four saints (1525); above, by the same 
artist, Resurrection with four saints (finished by Ag. Caversegno). To the 
right of the high-altar is Previtali s master-piece: John the Baptist, sur- 
rounded by SS. Bartholomew, Nicholas of Bari, Joseph, and Dominic (1515). 

Farther on, in the Contrada di Pignolo, are 8. Bernardino 
(*Lotto, Madonna and Saints, 1521) and S. Alessandro della Croce 
(Moroni, Madonna; in the sacristy, Lotto, Trinity, Moroni, por- 
trait; Previtali, Crucifixion, dated 1514). 

The Strada Vitt. Emanuele connects the new town with the Citta 
Alta, the upper and older quarter, which contains several interest- 
ing Renaissance houses. The Promenade affords a fine view of the 
Brianza (p. 150) and the surrounding mountains, particularly those 
to the N.E. The Castle (PL A, 1), on the hill to the N.W., and the 
Pasco dei Tedeschi rising above it, command still finer views. 

In the Piazza Garibaldi, or market-place (iy 4 M. from the 
station), is the Palazzo Nuovo (PL 8; C, 2), or town-hall, in the 
Renaissance style, by Scamozzi, but unfinished. Opposite is the 
library in the Gothic Palazzo Vecchio, or Broletto , the ground-floor 

1 84 Route 29. BERGAMO. 

of which consists of an open colonnade. Near it are the Monument 
of Torquato Tasso (whose father Bernardo was horn at Bergamo in 
1493), and a handsome fountain. 

Behind the town-hall is the Romanesque S. Maria Maggiore 
(PI. 6; B, 0, 2, 3), of 1137, with ancient lion-portals on the N. and 
S. By the N. portal is the rich Renaissance facade of the Colleoni 

The Interior (entrance on S. side) contains ancient wall-paintings 
under thick tapestry (much injured), fine carved "Choir-stalls by the Ber- 
gamasque Giov. Franc. Capo Ferrato , and admirable intarsia by Fra Da- 
miano. This church contains the tomb of Cardinal Alessandri (d. at Avignon, 
1319 ; early-Renaissance sarcophagus , modern canopy) and the monument 
of the famous composer Donizetti of Bergamo (d. 1848) , by Vine. Vela ; 
opposite , that of his teacher Giov. Simone Mayr (d. 1845). In the trea- 
sury (above the sacristy) are a large crucifix (5 ft. high) of the 13th cent- 
ury (?) and several works in niello. — The adjoining Cappella Colleoni 
(shown by the sagrestano) , in the early-Renaissance style , is lavishly 
sculptured externally, but the interior has been much altered. It contains 
the tomb of the founder Bart. Colleoni (d. 1475; p. 269), by G. Ant. Ama- 
deo, deservedly considered one of the best Renaissance sculptures in Lom- 
bardy. The reliefs represent the Bearing of the Cross, Crucifixion, and 
Descent from the Cross ; below runs a frieze of Cupids, above which are 
the Annunciation, "Nativity, and Magi; and on the top is the gilded 
equestrian statue of Colleoni by a German master. Adjacent is the smaller, 
but beautiful monument of his daughter Medea. Above the altar on the 
right are good sculptures ; to the left, a Holy Family by Angelica Kaufmann. 

The adjoining Cathedral (PI. 3 ; C, 2, 3) was built from designs hy 
C. Fontana in 1689 on the site of an earlier edifice. First altar 
to the left : Madonna and saints by G. B. Moroni, a pupil of Mo- 
retto ; in the choir a Madonna hy Savoldo. The adjacent Baptistery, 
hy Giovanni da Campione (1340), recently restored, is hest viewed 
from the passage leading to the sacristy, in which is a picture (Re- 
scinding of the Interdict) hy Lotto ; behind the high-altar, Giov. 
Bellini, Madonna and Child. 

In the street leading to the Porta S. Caterina is the Accademia 
Carrara (PL 11 ; E, 2), a school of art and picture-gallery [Galleria 
Carrara and G. Lochis ; open on 1st Sun. and 3rd Thurs. of each 
month, hut daily from 30th Aug. to 18th Sept. ; shown at other 
times hy the custodian). 

Galleria Carrara. I. R. : Engravings and Drawings. — II. R. : 
Previtali , Descent of the Holy Ghost ; 49. Bellotto , Arch of Titus ; 45-48. 
Zuccarelli , Landscapes ; "66. Lotto , Betrothal of St. Catharine (1523 ; land- 
scape cut out); 68. Previtali, Madonna and saints; 67. Cariani, Saints around 
the Madonna ; 70. Francesco da 8. Croce, Annunciation (1504 ; early work) ; 
75-83. Moroni, Portraits (82, 83, best ; 81, an early work) ; 85. Cariani, Por- 
trait of a woman. Then, beyond a series of portraits by Ghislandi, the 
Bergamasque Titian of the 18th cent., 97. Previtali, St. Anthony, with 
SS. Peter, Paul, Stephen, and Laurence; 98. G. Ferrari, Madonna and 
Child; 100. Moroni, St. Jerome (in Moretto's manner). — III. R. : 137. Ca- 
roto, Massacre of the Innocents ; '153. Manlegna, Madonna ; 165. Marco 
Basaili, Head of Christ (1517) ; 188. Moroni, Madonna and saints. — IV. R. : 
Unimportant. — V. R. : 342. Bronzino, Last Supper (1582). 

Galleria Lochis. I. R. : Unimportant. — II. R. ; Above the doors, 
49-51. and 84. G. Ferrari, Cupids; 32-34. Lotto, Studies of saints; 35. Mo- 
roni, .Madonna, two saints below; 55. Morello, Holy Family; 41,42. Paris 
Bordone, Vintage; 00,61. P Longlii, Venetian scenes; 47. Tiepolo, Sketch 

BERGAMO. 29. Route. 185 

for an altar-piece ; 69. Ghislandi, Portrait of a boy ; 93, 94. Guardi, Views 
of Venice. — III. R. : 128. Montagna, Madonna between SS. Sebastian 
and Rochus (1487) ; 129. C. Crivelli, Madonna ; 130. Luini, Adoration of the 
Child; 131. Zenale (more probably Ambrogio Borgognone), Madonna and 
Child ; 137. Boltraffio , Madonna and Child ; 146. Cariani , Shepherd and 
shepherdess playing on musical instruments; 147. Venetian School, Por- 
trait; 151. After Bellini, The doge Loredan (original in London); 154. 
Mantegna (?), Portrait; 157. Calisto da Lodi, Portrait; Mantegna (more prob- 
ably Oregorio Schiavone), 159. Alexius, 161. St. Jerome; 160. Giovenone, 
Altar-piece; 168. Pensabene, Adoration of the Child; 169. Mantegna, Resur- 
rection of Christ; 170. Caroto, Adoration of the Magi; 171. Previtali, Ma- 
donna; 174. Moroni, Portrait of a man; "177. Titian (more probably an 
early work of Morelto) , Christ appearing to a donor (signed 1518) ; "183. 
Palma Vecchio, Madonna between SS. John and Mary Magdalene ; "184. 
Cariani, Portrait of a man; "185. Lotto, Madonna and SS. Joseph and Ca- 
tharine (1533); "207. Raphael, St. Sebastian (early work); 210. Bellini, Ma- 
donna and Child (early work); "221. Francesco Francia, Bearing of the 
Cross ; 222. Antonello da Messina, St. Sebastian ; 233. Cosimo Tvra, Madonna ; 
234. DilrerO), Portrait; (above the door) 235. Cima da Conegliano, Nativity 
of the Virgin. 

Steam Tramway from Bergamo to Romana and Fontanella. 

From Bergamo to Ponte della Selva, railway, 18 M., in l 3 /4 hr., 
through the picturesque and industrial Valle Seriana. Before leaving Berg- 
amo the train stops at the suburbs of Borgo Palazzo and Borgo S. Catering. 
2 M. Redona ; 2 l h M. Torreboldone. The train descends into the valley of the 
Serio. 3'/2 M. Alzano (where S. Martino contains one of Lotto's best works, 
Death of Peter Martyr). 5>/2 M. Nembro ; 7^2 M. Albino. The line ascends, 
supported at places by arches over the bed of the Serio. lO'/z M. Cene ; 11 M. 
Gazzaniga-Fiorano, the latter at the entrance of the pretty valley of Gan- 
dino. 12'/2 M. Vertova. The train follows the winding valley of the brawl- 
ing Serio, crosses the Bondo descending from the left, the road, the Riso, 
and then the Nossa at (17 M.) Ponte di Nossa. 18 M. Ponte della Selva 
("Inn) is at present the terminus of the line. Road thence by Clusone 
(Inn), with its interesting church, to Lovere (p. 197). — Pleasant excursion 
further up the valley of the Serio to Fiumenero and (14 M.) Bondione, 
whence the picturesque Falls of the Serio and the lofty Lake of Barbellino 
may be visited. 

From Lkcco to Brescia via Bergamo. 

51"/2 M. Railway in 3 hrs. ; fares 9fr. 40, 6fr. 60, 4fr. 25c. 

Lecco, p. 150. — 1 l J2 M. Maggianico ; 4 M. Calolzio, p. 150; 
10M. Cisano; 12 M. Pontida; 14 M. Mapello ; 16 M. Ponte S. Pie- 
tro , with pretty church and old castle. We cross the Brembo. 
20i/ 2 M. Bergamo (p. 183). — Near(23i/ 2 M.) Seriate the Serio is 
crossed. 28 M. Oorlago ; 3IY2M. Grumello. The Oglio, descending 
from Lago d'Iseo, is next crossed. 34 M. Palazzolo (branch-line to 
Paratico, p. 196); fine glimpse of the village to the left. 39 M. 
Coccaglio, with the monastery of Montf Orfano on a height ; 40 M. 
Rovato (see p. 186); 44 M. Ospitaletto. — 51^2 M. Brescia, see 
p. 186. 

30. From Milan to Verona. 

93 M. Railway in 3V4-574 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c, 
express, 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 5 c). 

Milan, p. 125. — 20 M. Treviglio, junction for the lines to Cre- 
mona (p. 180) and Bergamo (p. 182); 22"/2 M. Vidalengo; 25i/ 2 M. 

1 86 Route 30. PESCHIERA. 

Morengo. The train crosses the Serio, a tributary of the Adda. 
28 M. Romano ; 32 M. Calcio. The Oglio, which issues from Lago 
d'Iseo, is crossed. SQ 1 /^ M. Chiari, an old and industrious town of 
9500 inhab. ; 40 M. Rovato, junction of the Bergamo-Brescia line 
described above ; 44 M. Ospitaletto. — 5IY2M. Brescia, see below. 

The slopes near Brescia are sprinkled with villas. 56 M. Rez- 
zato. The Chiese is crossed. 61Y 2 M. Ponte S. Marco. Beyond 
(65 M.) Lonato a short tunnel and a long cutting. 

A long viaduct now carries the line to (68 M.J Desenzano 
(p. 192). Admirable survey of the Lago di Oarda and the pen- 
insula of Sermione (p. 192). 

72 M. S. Martino delle Battaglie. A monument on the right 
commemorates the battle of Solferino, where the French and Pied- 
montese under Emp. Napoleon III. and King Victor Emmanuel de- 
feated the Austrians under Emp. Francis Joseph, 24th June, 1859. 

The village of Solferino (Inn, good red wine ; guides) lies on the heights 
about 5 M. to the S. (carriage from stat. Desenzano, and back, 15 fr.). It 
formed the centre of the Austrian position, and was taken about 1 p.m. 
by the French guards. The ground northwards to the banks of the Lago 
di Garda was held by General Benedek, who repulsed the attacks of the 
Piedmontese until nightfall, and only abandoned his position on receiving 
the order to retreat. The left wing of the Austrian army, attacked by 
the French under General Niel, also maintained its position until late in 
the afternoon. 

77 M. Peschiera (station V2 M. from the town, comp. p. 194), a 
fortress with 1200 inhab., lies at the S.E. end of the Lago di 
Garda , at the efflux of the Mincio, which the train crosses. On 
30th May, 1848, the place was taken by the Piedmontese after a 
gallant defence by the Austrian General Rath, but it was recovered 
by the Austrians on 14th Aug. 

79^2 M. Castelnuovo ; 83*/2 M. Somma-Campagna; 91 M. Ve- 
rona Porta Nuova. The Adige is crossed ; fine view of the town to 
the left. 93 M. Verona Porta Vescovo, see p. 201. 

31. Brescia. 

Hotels. Albergo d'Italia (PI. c; C, 3), R. from 2 fr. ; Fenice (PI. a; 
C, 2, 3), Piazza del Duomo; GambeRO (PI. b; C, 3), Corso del Teatro, good, 
but plain, R. & A. 2'/2, D. 4, B. 1, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Cappello (PI. d ; C, 3). 

Cafes adjacent to the theatre, in the Piazza del Duomo, etc. — Beer at 
Wuhrer^s, near the Porta Venezia (PI. E, 3). — Guzago is a white wine 
of the country. 

Photographs : Capitanio, Via S. Francesco 1886. 

Cabs (Cittadine): 85c. per drive, l'/2fr. per hour. 

Railway by Cremona to Pavia, see p. 179 ; to Bergamo and Lecco, see 
p. 185; to Verona and to Milan, see R. 30; to Iseo, see p. 196. 

Tramway from Porta Milano to Porta Venezia; via Crema (p. 180) 
and Lodi (p. 29i) to Milan (p. 125) ; via. Guidizzolo , on the battle-field of 
Solferino (see above; 2 3 /4 hrs.), to Mantva (p. 212; 4>/4 hrs.); to Gardone- Val- 
Tromba (1 3 A hr.); via Tormini to Said (p. 193; 2 3 / 4 hrs.), and thence in 
V2 hr. more to Gardone- Riviera (p. 193); also to Barghe (p. 195) and to 
Veslone (p. 195); lastly by Lograto to Orzinvovi. 

Brescia (515 ft.), a manufacturing town with 43,400 (with 
suburbs 60,000) inhab., capital of a province, is beautifully situated 

BRESCIA. 31. Route. 187 

at the foot of the Alps, and its numerous fountains of limpid 
water lend it an additional charm. Iron wares, and particularly 
weapons (hence 'Brescia armata'), form the staple commodities, 
many of the fire-arms used by the Italian army being made here. 
The woollen, linen, and silk factories are also worthy of mention. 

Brescia, the ancient Gallic Brixia, afterwards a Roman colony, vied 
with Milan at the beginning of the 16th cent, as one of the wealthiest 
cities of Lombardy, but in 1512 was sacked and burned by the French 
under Gaston de Foix (p. 341) after an obstinate defence. Five years later 
it was restored to Venice, to which it belonged till 1797, but it has 
never recovered its ancient importance. On 1st April, 1849, the town was 
bombarded and taken by the Austrians under Haynau. — Arnold of Brescia, 
a pupil of Abelard, was one of the most prominent leaders of the reforming 
movement in Italy in the middle ages; he attacked the secular power 
and wealth of the clergy, and after being excommunicated by Hadrian IV., 
was executed in 1155. 

Brescia is noteworthy in the history of art as the birthplace of 
Alessandko Bdonvicino, surnamed II Mohetto (1498-1555), who appears 
to have studied exclusively at his native place, and whose teacher is said 
to have been Floriano Ferramola of Brescia. There seems to be no ground 
for the assumption that he was influenced by Titian and the Roman school. 
Like the Veronese masters, he is distinguished from the Venetian school, 
with which he has erroneously been classed, by the comparative soberness 
of his colouring ('subdued silvery tone 1 ), although he vies with the Vene- 
tians in richness and brilliancy, while he sometimes reveals a full measure 
of the ideality of the golden period of art. Buonvicino began his career 
as a painter in his 18th year. He rarely extended the sphere of his labours 
beyond his native place , and Brescia is therefore abundantly stored with 
his works. The churches here (such as S. Clemente, p. 190) display his 
fertility, both as a painter 'al fresco'' and in oils, forming quite a museum 
of his pictures. S. Giovanni Evangelista (p. 188), S. Nazzaro e Celso 
(p. 191), and the Galleria Tosio (p. 190) all contain admirable specimens 
of his powers. Another eminent master of Brescia, a contemporary of 
Buonvicino, was Oirol. Romanino (1485-1566). — Brescia also contains 
several interesting antiquities (p. 189). 

From the station (PI. A, 4) the town is entered at its S.W. 
angle by the Porta Stazione, whence the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
leads N.E. to the Piazza Vecchia and the Piazza dbl Duomo. 

The *Duomo Nuovo (PI. 8 ; C, 3), or episcopal cathedral, begun 
in 1604 by Lattanzio Gambara (but the dome not completed till 
1825), is one of the best churches of the 16th and 17th centuries. 

Inteeiok. By the first pillar on the right is the large "Monument of 
Bishop Nava (d. 1831) , with groups in marble and a relief by Monti of 
Ravenna ; by the first pillar on the left the monument of Bishop Ferrari. 
The second altar on the right is adorned with modern statues in marble 
of Faith, by Selaroni, and Hope, by Emanueli, and a modern painting, 
Christ healing the sick , by Oregoletti. Then (3rd altar on right) a sar- 
cophagus with small "High-reliefs (date about 1500), containing 'Corpora 
D. D. Apollonii et Philastrf, transferred hither in 1674 from the crypt of 
the old cathedral. — High-altar-piece, an Assumption by Zoboli, designed 
by Conca. In the dome the four Evangelists, alto-reliefs in marble. 

From a door between the 2nd and 3rd altars 25 steps descend 
to the Duomo Vecchio (PI. 9 ; 0, 3) , generally called La Rotonda 
(undergoing restoration), situated on the low ground to the S. of 
the Duomo Nuovo (shown by the sacristan of the Duomo Nuovo, 
who lives at the back of the choir). 

This massive dome-structure is circular, as its name imports, with an 

188 Route 31. BRESCIA. Broletto. 

ambulatory , and rests on eight short pillars in the interior. The sub- 
structure is very ancient (9th cent.) , while the drum and cupola (Ro- 
manesque) date from the 12th century. The transept and choir with 
lateral chapels at the back were added at a very early period. Altar- 
piece, an •'Assumption by Moretto (1526) ; on the right side, a Circumcision, 
and on the left SS. Mary and Elizabeth, by Romanino. — Below the dome 
is the crypt, or Basilica di S. Filastro, supported by 42 columns. 

Opposite the E. side of the Duomo Nuovo is the entrance to 
the *Biblioteca Quirmiana (Bibl. Comunale ; PI. 5, C, 3 ; fee i/ 2 fr-)i 
of 40,000 vols., bequeathed to the town in 1750 by Cardinal 
Quirini. Several curiosities are preserved in a separate cabinet. 
(Admission daily , 11-3, in winter 10-3, except Wed., Sun., and 
high festivals; vacation from 1st Oct. to 2nd Nov. J. 

Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent, with gold letters on purple 
vellum; Koran in 12 vols., with miniatures and gilding; an old Book of 
the Gospels, and a Harmony of the Gospels by Eusebius (10th cent.), 
with miniatures; MS. of Dante on parchment, with miniatures; a Petrarch 
of 1470 with various illustrations ('Petrarca figurato") and written annot- 
ations; a Dante with notes, printed at Brescia in 1487, etc. 

The Broletto (PI. 29 ; C, 2), adjoining the cathedral on the N., 
is a massive building of the 12th cent., but afterwards disfigured. 
Anciently the town-hall, it now contains the courts of justice, and 
part of it is used as a prison. The Campanile on the S. side, La 
Torre del Popolo, belongs to the original edifice. — A well-pre- 
served fragment of Gothic architecture in the street ascending hence, 
with circular window and brick mouldings, is also interesting. 

To the "W., near the Broletto, lies the interesting Piazza Vecchia, 
in which rises the *Municipio (PI. 30 ; B, C, 2), usually called la 
Loggia, erected by Formentone of Brescia in 1508 on the ruins of 
a temple of Vulcan , with a 'putto' frieze by Jacopo Sansovino and 
window-mouldings by Palladio , of the latter half of the 16th cen- 
tury. The interior was half destroyed by a fire in 1575. The 
exterior of this imposing structure is almost overladen with orna- 
mentation. On the ground-floor is a deep colonnade ; in front are 
pillars with columns in the wall. The upper floor recedes con- 
siderably. — The handsome adjacent building on the right, the 
Archivio e Camera Notarile (PI. 1), is probably also by Formentone. 
(The traveller should walk round the whole building.) 

On the opposite side of the Piazza , above an arcade, rises the 
Torre dell' Orologio , or clock-tower , with a large dial (twice 1 to 
12). The bell is struck by two iron figures as at "Venice (p. 244). 
— To the left rises a Monument , erected by Victor Emmanuel in 
1864 to the Brescians who fell during the gallant defence of their 
town against the Austrians in the insurrection of 1849 (PI. 26.) — The 
third side of the piazza is occupied by the Monte di Pieta (formerly 
the Prigioni), a plain Renaissance building with a handsome loggia. 

In the Contrada della Palata , leading to the Corso Garibaldi, 
on the left, is the Torre della Palata (PI. 35; C, 2), a mediaeval 
tower with modern pinnacles. — In a side-street to the N. is *S. 
Giovanni Evangelista (PI. 19 ; B, 2), with admirable pictures. 

Museum of Antiquities. BRESCIA. 31. Route. 189 

We begin on the right. 3rd Altar: -Moretto , Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, a youthful work, of Raphaelite conception. In the choir, behind 
the high-altar: -Moretto, John the Baptist, Zacharias, SS. Augustine and 
Agnes; in the centre the Madonna; above, God the Father, unfortunately 
retouched. — In the next chapel : Civerchio, Entombment ; in the lunette 
above, Coronation of the Virgin by Rornanino ; "Frescoes on the right by 
Moretto (youthful works of 1521 , showing the influence of Rornanino) : 
Collecting the manna, Elijah, and Last Supper, on the pilasters St. Mark 
and St. Luke, and prophets above; those on the left are by Rornanino: 
Raising of Lazarus , Mary Magdalene before Christ, and the Sacrament, 
on the pilasters St. John and St. Matthew (the latter damaged). The 
prophets above are by Moretto. Over the next altar: Rornanino, Nuptials 
of Mary (retouched). In the Battistero (in front, to the left): "Francesco 
Francia, The Trinity adored by saints. 

We next visit S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 22; C, 1), with a 
Renaissance portal and fine brick ornamentation on the facade. 
The lunette contains a fresco by Ferramola. In the third chapel 
on the right, Fathers of the Church, a ceiling-painting by Foppa. 
To the left of the church are two fine courts. 

To the E. of the Piazza Vecchia , passing the N. side of the 
Broletto, we come to a small piazza, to the left in which is the 
entrance to the *Museum of Antiquities (Aluseo Civico Eta Ro- 
mano,; PI. 28; D, 2; week-days 10-4, Nov. to Feb. 10-3, fee 50 c. ; 
free on the first and third Sun. in each month and on each Sun. 
and Thurs. in August, 1-4; visitors knock). The museum occupies 
an ancient Corinthian temple, excavated in 1822, which, according 
to inscriptions, was erected by Vespasian in A.D. 72. The dilapid- 
ated , but exceedingly picturesque temple'^taiids on a lofty sub- 
structure , with a projecting colonnade of ^Wn columns and four 
pillars to which the steps ascend, and has three cellae of moderate 

The pavement of the Principal Hall has been restored from the 
original remains. By the back-wall, as in the other chambers, is placed 
an ancient altar. Among the Roman inscriptions and sculptures is an 
archaic head ; also two tombs of the flint period. — The Side-Room on 
the right contains ancient glass, vases, coins, bronzes, &c. — In the Room 
on the left are fragments of a colossal temple-figure, architectural frag- 
ments, gilded busts, a relief of a naval battle, breastplate of a war-horse, 
and above all a statue of "^Victory, excavated in 1826 , a bronze figure 
about 6 1 / - ,! ft. in height, with a silver-plated diadem round her head, a 
(restored) shield , on which she is about to write , in her left hand, and 
a (restored) helmet under her left foot, one of the most precious existing 
specimens of ancient plastic art. 

The Contrada San Zeno leads hence E. to the Contrada dei 
Padri Riformati, at the end of which, on the right, is the old church 
of S. Oiulia, containing the Mediaeval Museum (Museo Civico Eta 
Cristiana; PI. 27, D, 2; adm. 50 c). 

In the Vestibule, bust of Paolo Sarpi. In the New Part of the 
church, on the wall to the left, fine weapons, architectural remains 
with interesting ornaments of the Lombard period, early mediaeval sculp- 
tures, Majolicas; in front the 'Cross of St. Helen', of 8th cent, work- 
manship , decorated with gems of various periods and a miniature glass 
painting, three portraits of the 5th cent; in the centre, ivory reliefs, 
including consular diptychs of Boethius and Lampadius (5th cent.) and 
the Diptychon Quirinianum, medallions, Renaissance bronzes; on the 

190 Route 31. BRESCIA. 8, Clemente. 

wall Venetian glass, small figures in marble from a tribuna in the Bro- 
letto, marble door (16th cent.) from a church at Chiari. The cabinet on 
the right contains Limoges and Venetian enamel , and the 'Lipsanoteca' 
or sides of a reliquary of the 4th cent., carved in ivory and arranged in 
the form of a cross. — In the Old Pakt of the church the monument of 
the Venetian general Orsini (1510) , and the Mausoleum of Marcantonio 
Martinengo (16th cent.) , with reliefs in bronze , from the church of S. 
Cristo (the facade of which, with its interesting brick ornamentation, 
rises on a height to the right in front of the museum). The lectern 
opposite is adorned with intarsia by Raffaello da Brescia (1518). — ■ On 
the back-wall a fresco of the 16th cent., below which we look through a 
window into the old church of S. Salvatore, with capitals of the 6th cent, 
and a crypt. 

From the Roman Museum a street descends to a small piazza, 
where remains of an ancient edifice are huilt into the wall of 
No. 285. A little to the left is — 

*S. Clemente (PI. 15 ; D, 3), a small church containing a modern 
monument of Moretto (p. 187 ; to the left) and five of his works. 

On the right, 2nd altar, "SS. Cecilia, Barbara, Agnes, Agatha, and 
Lucia: a charming composition, in which the repellant attributes of 
martyrdom are handled with such marvellous naivete as almost to assume 
an attractive air (C. & C). On the left, 1st altar, "St. Ursula; 2nd altar, 
Madonna with SS. Catharine of Alexandria, Catharine of Siena, Paul, and 
Jerome; 3rd altar, Abraham and Melchisedech, both retouched. "High altar- 
piece, Madonna with St. Clement and other saints. 

A little to the S.E. is S. Maria Calchera (PI. 21 ; D, 3). First 
altar to the left: Simon the Pharisee and Magdalene hy Moretto. 
Second altar to the right : St. Apollonius by Romanino. 

Besides the above museums , the town also possesses valuable 
collections of ancient and modern pictures , drawings , engravings, 
sculptures, etc., the modern portion of which, together with a few 
ancient pictures, is preserved in the *Palazzo Tosio (PI. 24; D, 3), 
Contracla Tosio. Rules of admission the same as in the case of the 
Museum of Antiquities (p. 189). 

The palace and its collections were bequeathed to the town by Count 
Tosio. Room IV: 3, 21. Massimo d' A z eg lio, Landscapes. — Room VI : "1, 
"2. Thorvaldsen, Night and Day. — Room IX: 1. Baruzzi, Silvia, a statue 
in marble, from Tasso. — Room X: "12. Thorvaldsen, Ganymede. — 
Octagon : 1. Bartolini, Boy treading grapes ; 2. Gandolfi (after Thorvaldsen), 
Genius of Music. — Cabinet of Eleonoea: 1. Eleonora d'Este, a bust by 
Canova. — Rooms XIII and XIV contain earlier works. Room XIII: 5. 
Fr. Albani, Venus and Graces; 12. Raibolini, sumamed Francia, Madonna 
and Child; 13. Cesare da Sesto, Young Christ; 14. Tintoretto, Portrait; 17. 
Luca d'Olanda, Nun and woman praying; 18. Portrait, of the school of 
P. Veronese; 29, 30. Morone (pupil of Moretto), Portraits; 36. Moretto, 
Annunciation (early work); "37. Raphael, Christ teaching, with crown of 
thorns and wounds, 1505 ; 38. Fra Bartolotnmeo, Holy Family ; 39. Moretto, 
Tullia of Aragon as daughter of Herodias. — Room XIV: 33. Caravaggio, 
Flute-player. Rooms XV and XVI contain modern works. Room XVI: 
1. Laocoon, in marble, by Ferrari ; 4. Monti, Bust of Galileo; 5, 6. Copies 
of Canova's colossal busts of himself and of Napoleon I. by Qandolft. 

The older works of art are contained in the *Palazzo Mart- 
inengo, Contrada S. Gaetano (PI. D, 4), the most valuable being 
pictures by Moretto and other Brescian masters. Admission, as above. 

This palace with its treasures of art was bequeathed by Count Mart- 
inengo. Room B (Sala Moretto) : 8. Oambara, Portrait of himself; 9. Moretto, 
Holy Family; 10, 11. Romanino, Christ at Emmaus and Magdalene at Jesus' 

8. Nazzaro e Celso. BRESCIA. 31. Route. 191 

feet; 13. Moretto, Adoration of the Infant Christ; 14. Romanino, SS. Paul, 
John, and other saints; 16. Oiov. Donalo Montorfano (?), St. George killing 
the dragon ; "17. Moretto, The disciples at Emmaus ; 18. Romanino, Portrait ; 
19. Moretto, Portrait; 23, 24, 25. Romanino, Bearing of the Cross, Ad- 
oration of the Shepherds, Descent from the Cross ; 26. Moretto, Suffering 
Christ; "27. Moretto, Madonna and Child, with angels, St. Francis, and 
donors below ; "28. Moretto , Madonna enthroned with saints , from the 
church of S. Eufemia ; 29. Moretto, Descent of the Holy Ghost; 30. Moretto, 
St. Anthony. — Room C: 1. Ferramola, Bearing of the Cross; 4. Gambara, 
Apollonian; 5. Moretto, Madonna with the Child and St. John (restored); 
7. Venetian School, Madonna and Child; 8. Calisto da Lodi (1524), Adoration 
of the Child ; 9. Civerchio, St. Nicholas ; 10. Savoldo, Adoration of the Child ; 
13. Francia, Madonna; 16. Giorgione , Portrait. — Room D: 1, 2, 3. Roos 
Filippo, Shepherd -scenes; 15. VanDyck, Madonna with the Child and 
St. John; 16. Clouet, surnamed Janet, Portrait of Henri III. of France; 
17. Roos Filippo, Shepherd-scene. 

Near the Pal. Martinengo is S. Afra (PI. 12; D, 4), erected on 
the site of a temple of Saturn, and entirely Tebuilt in 1580. 

High-altar-piece : Tintoretto, Ascension, in which the blue of the sky 
is the predominant colour. Over the N. door: "Titian (or Qiul. Campit), 
Christ and the adulteress (generally covered). Over the N. altars : 2. P 
Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Afra (in the foreground, among the beheaded, 
is the head of the painter); 1. Palma Giovane, Brescian martyrs. 

S. Nazzaro e Celso (PL 11 ; A, 3), in the Corso Carlo Alberto, 
built in 1780, contains several good pictures. 

"High altar-piece by Titian, in five sections, the Resurrection being 
the principal subject; on the right St. Sebastian, on the left St. George 
with the portrait of Averoldo, the donor (1522) ; above these the Annun- 
ciation ('long an object of study to the artists of the Brescian School' : 
C. tb C). — Second altar on the left, "Coronation of the Virgin, with SS. 
Michael, Joseph, Nicholas, and Francis below, by Moretto ('this altar-piece 
is the very best of its kind, cold perhaps in silver-grey surface, but full 
of bright harmony and colour 1 : 0. t£ G.). — Third altar on the right, 
Christ in glory (1541); fourth altar on the left, Nativity, with SS. Nazzaro 
and Celso, also by Moretto, sadly damaged. — In the sacristy, above the 
side-door, "Predelle by Moretto, Adoration of the Child, Madonna and 
angel in medallions. Above the side-doors of the main portal of the 
church is a large painting of the Martyrdom of Nazarius and Celsus, 
ascribed to Foppa. On the organ-wing an Annunciation by Foppa. 

Madonna dei Miracoli (PI. 10 ; B, 3), near S. Nazzaro, a small 
church with four domes and rich facade, is an early-Renaissance 
building of the end of the 15th cent. ; 1st altar on the right, *Ma- 
donna and Child, with St. Nicholas, by Moretto (1539), one of his 
most perfect works. — A little to the N. is S. Francesco (PI. 18; 
B, 3), with Gothic facade; 1st chapel on the left, Fr. da Porto, 
Sposalizio (1547); 3rd chapel on the right, *Moretto, SS. Margaret, 
Francis, and Jerome (signed 1530); over the high-altar, Romanino, 
Madonna and saints, his master-piece (about 1525; in an older 
frame, 1502). 

In S. Maria delle Grazie (PL 23; A, 2), near the Porta S. 
Giovanni, 1st altar to the right, Martyrdom of St. Barbara, by Fran- 
cesco da Prato (pupil of Titian) ; 4th altar on the right , St. An- 
thony of Padua and St. Antonius the Hermit by Moretto; at the end 
of the right transept , Madonna in clouds , below, SS. Sebastian, 
Ambrose , and Rochus, by Moretto; over the high-altar a Nativity 

1 92 Route 32. DESENZANO. Lago di Oarda. 

of Christ, by Moretto; 1st altar to the left, Madonna in clouds, with 
four saints below, by Foppa; in the sacristy, on the back- wall, 
*Adoration of the Child , a large altar-piece by Moretto ; on the 
left, Coronation of the Virgin and saints by Bomanino. 

About l /i M. from the Porta Milano (PI. A, 2) lies the pretty 
Campo Santo , to which an avenue of cypresses leads from the 
high-road. Fine view from the tower. 

32. The Lago di Garda. 

Steamboat. W. Bank, between Desenzano and Riva once daily in 4 hrs. 
(fares 4fr. 35, 2 fr. 40c). Stations S.Felice di Scovolo, Said, Gardone- Riviera, 
Maderno, Gargnano, Tignale, Tremosine, Limone, Riva. — E. Bank, be- 
tween Riva and Peschiera daily except Tues. in 4 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 
50 c). Stations Torbole, Malcesine, Assenza, Castelletto, Torri, Garda, Bar- 
dolino.Lazise, Peschiera. The steamboats are inferior to those on the western 
lakes. Sea-sickness is not unknown in rough weather. Restaurants in- 
different. Payments are made in Italian money. 

The Lago di Oarda (225 ft. J, the Lacus Benacus of the Romans, 
the largest of the N. Italian lakes, is 37 M. in length, and iy 2 - 
10 M. broad; area 189 sq. M., depth in many places upwards of 
1000 ft. It belongs to Italy, except the N. extremity with Riva, 
which is Austrian. The lake is rarely perfectly calm, and in stormy 
weather is almost as Tough as the sea, as recorded by Virgil (Georg. 
ii. 160). The water is of an azure blue. 

The banks , although inferior in attraction to those of the Lake of 
Como, present a great variety of beautiful landscapes, enhanced by the 
imposing expanse of the water. The shores of the S. half are flat and well 
cultivated , but they become bolder between Capo S. Vigilio and a point 
to the N. of Said, where the lake contracts. The vegetation is luxuriant, 
especially on the more sheltered W. bank. Even the sensitive lemon 
arrives at maturity here, but the trees require to be carefully covered in 
winter. This is done with the aid of numerous brick pillars 20 ft. in 
height, erected at regular intervals of 8 ft., and united by cross-beams at 
the top. The fruit is more bitter and aromatic than that of Sicily, suffers 
less from carriage, and keeps longer. Price according to the season 3-10 fr. 
per hundred. — The carpione, or salmon-trout, which attains 25 lbs., the 
trutta, or trout, the lagone, and the sardene are excellent fish. 

Desenzano (Alb. Reale Mayer, prettily situated, R. 3, D. 4 fr. ; 
Due Colombe, both well spoken of) is a busy town with 4300 in- 
hab., at the S.W. angle of the lake, with a railway-station (p. 186). 
Omn. from pier to train 50 c, luggage 25 c. 

About 3!/2 M. to the E., not quite halfway to Peschiera (p. 194), 
is the narrow promontory of Sermione, projecting l^j^ M. into the 
lake, which here attains its greatest breadth. 

A pleasant excursion may be taken thither by boat or by carriage 
(6 fr. ; 3 hrs. there and back). The fishing-village (poor locanda; Roman 
inscriptions and Lombardic ornaments in the doorway) adjoins the hand- 
some ruin of a castle of the Scaligers (p. 203). We then cross the olive- 
clad height, past the little church of S. Pietro , to (1 M.) the extremity 
of the peninsula, where we obtain a charming view. On the hill are 
remains of baths, and on the promontory are relics of a building extend- 
ing into the lake, said to have been the country-house of Catullus, who 
wrote his poems here ("peninsularuin, Sirmio, insularumque ocellu 1 ). 

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Logo di Garda. GARDONE-RIVIERA. 32. Route. 193 

W. Bank from Desbnzano to Riva. — The steamboat steers 
near the bank, but does not touch at the hamlets of Moniga and 
Manerba. Opposite the promontory of S. Vigilio (p. 194) we pass 
the small Isold diS. Biagio and the beautiful crescent-shaped Isold 
di Garda, property of the Duca Ferrari. The steamer now steers to 
the W. and enters the bay of — 

Said {Hotel Salb, with view of the lake, R. from 2 1 /-), pens. 
8 fr.), a town with 5000 inhab., surrounded with terraces of fra- 
grant lemon-groves, at the foot of Monte S. Bartolommeo, which 
affords a charming view, especially by evening-light. The Gothic 
Parish Church contains several pictures of the Brescian and Vero- 
nese Schools : on the pillar to the right of the high-altar, *AdOTation 
of the Child, by Torbido ; 4th altar on the right, Christ in Hades, 
by Zenon of Verona (1537). In 8. Bernardino , 2nd altar on the 
left, *Altar-piece by Romanino (1529), S. Bonaventura with a donor 
and angels. — Carr. with one horse to Desenzano in li/ 2 hr. , 7 fr. ; 
tramway to Brescia in 2 l fe hrs. (p. 186). — About li/ 2 M. to the 
E. lies — 

Gardone-Riviera (*H6t.-Pens. Gardone-Riviera, closed in sum- 
mer, pens, from 7 fr. ; two German doctors also receive boarders ; 
other pensions at Gardone di Sopra and Fasana) , in a sheltered 
spot on a little bay, with pleasant walks in the environs. This has 
become a favourite resort of patients on their way to or from the 
south , especially in spring and autumn, but also in winter. The 
mean winter temperature is about 40° Fahr. (Arco 38°, Mentone 
50°) , while the hygrometer shows a nearly uniform moisture of 
78 per cent, similar to that of Montreux. 

Then Maderno, on a promontory extending far into the lake, 
with the church of St. Andrea (by the harbour), of the 8th cent., 
but afterwards altered, with ancient portal and Lombardic capitals, 
and Roman inscription and relief on the external wall. Behind 
rises the Monte Pizzocolo. Next come Toscoldno, Cecina, and Bo- 
gliaco, with a large country-residence of Count Bettuno. Then 
Gargnano (*Cervo) , an important - looking village amidst lemon 
and olive-plantations, one of the finest points on the lake. 

The mountains become loftier. The hamlets of Muslone, Piovere, 
Tignale, and Oldese are almost adjacent. Then Tremosine, on the 
hill, scarcely visible from the lake, the path to which ascends a 
lofty precipice. In a bay farther on are seen the white houses of 
Limone, another lemon and olive producing village. ¥e cross the 
Austrian frontier a little beyond La Nova, and soon obtain a view 
of the Fall of the Ponale and the new road (see p. 194). 

Riva, see p. 194. — Custom-house examination on the arrival 
and departure of the steamboats. 

E. Bank prom Riva to Pbschibra. InlOmin. after the steamer 
(p. 192) has left Riva we observe the fall of the Ponale to the E, 
f oriole (p. 50) lies to the left. The vessel steers S. to — 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. 13 

194 Route 32. RIVA. Lago di Qarda, 

Malcesine (Beppo Toblini, opp. the chemist's), a good harbour, 
with an old castle of Charlemagne, afterwards a robbers' stronghold, 
recently restored. Goethe , while sketching this ruin , narrowly 
escaped being arrested as a spy by the Venetian government. The 
parish-church contains (1st altar on right) a *Descent from the 
Cross by Girol. dai Libri, a richly coloured master-piece. 

Beyond the castle rises the rocky Isoletto delf Olivo ; then Cas- 
sone, and a little farther the islet of Trimelone. The next stations 
are Assenza, Castelletto, and Torri. The banks become flatter. The 
promontory of San Vigilio, with the Villa Brenzoni, sheltered from 
the N. by Monte Baldo (p. 195), extends far into the lake, and is 
the finest point of view on the E. bank. The surrounding hills are 
planted with vines, olives, and fig-trees. The picturesque old town 
of Garda, with 1500 inhab., in a beautiful bay at the influx of the 
Tesino, which descends from Monte Baldo, gives the lake its name. 
The next places are Bardolino, Cisano, and Lazise, each with its 
harbour and old castle. 

Peschiera, see p. 186. The station is on the E. side of the town, 
Y2 M. from the pier (omnibus 35 c). 

Riva. — Hotels. 'Sole d'Oro, with terrace on the lake, R., L., <fc 
A. I1/2, D- l'/2 A- ; "Hot. -Pens, dd Lac, with large garden and baths, 3' 4 M. 
to the E., on the Torbole road, R., L., & A. I1/2 fl., D. 1 fl. 30 kr., pen?, 
from 3 fl. ; "Hot. -Pens. Riva, R. & L. 1 fl. 20 kr., D. l'/ 2 fl. ; Eavieka, well 
spoken of; "Giardino S. Makco, outside Porta S. Michele, Italian, pension 
2'/i! fl. ; Gallo, good cuisine; Mosch and Popolo, moderate. 

Beer at Musch's, in the Giardino S. Marco (see above), and in the 
Birreria Krautner, outside the Porta S. Marco. 

Baths in the lake to the E., beyond the barrack. 

Omnibus to Arco twice daily, in 40 min., fare 20 kr.; one-horse carr. 
there and back l'/a fl. ; carr. to Mori, see p. 49. 

Boats, without rower, 40 kr. per hour. 

Riva, a busy harbour with 6000 inhab., is charmingly situated 
at the N. end of the lake , at the base of the precipitous Rocchetta. 
On the hillside , high above the town , rises the round tower of a 
ruined castle supposed to have been built by the Scaligers, and on 
the lake is the old castle of La Rocca , now a barrack. By the 
entrance to the town from Arco is the Church of the Minorites , in 
the overladen rococo style , erected in the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury. The Parish Church contains modern pictures and frescoes. 
Riva is a sheltered and healthy place , and the heat of summer is 
tempered by the lake. Private apartments moderate. 

Excursions. The "Fall of the Ponale (3-4 hrs., there and back), at the 
mouth of the deeply cleft Val di Ledro, is chiefly interesting from its 
surroundings. It is best reached by boat (2-3 fl.), or on foot. The new 
*Road, in shade in the afternoon, and affording fine views, leads high above 
the lake, through a succession of tunnels and cuttings, to the Val di Ledro. 
At the point where it turns to the right into the valley, a path descend- 
ing to the left, then ascending, and again descending, leads to the water- 
fall. Travellers arriving by boat ascend a few paces, past some ruined 
houses, to the old bridge immediately below the fall, an admirable point 
of view (shade in the afternoon). 

Lago di Oarda. ARCO. 32. Route. 195 

The Monte Brione (1185 ft.), 1 hr. to the E. of Riva, affords a fine 
survey of the valley and almost the entire lake. The easiest ascent is from 
the N. side, but for the upper path a pass is required, as the hill is forti- 
fied. The hamlet of La Grotta, at the N. foot of Monte Brione, 4 M. from 
Riva (via S. Alessandro), is a favourite afternoon-resort. 

A pleasant excursion (best early in the day) may he taken towards 
the N.W. to (IV2 M.) Varrone, with a fine "Waterfall in a grand rocky gorge 
(adm. 20 kr.). Then by Cologna to (2 M.) Tenno (1415 ft.), with an old 
castle and charming view. The road leads thence through richly cul- 
tivated uplands by Varignano to (4'/2 M.) Arco (see below). 

The ascent of Monte Baldo, a range 45 M. long, between the Lake of 
Garda and the valley of the Adige, is interesting, but somewhat fatiguing 
(not advisable in the hot season). This range consists of two groups, 
separated by the depression of the Bocca di Navena: N. the Altissimo, and 
S. the Monte Maggiore. The Altissimo (6790 ft.) is best ascended from 
Mori (p. 49), on the E. side. The route ascends to (2 hrs.) Brentonico 
(2250 ft.; Inn); thence, with guide, via, S. Giacomo to the top in 3 J /2 hrs. 
(superb view). The panorama is still grander from "Monte Maggiore 
(7210 ft.). A road leads from Peri (p. 50) by the pilgrimage-church of 
Madonna delta Corona and Spiazzi to (7 l h MO Ferrara di Monte Baldo 
("Inn), which may also be reached from Garda (p. 194; 10'/2 M.), by the 
road via, Caprino and Pazzono. Ascent thence, with guide, 4 hours. De- 
scent to Malcesine (p. 194) not recommended. 

Val di Ledro (carr. to Pieve and back 4, with two horses 8fl.; dili- 
gence daily at 3 p. m.). At the angle of the road, high above the Fall of 
the Ponale (p. 194), it turns to the W. into the green valley, and leads 
by Biacesa and Molina to the Lago di Ledro (2135 ft.), with Mezzolago on 
its N. bank, and (6V2 M.) Pieve di Ledro ("Touriste; 'Alb. alia Torre). — 
At Bezzecca, */< M. beyond Pieve, opens the Val Concei, with the villages 
of O/4 hr.) Enguiso and C/4 hr.) Lenzumo (whence we may return to Riva 
direct, by the Mte. Tratta and Campi, in 372 hrs.). 

From Bezzecca the road leads by Tiarno, and through the sequestered 
Val Ampola, to (9 M.) Sloro (Cavallo Bianco) in the Val Bona, crosses the 
Chiese and then the Gaffaro near Lodrone (Austrian and Italian frontier), 
and reaches (3'/2 M. from Storo) the Lago d'Idro, 6 M. long, i/i M. broad, 
the W. bank of which it skirts. Opposite (3 3 /4 M.) Anfo, with the moun- 
tain-castle Bocca d'Anfo, lies the hamlet of Idro. At (3 M.) Lavenone, at 
the S. end of the lake, begins the picturesque Val Sabbia, of which the 
capital is (3 M.) Vestone (Tre Spade). At (3 M.) Barghe the road divides : 
that to the E. leads by Sabbio, Vobarno (where the tramway begins), and 
Tormini (junction for Brescia) to (12 M.) Salb (p. 193); that to the W. to 
Preseglie and through the Val Garza to (15 M.) Brescia (p. 186). 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Riva, up the beautiful valley of the 
Sarca (carriage, see p. 194), lies ■ — ■ 

ArcO. ■ — Hotels. "Kurhaus, with garden, cafe", baths, whey-cure, 
and covered promenade , containing 80 rooms , of which 40 have a S. 
aspect, pens. 3 J /2-5 fl. ; "Kurkasino & Hot. Bauee, opposite, with cafe, 
etc. (dearer than Kurhaus); "Hotel Olivo, R. from 1 fl., L. & A. 40 kr., 
D. I1/2 fl. ; these three are in the Kurplatz, with its well-kept grounds. 
"Corona, in the town; "Hot.-Pens. Arco, 10 min. to the W. of the Kur- 
platz, warm and sheltered; "Hot. Arciduca Alberto, at Chiarano (p. 106), 
new. — Pension in the hotels; also at the Pens. Bellaria, near the Hot. 
Arco, sheltered; Aurora, Bainalter, Olivenheim, Strasser, Monrepos ; charges 
3-5 fl., exclusive of candles and fires. — Private Apartments in Villa 
Anna, Steigerwald, &c. ; R. according to aspect, 30-60 fl. per month. 

Donkey per hr. 50 kr., >/2 day 1 fl. 60 kr., whole day 2 fl. ; driver about 
20 kr. per hr., 1 fl. per day. — Carriage, V2 day 5, with 2 horses 9 fl., 
whole day 8 or 15 fl. ; carr. and pair to Mori 10, to Trent 15 fl. and fee. 

Arco (300ft.J, an ancient town of 2400 inhab., situated in a 
beautiful valley, almost entirely shut in on the N., E., and "W. by 


196 Route 33. LAGO D'ISEO. 

lofty mountains, and protected from the S. winds prevalent in March 
by Monte Brione (p. 195), is frequented as a winter-resort by con- 
sumptive and nervous patients. The Kuranstalt, at the back of the 
Kurkasino, was erected and admirably fitted up by Archduke Al- 
bert (inhaling-rooms, hydropathic, etc.). The vegetation resembles 
that of the Italian lakes : vines, olives, cedars, mulberries, magno- 
lias, cypresses, oleanders, and at places orange and lemon trees. 
The Archduke has a new chateau here, with a fine winter-garden 
(custodian 50 kr.). Adjoining the handsome Renaissance church is 
the old town-palace of the counts of Arco, with allegorical frescoes. 
To the N., on a precipitous rock (390 ft.), rises the Castle of Arco, 
destroyed by the French in the Spanish War of Succession, with 
beautiful garden (key at the gardener's, Via degli Olivi al Castello; 
40-50 kr.). 

Pleasant walk to the W. (3'/2 hrs.) by the road ascending to the right 
of the archducal chateau through groves of fine old olive-trees to the 
hamlets of ( 3 /4 SI.) Chiarano ("Hot. Arciduca Alberto, see p. 195), Vigne, 
and (3/4 SI.) Varignano, where we gain pretty views of the plain and Monte 
Stivo. We continue to ascend by a rough road, affording beautiful views, 
to the (3V2 M.) village and chateau of fenno; descend by Cologna to (211.) 
Varone, and return across the plain to (3 M.) Arco. — To the K. we may 
walk over the Sarca bridge to \}/t SI.) Oltresarca, P/4 31.) Bolognana, and 
(V2 M.) Vignole, where we obtain another picturesque view, especially of 
the castle-hill of Arco. 

33. From Brescia to Edolo. Lago d'Iseo. 

About 62 SI. Railway to Iseo, 15 M., in I1/4 hr. ; fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 
1 fr. 25 c. ; another to Paratico on the Lago d'Iseo, 24'/2 W., in I'/a hr. ; 
fares 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 5 c. — Steameii on Lago d'Iseo between Sar- 
nico and Lovere thrice daily in 2J/2 hrs. (fares 2 fr. or 1 fr. 40 c); also 
once daily (Frid. and Sat. twice) between Iseo and Lovere in l>/2-2 hrs. — 
Post- Omnibus from Lovere to Edolo daily in 7 hrs. (one-horse carr. 20 fr.). 

From Brescia (p. 186) to Iseo. — 2 M. Borgo S. Giovanni; 
3 3 / 4 M. Mandolossa; b 1 /? M. Castegnato; 8 M. Paderno Francia- 
corta; 9^2 M - Passirano; 10'/2 M - Monterotondo Bresciana; 13 M. 
Provaglio d'Iseo; 15 M. Iseo (p. 197). 

From Brescia to Paratico. — From Brescia to (18 M.) 
Palazzolo , see p. 185. Our line here diverges to the N.E. Stat. 
Capriolo; then (24 ^ M.) Paratico, On the left bank of the Oglio, 
which here issues from Lago d'Iseo. On the opposite bank lies 
Sarnico (*Leone d'Oro) , a pretty, quaint-looking town with walls 
and towers , connected with Paratico by a bridge. Near it is the 
Villa Montecchio, with a superb view. 

The *Lago d'Iseo (Lacus Sebinus, 605 ft. above the sea; 14'/2M. 
long; 174-3 M. broad; and about 1000 ft. deep in the centre) 
somewhat resembles an S in form. The Oglio enters the lake at 
the N. end between Pisogne and Lovere (p. 197). The scenery 
vies with that of the Lago di Garda, the soil is admirably cultivated, 
and the vegetation luxuriant. Of the three islands in the lake 

LOVERE. 33. Route. 197 

Montisola, with its ruined castle, is the largest. On the E. bank, 
from Iseo to Pisogne (see below), runs the high-road from Brescia, 
boldly engineered. It is carried through a number of galleries and 
supported by masonry, and commands magnificent views of the 
lake and its environs. 

The Steamer from Sarnico does not touch regularly at all the 
stations. It usually steers first to Predore, the ancient Praetorium. 
which yields excellent wine; then to the S.E. back to Iseo {Leone, 
well spoken of) , a busy little town , with walls and an old castle. 
Its industries are oil-pressing, dyeing, and silk-spinning. A 
statue of Garibaldi was erected here in 1883. Railway to Brescia, 
see p. 196. — On the E. Bank we next call at the fishing-village 
of Peschiera , on the island of Montisola. To the S. of Peschiera 
lies the islet of S. Paolo. The next station is Sale-Marasino, a 
long village on the E. bank. We next pass an islet with the ruined 
monastery of S. Loretto on the left, and reach Marone, at the W. 
base of Monte Guglielmo (6415 ft.); then Pisogne (not always 
touched at) , and beyond the mouth of the Oglio , Lovere. — On 
its trip to the W. Bank the steamer calls at Tavernola , Riva di 
Solto, and Pisogne. 

Lovere (8. Antonio; Leone d'Oro; Ancora), a busy little place, 
prettily situated at the N.W. end of the lake. The handsome church 
of & Maria in Valvendra, built in 1473, restored in 1547 and 
1751 , contains frescoes by Flor. Ferramola (Apostles, Fathers of 
the Church, Saints; round paintings in the spandrels of the nave), 
Moretto (two horses on the organ) , and Andrea da Manerbio (in 
the Capp. della Sposalizio, containing also an old Venetian altar- 
piece), and an Ascension by Fr. Morone over the high-altar. The 
parish-church of & Giorgio, erected in 1655, was enlarged in 1878. 
The long and handsome Palazzo Tadini contains a collection of 
old pictures (18. Tintoretto, Portrait of a man, 1627; 78. Titian, 
Portrait, damaged; 119, 127. Brusasorci, SS. Guglielmo and Fran- 
cesco ; 125. P. Veronese, Madonna; 255. Jac. Bellini, Madonna, 
damaged; 282. Guercinol, St. Sebastian; 307. P. Bordone, Madonna 
and SS. ; 386. Giorgionel , Dead Christ) ; also sculptures by Ben- 
zoni and Canova (tombstone) and a geological collection. The town 
is embellished with monuments to Vict. Emmanuel II.. Count 
Tadini, and Garibaldi. The iron-works (stabilimento metallurgico) 
of Oregorini employ 1600 hands and manufacture guns for the 
Italian government. — Good roads lead from Lovere through the 
Val Cavallina to (27 M.) Bergamo (p. 183), and through the ravine 
(orrido) of Borlezza to (7^2 M.) Clusone (p. 185). 

The Road from Lovere to Edolo leads through the *Val 
Camonica, one of the finest valleys of the S. Alps, yielding rich 
crops of maize , grapes , mulberries , enclosed by lofty , wooded 
mountains, and enlivened with many iron-works. The silk-cul- 
ture is also an important industry here. The dark rocks (verrucano) 

198 Route 33. EDOLO. 

contrast curiously with the light triassic formations. The valley is 
watered by the Oglio (p. 196) , which the road crosses several 

At Darfo, which lies to the right, our road joins the Brescia 
road (see above). Near Cividate is a very picturesque deserted 
monastery on the hill. On this side of Breno a broad hill, planted 
with vines and mulberries, and crowned with a ruined castle, rises 
from the valley. 

I41/2 M. (from Lovere) Breno (1080 ft. ; Italia, well spoken of), 
capital of the lower Val Camonica. To the E. Monte Frerone 
(8770 ft.). 

The road crosses a torrent descending from Monte Pizzo , the 
indented crest of which peeps from an opening on the right. A 
huge basaltic rock here extends towards the road. Beyond Capo di 
Ponte (1375 ft. ; Alb. S. Antonio) the scenery changes. The valley 
contracts, maize and mulberries become rarer. The road ascends 

541/2 M. Edblo (2290 ft. ; *Leone; Due Mori; 6allo~), a village 
with iron-works, lies on the Oglio, here descending from the rocks, 
and is commanded on the E. by Monte Aviolo. 

At Edolo the road divides. That to the N. crosses the Tonalc Pass 
(6150 ft.) to S. Michele, a station on the Botzen and Verona railway (p. 47). 
The road to the W. crosses the Passo d'Aprica (3880 ft.) to Tirano in the 
Val Tellina (p. 159; 25 T /2 M. ; one-horse carr. in 6 hrs., 25 fr.), see Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps. 

V. Venetia. 

34. Verona 201 

35. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 212 

1. From Mantua to Monselice 216 

2. From Suzzara to Parma 217 

36. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 217 

From Vicenza to the Baths of Recoaro, Schio, Arsiero, 

and Torre 221,222 

37. Padua 222 

38. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 229 

1. Excursion to the Villa Giacomelli or Masi'r .... 230 

2. From Bassano to Possagno 231 

39. Venice 231 

Murano. Torcello. S. Lazzaro. Chioggia 281-283 

40. From Venice to Trieste 283 

1. From Treviso to Belluno 284 

2. From Conegliano to Vittorio 285 

3. From Udine to Cividale '286 

4. Aquileia 288 

The N.E. part of Italy, named II Veneto after the ancient Veneti, 
is divided into the eight provinces of Verona , Vicenza , Padova , Bovigo, 
Venezia , Treviso, Belluno, and Udine. Its area , 9059 sq. M. , is nearly 
equal to that of Lombardy, while its population of 2,842,173 souls is con- 
siderably smaller. The western and larger portion of the country, between 
the Mincio and Piave, is indeed as thickly peopled as the eastern and 
less prosperous part of Lombardy between the Adda and the Mincio ; 
but the Friuli, or ancient county of Forum Julii, the border-land to the 
E. of the Piave, consists of very inferior soil, owing to the debris brought 
down by the Alpine streams. The 'Furlanians\ the poor inhabitants of 
the Friuli, speak a patois of their own. 

The Venetian Dialect no longer contains traces of the Gallic ele- 
ment like that of the districts from Piedmont to the Komagna , which 
were once conquered by the Celts. It boasts of having been frequently 
used by men of letters, as for example by Goldoni in his comedies, and 
is the softest of all the Italian dialects , the flattening and elision of the 
consonants being very common. Thus nevode for nipote, suar for sudare, 
fogo for fuoco, sior for signore ; and another characteristic is the conversion 
of g into z, as zenle for gente, zorno for giorno, mazore for maggiore. 

The history of the country has always been influenced by the proximity 
of the sea and the peculiar formation of the coast. In the lower part of 
its course the Po differs widely in character from all the other rivers in 
Europe. Its fall is very gradual , being for a considerable distance 22/3 
inches only, and latterly little more than y 4 inch per English mile. To- 
wards the end of its course , moreover, it receives numerous tributaries. 
The result is that the adjacent districts are much exposed to inundations, 
a danger which has to be averted by the construction of huge dykes ; and 
these works frequently require to be raised, as the bed of the river is 
constantly rising. The Po, together with the Adige, Bacchiglione, Brenta, 
and other coast rivers, terminates in a vast delta which extends along the 
whole coast of Venetia. The quantity of alluvial deposit is so great, that the 
beds of these streams are continually undergoing change and subdivision. 
Thus the ancient seaport of Hatria now lies 15'/2 M. from the coast, and 
while the Po formerly flowed towards the S., it has formed its present 


200 TETOTH. 

embouchure since 1150. The extensive lagoons (lagune), separated from 
the sea by narrow strips of land (lidi), and connected with it by outlets, 
would render the whole coast uninhabitable , were it not for the slight 
ebb and flow of the tide (mean difference l'/2 ft.), which is perceptible 
in the Adriatic, and prevents malarious exhalations. This extensive allu- 
vial territory, which reminds one of Holland, called into activity the in- 
genuity and enterprise of its inhabitants at an early period, and a temper- 
ate and conservative character has thus been imparted to their history. 

The Veneti, a branch of the Illyrian stock, kept entirely aloof 
from the immigrating Celtic tribes. The seaports of Hatria and Spina, 
at the mouths of the Po , carried on a considerable trade at an early 
period , and several canals on a large scale were constructed as early 
as B. C. 380. In the 3rd cent, the Veneti together with the Cenomani, 
a Celtic tribe which occupied Brescia and Verona, entered into an 
alliance with Rome. While the Romanisation of Lombardy and Pied- 
mont was attended with violent struggles, it was rapidly effected here 
without opposition. The Roman colony of Aquileia was founded as early 
as 181 B.C., and the boundary of Italy was thus laid down at the point 
to which it still extends. Owing to its industries, cattle-breeding, and 
agriculture , Venetia prospered greatly under the emperors. Padua was 
the wealthiest town in Italy next to Rome, and was rivalled in W. Eu- 
rope by Cadiz alone, as it numbered during the reign of Augustus no 
fewer than 500 citizens of knightly fortune (i. e. upwards of about 4500Z). 
The city was afterwards destroyed by Attila, and then razed to th-3 ground 
by the Lombards, and a similar fate befel Altinum, an important com- 
mercial town in the Lagoons, and Aquileia, which in ancient times was 
of a similar importance to the modern Trieste. The Romans sought re- 
fuge from their Lombard conquerors in the islands of the Lagoons. Re- 
moved from Teutonic influences, and under the protection of the Byzan- 
tine Empire, the most famous of medieeval states took its rise here from 
apparently insignificant beginnings. Its earliest history is involved in 
obscurity. The first Dux or Doge is said to have been Paulucius Anafestus 
(d. 716). In 809 the islands repulsed an attack of King Pepin, the son 
of Charlemagne, and virtually threw off the yoke of the Eastern emper- 
ors. At this period the inhabitants were crowded together in the is- 
lands of Rivoallo, Malamocco, and Torcello, which were the most secure. 
Rivoalto was selected as the seat of government, and here accordingly the 
city of Venice was founded. Angelus Participotius (819) is said to have 
been the first doge whose residence occupied the site of the present Pa- 
lace of the Doges. Situated between the Byzantine and Franconian em- 
pires, Venice became a connecting link between the trade of each, and 
the great depot of the traffic between the East and the West. In 828 a 
Venetian fleet brought the body of St. Mark to Venice, and thenceforth 
the Venetians revered him as their tutelary saint, using his emblem, the 
lion (Rev. iv. 7) as their cognizance , and his name as synonymous with 
the republic, while their supreme official functionary was styled 'Procu- 
rator of St. Mark\ In the interests of her commerce Venice was at length 
induced to make foreign conquests. These were at first confined to the 
Istrian and Dalmatian coasts for the purpose of procuring timber and 
suppressing piracy. The rivalry that sprang up with Genoa during the 
Crusade led the Venetians to effect a footing in the Levant, and to 
establish extensive colonies. At the same time the constitution of the 
state developed into a rigorous oligarchy, which with terrible impartial- 
ity contrived to keep both the nobility and people in check, and effectu- 
ally to curb the national desire for liberty. In the neighbouring towns 
the supreme power rested on a foundation altogether different. The re- 
publics had been overthrown by the despots, who, supported by merce- 
nary troops and the favour of the lower classes, had founded principali- 
ties in the modern sense of the word. Such were the Visconti in Milan, 
the Scala in Verona, the Carrara in Padua, the Gonzaga in Mantua, and 
the Este in Ferrara. The danger of collision with warlike princes, and 
the support they afforded to every attempt to overthrow the Venetian 
constitution, led to their own downfall. Venice, having made conquests 

Wagner iDebes.T.oipziii. 

vicenza.- *• 

VERONA. 34. Route. 201 

on the mainland (terra ferma) for the sake of her own safety , soon be- 
came one of the chief Italian powers, and was thus involved in all the 
interminable wars caused by the rivalry of the different states. She ob- 
tained permanent possession of Treviso in 1339, Vicenza in 1404, Padua 
and Verona in 1405, Udine in 1420, Brescia in 1426, Bergamo in 1428, 
Crema in 1454, and Rovigo in 1484. In the market-places of these towns 
the lion of St. Mark was erected as a token of their subjugation, and Ve- 
netian nobles were appointed their governors. The district thus conquer- 
ed extended to about 13,200 sq. M., besides the Dalmatian possessions 
(4250 sq. M.) and the settlements in the Levant. Napoleon at length over- 
threw the Republic, which had long been in a tottering condition. On 
15th and 16th May, 1797, Venice was occupied by French troops under 
Baraguay d'Hilliers, this being the first occasion on which it had ever 
been captured by an enemy. In the Peace of Campoformio (1797) it was 
adjudged to Austria, but by the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, the Austrians 
were compelled to cede it to the Kingdom of Italy. On the fall of Napo- 
leon it was again awarded to Austria, to which it belonged down to 1866, 
when in consequence of the events of that year it was finally incorporated 
with the Kingdom of Italy. 

34. Verona. 

Arrival. Verona has two stations : (1) Slazione Porta Vescovo (or Porta 
Vescovile; PI. I, G) , the principal station, about l'/2 M. to the E. of the 
Piazza Bra; (2) Stazione Porta Nuova (PI. B, 6), 3 A M. to the S. of the 
Piazza Bra, where the hotel-omnibuses await the trains from Tyrol. 

Hotels. (tRand Hotel de Lqnd res (PI. b;F, 3), in the centre of the 
town, with baths, RTTfom" 3 fr.,~L"T57~S.- 1, B. IV2, D. 5, omn. 1 fr.; Due 
Toeri, now being rebuilt; Colomba d'Oro (PI. e; D, 3), in the street of 
that name, near Piazza Vitt. Eman., well spoken of, R. from 2 I , / 2 fr., L. 
75, A. 75c, D. 4, omn. 1 fr. — Second-class: Alb. & Trattoria S. Lo- 
renzo (PI. d; D, 31, prettily situated on the Adige, Riva di S. Lorenzo, 
in the third narrow street W. of the Porta Borsari, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 
l'/«, omn. 1 fr., well spoken of; Aqdila Nera (PI. f; E, 3), commercial; 
Regina d'TJngheria, Alb. all' Accademia, both near the Piazza Erbe. 

Restaurants at the hotels. Also: Birreria Regina Margherila, Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele, to which belongs a garden, on the right, by the canal, 
outside the Portone; Lbwenbrau, Via Nuova Lastricata 14. — Cafes. "Vit- 
torio Emanuele , and ~ Europa, in the Piazza Vitt. Eman. ; * Caffe Dante, 
Piazza de 1 Signori. 

Photographs: M. Lotze, Via Disciplina 11. 

Fiacres ('Broughams'). Per drive 75 c, per hour ly» fr. , each addi- 
tional hr. 1 fr. 25 c. ; in the evening 30 c. per hr. more. From station 
to town 1 fr. — For each pers. above two, one-third more. 

Tramways traverse the town from the Stazione Porta Vescovo to the 
Stazione Porta Nuova (10c): see Plan. 

The Sights of Verona may be seen in one day: begin with the Arena 
and Piazza Bra, then cross the Adige to the Palazzo Pompei (on the way 
to which is <S. Fermo Maggiore, p. 209), return by the Via Ponte Navi to 
the Piazza de'' Signori, with the tombs of the Scaligers; see S. Anaslasia, 
and the Cathedral, and cross the Ponte di Ferro to S. Giorgio; drive along 
the Corso from the Porta Borsari to the Porta Palio and S. Zeno; lastly 
return to the Giardino Giusti. 

Verona (155 ft.) , the capital of a province , with 60,800 (with 
suburbs 68,700) inhab. and a garrison of 6000 men, situated on 
both banks of the rapid Adige, which is crossed by five bridges, is 
next to Venice the most important and interesting town of ancient 
Venetia. After it came into the possession of the Austrians in 1814 
Verona was strongly fortified , and along with Peschiera, Mantua, 
and Legnago formed the famous 'Quadrilateral', the chief support of 

202 Route 34. vjiKUiNA. Piazza Erbe. 

Austrian rule in Italy. Restored to Italy in 1866, it is still a fortress 
of the first class, and seat of the commandant of the III. Army Corps. 

Founded by the Rhaetians and Euganeans, and afterwards occupied by 
the Celtic Cenomani , Verona was made a Roman colony in B.C. 89, and 
became one of the most prosperous towns of Upper Italy. Its castle of S. 
Pietro was a residence of the Ostrogoth Uieodoric the Great, the 'Dietrich 
of Bern' (i.e. Verona) of German lore (d. 526). In 568 the town was taken 
by the Lombard king Alboin, who fell a victim to the vengeance of his 
wife Rosamunde, daughter of the conquered ruler of Verona, whom he 
had forced to drink wine out of her father's skull. The Frankish monarchs 
Pepin, and, after the Carlovingian epoch, Berengarius I., ruled here. Verona 
afterwards headed the league of Venetian cities against Frederick Barba- 
rossa. During the fierce contests between Guelphs and Ghibellines the 
terrible Ezzelino da Romano endeavoured to establish a lordship at Ve- 
rona. After his death in 1259 Mastino della Scala was elected Podesta ; and 
the great princes of his house inaugurated a glorious period for the city. 
Mastino was assassinated in 1277 , but his brother and successor Albert 
secured the supremacy of his line. Romeo and Juliet are said to have 
loved and died in the reign of Albert's son Bartolommeo (1301-1304). The 
greatest member of this illustrious family was Can Francesco , or 'Can 
Grande' (1312-1329), who captured Vicenza and subdued Padua after a long 
struggle. His brilliant court numbered Dante among its guests. Mastino II. 
at first conquered Brescia, Parma, and Lucca, but his rule was afterwards 
restricted to Verona and Vicenza by a league formed by Florence, Venice, 
and Milan. Can Grande II., his successor, was murdered by his brother 
Can Signorio in 1359; and in 1387, the latter's son Antonio, who had also 
endeavoured to secure his possession by fratricide, was expelled by Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan. Through the widow of Visconti the town 
passed in 1405 to the Venetians, to whom, with short interruptions, it 
remained subject down to the end of the Republic. 

In the history of Architecture Verona is important, both on account 
of its mediaeval buildings , and as the birthplace of Fra Giocondo (1435- 
1514), one of the most famous architects of the early Renaissance, whose 
works are to be found at Venice, Paris, and Rome , and as the home of 
Michele Sammicheli (1484-1559), the greatest military architect of Upper 
Italy, who imparted to the palaces of Verona some of the features of forti- 
fied castles. In judging of the Verona palaces, we must bear in mind that it 
was customary here, as at Genoa and other towns, to adorn the facades 
with paintings. The painted facades of houses near S. Fermo, by the Porta 
Borsari, in Piazza Erbe, and others partly recall the style of Paduan masters 
of the 15th century. — The chief Veronese Painters of the 15th cent, were 
Vittore Pisano (Pisanello), the celebrated medallist; Liberate da Verona; Fr. 
Morone; above all Girolamo dai Libri (1474-1556); and lastly Paolo Moranda, 
surnamed Cacazzola (1486-1522). The later artists , such as Paolo Caliari, 
surnamed Veronese (1532-88), belong more properly to the Venetian school. 

The *Piazza Erbe (PI. E, 3), the ancient forum, now the fruit 
and vegetable market , is one of the most picturesque squares in 
Italy. The Marble Column at the N. end bears the lion of St. Mark, 
a modern copy of the ancient cognisance of the Republic of Venice. 
Opposite is the fantastic Pal. Trezza (formerly Maffei; 1668), with 
a curious spiral staircase in the interior. The Casa Mazzanti, at 
the corner to the right, originally the residence of Albertino della 
Scala (d. 1301), is adorned with frescoes by Cavalli, an imitator of 
Giulio Romano ; the picturesque back of the building retains its 
mediaeval character. On the houses opposite are frescoes by Liber- 
ale (God the FatheT, Adam and Eve) and Girolamo dai Libri (Ma- 
donna and saints). The Fountain, dating from the time of Beren- 

Piazza del Signori. VERONA. 34. Route. 203 

garius, is adorned with a statue of 'Verona', partly antique. In tlie 
centre of the Piazza is the Tribuna, with its canopy borne by four 
columns, anciently the seat of judgment. The Casa dei Mercanti 
(1301), at the corner of Via Pelliciai, recently restored, now con- 
tains the commercial court. Opposite the Casa Mazzanti rises the 
Tower of the Municipio , 273 ft. in height, affording a fine view of 
the town and environs (366 steps ; adm. 50 c). A short street to 
the left of the latter leads to the handsomely paved — 

*Piazza dei Signori (PI. E, F, 3). Immediately to the right of 
the tower is the Palazzo delta Bagione (seat of the jury court), 
founded in 1183 ; the court (Mercato vecchio) contains a grand flight 
of steps of the 14th century. Adjoining the pinnacled tower is the 
Tribunale , and on the other side of the piazza is the Prefettura, 
formerly residences of the Scaligers. The original architecture is 
seen to best advantage in the courts , which have been restored. 
The portal of the Prefettura is by Sammicheli. — In the centre of 
the piazza rises a Statue of Dante (by Zannoni, 1865) , who found 
his first asylum here with the Scaligers after his banishment from 
Florence in 1316. — At the N.E. corner of the piazza stands the — 

*Palazzo del Consiglio , or Old Town Hall , usually called La 
Loggia, erected before 1500, probably from designs by Fra Oiocondo 
(whose portrait in a monk's habit is on the left corner-pillar), and 
restored in 1873. This is one of the finest buildings in N. Italy in 
the early-Renaissance style , which was characterised by richness 
and beauty of detail rather than by strict harmony of composition. 
By the door are two bronze statues by Campana, representing the 
Annunciation. Over the door is the inscription, placed here by the 
Venetians: 'Pro summa fide summus amor 1592'. Above are statues 
of celebrated ancient Veronese : Corn. Nepos, Catullus, Vitruvius, 
the younger Pliny, and iEmil. Macer, the poet and friend of Virgil. 
On the wall are busts of famous modern Veronese. On the upper 
floor are several tastefully restored rooms (porter in the court). 

The entrances to the Piazza dei Signori are spanned by arch- 
ways. Above the arch next the Loggia is a portrait of Oirol. Fra- 
castoro (d. 1553) by Danese Cattaneo (1559) ; in the N.W. corner 
is a Statue of Scipione Maffei, the historian. Behind, in the street 
leading to the Corso, are a picturesque Fountain of 1478 and the 
Volto Barbaro, under which Mastino della Scala is said to have 
been assassinated in 1277. Near it is the old Pal. de' Oiurecon- 
sulti, founded in 1263, but rebuilt in the 16th century. 

The passage adjoining the Tribunal leads direct to the Lombardic 
church of S. Maria Antica, with Romanesque campanile, and the im- 
posing Tombs of the Scaligers (Arche degli Scaligeri), the stern Go- 
thic forms of which immortalise the masculine genius of the dyn- 
asty. The ladder, their crest, often recurs on the elaborate railings. 

Over the church-door are the sarcophagus and equestrian statue of Can 
Grande della Scala (d. 1329); adjoining it, by the wall, the monuments of 
Giovanni delta Scala (d. 1350) and of Mastino I. fd. 1277). Next to the 

204 Route 3d. VERONA. 8. Anastasia. 

Piazza Signori is the monument of Uastino II. (d. 1351) , another sarco- 
phagus with canopy and equestrian statue, designed by Perino da Milano. 
The similar monument at the corner of the street, executed by Bonino da 
Campiglione for Can Signorio (d. 1375) during his life-time, is embellished 
with statues of Christian heroes and virtues. The sarcophagi between 
these, bearing the same crest, have no names. (The custodian lives in a 
house to the right of the church; fee 20c. for one, and 10 c. more for 
each additional person.) 

To the S.E. lies the Piazza delV Indipendenza (p. 208). 

We now proceed to the N. to the Corso Cavour (p. 206), at 
the E. end of which rises *S. Anastasia (PI. F, 2), a fine Gothic 
church begun about 1261, with unfinished brick facade, a late-Go- 
thic portal in marble, with reliefs of the life of Peter Martyr, and 
a fresco of the 14th cent, in the lunette. 

The Interior, borne by 12 columns, is remarkable for boldness and 
symmetry of proportion, and for the late-Gothic decoration of the vaulting 
(1437). On the first column to the left is an ancient capital, used as a 
Holy Water Basin, supported by a hump-backed dwarf (Gobbo) by 
Gabriele Caliari, father of Paolo Veronese. By the first altar to the right 
is the monument of Fregoso , by Danese Cattaneo (1565). Above the 3rd 
altar frescoes by Liberale. The frame-work of the 4th altar is an imi- 
tation of the ancient Arco de' Gavi in the Castel Vecchio, removed in 
1805; altar-piece, St. Martin by Caroto. The next small chapel contains 
excellent early-Renaissance ornament ; a painted group of the Entombment, 
of the 14th century ; a wooden crucifix of the 15th cent. ; and a fine iron 
lamp. — In the right transept, St. Paul by Cavazzola, and Madonna with 
saints by Oirolamo dai Libri in an elegant frame. — In the first chapel of 
the choir, on the right, are ancient Veronese "'Frescoes (ascribed to Giotto), 
Knights of the Cavalli family kneeling before the Virgin. The adjoining 
Capp. Pellegrini contains terracotta reliefs of the 15th cent. , probably 
by a Florentine master; on the outside, above the arch, a fresco of St. 
George , by Pisanello. In the choir , to the left , is the monument of 
General Sarego , with paintings of 1432 and fine 'intarsia' work. — The 
left transept contains frescoes of the 14th cent., and a picture by Liberale, 
Mary Magdalene in clouds. — Above the 4th altar to the left, Descent of 
the Holy Ghost by Giolfino (1418); above is the same subject al fresco by 
Michele da Verona. Over the 2nd altar on the left, Christ with SS. Eras- 
mus and George by Giolfino, ,Over the 1st altar, painted sculptures by 
Michele da Verona (about 1500). 

In front of the church rises a marble Statue of Paolo Veronese, 
by Delia Torre and R. Cristiani, erected in 1888. 

To the left of the church , over a gateway , is the marble 
sarcophagus of Count Gugl. da Castelbarco, the Scaligers' friend, 
at whose expense the churches of S. Anastasia and S. Fermo were 
in great part built ; and in the gateway three others. — Route hence 
by the Corso Cavour to the Arena, see p. 206. — The small church 
of S. Pietro Martire , entered through the adjoining Collegio Con- 
vito, contains an allegorical fresco by Falconetto with portraits of 
Teutonic knights (about 1515). We now proceed to the right to the — 

Cathedral (PI. F, 1,2), a Gothic structure of the 14th cent., 
with choir and Romanesque facade of the 12th cent, and pointed 
windows in the facade inserted later. Behind the columns and 
griffins of the handsome portal are Roland and Oliver, the paladins 
of Charlemagne , in rough half-relief, executed according to the 
inscription by Nicholas (12th cent.). By the side-wall rises an 

Cathedral. VERONA. 3d. Route. 205 

unfinished campanile , designed by Sammicheli , resting upon an 
ancient basis. 

The Interior , consisting of nave and aislea , with eight red marble 
pillars, contains an elegant rood-loft of marble , designed by Sammicheli, 
above which is a bronze crucifix by Oiambattista da Verona. The walls 
adjoining and above the three first altars on the right and left are adorned 
with line frescoes by Falconetto (about 1503). The Adoration of the Magi, 
over the 2nd altar to the right, is by Liberate da Verona, with wings by 
Giolfino. At the end of the right aisle is the Tomb of St. Agatha, a 
Gothic monument of 1353 enclosed in beautiful Renaissance frame-work 
(1508). In the choir are scenes from the life of the Virgin, executed by 
Torbido from drawings by Oiulio Romano. — Over the 1st altar on the left, 
-Assumption by Titian, about 1543 (frame by Scmsovino): 'striking for its 
masterly combination of light and shade and harmonious colours with 
realistic form and action' (G. <£■ C). 

To the left of the choir a corridor leads to 8. Giovanni in Fonte, 
the ancient Baptistery, of the 12th cent.; font with *Reliefs of about 
1200. To the left of the facade (2nd door on left) are Romanesque 
Cloisters , the arches resting on double columns of red marble. 
They contain an antique column and ancient mosaics recently ex- 
cavated. — To the N.E. of the cathedral is the Vescovado, or bis- 
hop's residence. The Palazzo dei Canonici to the N.W. (No. 19) 
contains the Biblioteca Capitolare with its precious MSS. (palimp- 
sests) , among which Niebuhr discovered the Institutes of Gaius. 
Librarian, Monsignor Giuliari. (Adm. 12-1.) 

In Veronetta, on the left bank of the Adige, to which the chain- 
bridge Ponte Garibaldi leads (toll 2 c), is situated S. Giorgio in 
Braida (PI. F, 1; if the front-gate is closed, entrance by side-door on 
the N.), reconstructed in the 16th cent, with the aid of Sammicheli. 
The well-proportioned interior contains some admirable pictures. 

W. wall, over the door: Tintoretto, Baptism of Christ ; 1st altar on the 
left, Caroto, St. Ursula (1545); 3rd altar on the left, Caroto, SS. Rochus 
and Sebastian, with predelle (centre figure of St. Joseph modern) ; above, 
The Apostles healing a possessed man, by D. Brusasorci; in the lunette, 
Transfiguration, by Caroto; 4th altar on the left, Girolamo dai Libri, *Ma- 
donna with SS. Zeno and Lorenzo Giustiniani (1529); 5th altar on the left, 
Moretto, 'Madonna with holy women (1540). At the sides of the organ and 
opposite, Romanino of Brescia, Martyrdom of St. George (1540), originally 
panel of an organ, with delicate colouring in a silvery tone. To the right 
in the choir, Farinato , Miracle of the Five Thousand (1603) ; to the left, 
F . Brusasorci, the Shower of manna. High-altar-piece (generally covered), 
"P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. George, a master-piece of the highest rank, 
in which the horrors of the scene are mitigated by nobility of outline and 
richness of colour. 4th altar on the right: F. Brusasorci, Madonna with 
archangels. The beautiful holy water basin is enriched with bronze figures 
of John the Baptist and St. George by Joseph de Levis and A. de Rubeis. 

The Via S. Giorgio leads hence S.E. to the venerable church of 
Sto. Stefano (PI. G, 1), rebuilt by Theodoric. Facade probably of 
the 11th century. The interior has a flat roof and a raised choir, 
with the episcopal throne at the back ; in front, to the left, statue 
of St. Peter (14th cent.). Pictures by Caroto and D. Brusasorci. 

Near this church is the Ponte delta Pietra , built by Fra Gio- 
condo, of which the two arches next the left bank are Roman. By 
the bridge begins the ascent to the Castello S. Pietro (PI. G, 2; 

206 Route 34. VERONA. Amphitheatre. 

permission at the commandant's office, by the entrance), a modern 
barrack on the site of the castle of Theodoric the Great (p. 202) 
and the Visconti, ruins of which are still traceable. Splendid view. 
— At its base , immediately below the bridge , are remains of an 
antique Theatre (PI. G, 2), excavated in the midst of private houses 
(boy will fetch custodian). — On rising ground a little farther down 
the river is the little church of $$. Siro e Libera, dating from the 
time of Berengarius. 

From this point to 8. Giovanni in Valle, S. Maria in Organo, 
and the Giardino Giusti, see p. 211. 

By S. Anastasia begins the Corso Cavour (PI. F-C, 2, 3), the 
chief street of Verona , in which several handsome palaces are sit- 
uated. About midway rises the Porta de' Borsari (PI. D, 3) , a 
triumphal arch or town-gate, erected under Emp. Gallienus, A. D. 
265, in the poor later Roman style. — A little to the N. is the 
Gothic church of S. Eufemia (PI. E, 2, 3), of the 13th cent., with 
Madonnas by Moretto (1st altar on left) and Dom. Brusasorci (3rd 
altar on right, a master-piece of this contemporary of P. Veronese). 
Frescoes by Caroto, etc. 

A little farther on, to the left, is Santi Apostoli, with very an- 
cient tower and Romanesque apse. In front of it stands a marble 
statue by Zannoni of Aleardo Aleardi, poet and patriot, born in 
Verona in 1812 (d. 1878). — Also on the left (No. 19) is the hand- 
some *Pal. Bevilacqua, by Sammicheli, with large windows intend- 
ed for a museum. Opposite is the small church of S. Lorenzo (11th 
cent.) , with altar-piece by D. Brusasorci. Then on the right, 
No. 38, Pal. Portalupi, and, No. 44, Pal. Canossa, also by Sammi- 
cheli, with a fine portico and court, bat with an attica added in 
1770 (frescoes by Tiepolo in the portal). — On the right we then 
reach the Castello Vecchio (PI. C, 3), castle of Can Grande II., 
now a barrack, connected with the left bank of the Adige by a 
bridge (not accessible) of the 14th century. 

From the Castello to S. Zeno, see p. 208. The Via S. Bernardino 
leads W. to S. Bernardino (p. 207), while the Corso is prolonged 
S.W. to the Porta del Palio (p. 207). 

To the S. of the Corso, and connected with it by several streets, 
lies the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (PL D, 4 ; formerly Piazza Bra, 
from 'praturri, meadow), with an equestrian Statue of Victor Em- 
manuel II., by Borghi, erected in 1883. 

On the E. side of this piazza rises the famous *Amphitheatre 
(Arena; PI. D, 4), erected under Diocletian about A. D. 290, and 
known in German lore as the abode of Dietrich of Bern , 106 ft. 
in height, 168 yds. long, and 134 yds. wide. Of the outer wall with 
its four stories a fragment only now exists. Around the interior 
(entrance from W. side by the arcade No. V; 1 fr. ; Sun. free) rise 
43 tiers of steps of grey limestone or reddish-yellow conglomerate 

S. Bernardino. VERONA. 34. Route. 207 

(repeatedly restored since the end of the 16th cent. , and partly 
modern), on which 20,000 spectators could sit. An inscription on 
the second story commemorates the visit of Napoleon I. in 1805, 
and the restoration carried out by his order. Fine view from the 
highest steps. Two doors at the ends of the longer diameter afforded 
access to the arena itself (82 by 48 yds.J. — The Via Nuova , ter- 
minating near the Arena, one of the main thoroughfares of the town, 
leads N.E. to the Piazza Erbe (see p. 202). In one of its side- 
streets is S. Maria della Seala (PI. E, 3), with early-Renaissance 
portal and frescoes of the school of Pisanello (in the bell-chamber, 
right of the high-altar). 

On the S.W. side of the Arena stands the Municipio (PI. D, 4 ; 
formerly guard-house), begun in 1836, which bears several memo- 
rial tablets relating to political events and to the inundation of 
1882 (p. 209). Farther S. is the Gran Guardia Antica (PI. D, 4; 
now the corn-market and used for exhibitions), or old guard-house, 
begun in 1609 by Dom. Curtoni, a nephew of Sammicheli. Adja- 
cent is the Portone, an old gateway with a tower. — Opposite the 
Municipio is the spacious Pal. Sparavieri, formerly Guastaverza 
(by Sammicheli), with the cafe's mentioned at p. 201. 

In the street to the right of the gateway is the Teatro Filarmonico 
(PL C, 4). In the arcades erected in 1745 is the valuable Museo 
Lapidario, formed by Scipione Maffei, containing Roman, Greek, 
and Oriental inscriptions, and ancient sculptures. Two of the best 
Greek reliefs are built into the back-walls of the small houses ad- 
joining the entrance (on the left, *Asclepius and Hygieia, an Attic 
votive relief , 4th cent. B. C). Visitors ring at the iron gate opposite 
the Gran Guardia. 

Passing through the gateway we reach the Corso Vitt. Ema- 
nuble (PI. C, B, 4, 5), in which, at the corner of the Strada di S. 
Antonio, is a Statue of Michele Sammicheli, 'grande nella architet- 
tura civile e religiosa, massimo nella militare', by Trojani. At the 
end of the Corso rises the handsome Porta Nuova (PI. B, 6), by 
Sammicheli. Outside this gate is the Stazione Porta Nuova (p. 201). 

From the Porta Nuova an avenue leads N.W. to the *Porta del 
Falio (formerly PortaStuppa; PI. A, 4), by Sammicheli, once admired 
by Goethe. Outside the gate is the moat of the fortress, the bridge 
over which affords a fine view. — We now follow the Corso di Porta 
Palio and the second cross-street on the left to — 

S. Bernardino (PI. A, 3 ; if closed, ring in the corner to the left), 
of the 15th cent., formerly a monastery-church. Above the door in 
the cloisters to the left of the church is a fresco, *St. Bernardinus, 
by Cavazzola. 

Interior. 1st chapel on the right : as altar-piece, a copy of a master- 
work of Cavazzola in the Gallery. Frescoes of legendary subjects by Oiol- 
Jino. — 2nd altar on the right, Madonna and SS. by Bonsignori (1485). — 
4th chapel on the right : Domen. Morone , ceiling-frescoes and life of St. 
Anthony (restored). — 5th Chap: on the altar-wall copies from Cavazzola 

208 Route 34. VERONA. S. Zeno Maggiore. 

(in the Museum) ; above, Christ on the Cross and SS. John and Mary, by 
Fr. Morone (1498) ; on the left, Christ parting from his mother by Carolo, 
and three paintings from the Passion by Qiolfino. At the end to the right 
is the entrance to the "Cappella Pellegrini, by Sammicheli (1557, restored 
1793), with beautiful Renaissance decoration. Altar-pieces by India (1679). 
— ■ In the choir, to the left, Madonna with SS. by Benaglio. ■ — Organ of 
1481. On the organ-wings are SS. Bernardino and Francis, and (over the 
portal) SS. Bonaventura and Ludovico , by Fr. Morone. — The Closters 
and one of the chapels contain frescoes by Qolfino (early works). In the 
Refectory of the monastery frescoes by bom. Morone (I), accessible only 
from the street. 

To theN. of this point lies *S. Zeno Maggiore (PL A, 2; reached 
also by following the new embankment on the Adige, with its fine 
views, to the N. W. of the Castel Vecchio, p. 206) , the finest Ro- 
manesque church in N. Italy , of most noble proportions , lately 
restored. The nave in its present form was begun in 1139; the 
choir dates from the 13th century. 

The Portal, the columns of which rest on lions of red marble, is 
embellished with reliefs of Scriptural subjects by Mcolaus and Wiligelmus 
(1139). In one of them Theodoric, as a wild huntsman, is speeding head- 
long to the devil. At the top of the door-posts are the twelve months. 
The doors are covered with rude bronze reliefs from the Bible and the 
life of St. Zeno. 

Interior. In the corner to the right an ancient octagonal font; behind 
it a fresco of S. Zeno (14th cent.). The holy-water basin, by the 1st column 
on the right, rests on an inverted antique capital. Opposite is an ancient 
porphyry vase , 28 ft. in circumference ; beyond it a fine Gothic crucifix. 
— On the Choir Screen are marble statues of Christ and the Apostles (13th 
cent.). — To the left of the choir, frescoes of the 16th cent., under which are 
traces of others of the 12th ; to the right frescoes of the 11th and 13th 
centuries. To the right of the steps to the choir is an altar, flanked on 
each side with four columns of brown marble, resting on lions and bulls. 
To the right, above, is a painted marble figure of St. Zeno , a fisherman 
and afterwards Bishop of Verona (about 9th cent.). Behind the high-altar 
is an admirable 'Picture (covered) by Mantegna (1460) , hung too high : 
Madonna enthroned, with angels and saints; on the left SS. Peter, Paul, 
John, and Augustine; on the right SS. John the Baptist, Gregory, Law- 
rence, and Benedict, in solemn attitude and full of individuality, remark- 
ably rich accessories. (The predella pictures are copies.) — The spacious 
Crypt contains the tomb of St. Zeno and ancient sculptures and frescoes. 

From the piazza in front of the church , to the left , is the entrance 
to the adjoining 'Cloisters, with elegant double columns, where a small 
museum of Christian antiquities is to be arranged. 

To the W. of S. Zeno is the Porta S. Zeno, erected in 1540 from 
Sammicheli's designs. 

We next visit the S. E. Quarters of the town. 

In the Piazza dell' Indipendenza, adorned with grounds, to 
the N. of the Post Office (PL F, 3), rises an equestrian Statue of 
Garibaldi, in bronze, by Bordoni, erected in 1887. 

In the Via Cappello, through which the tramway runs S. from 
the Piazza Erbe (PL E, 3), the gateway of an old house (Nos. 19-25) 
on the left bears a marble tablet which is said to indicate the house 
of Juliet's parents (Capuletti ; p. 211). The street then takes the 
name of Via S. Sebastiano (PL E, 3, 4), in which, adjoining 8. 
Sebastiano (PL E, 4), is the Biblioteca Comunale (open in winter 

Museo Civico. VERONA. 34. Route. 209 

9-3 and 6-9, in summer 9-4), founded in 1860, and containing 
numerous records. In the Via Ponte Navi, now Via Leoni, the 
prolongation of the same street, on the left, No. 1, is the Arco de' 
Leoni, part of a Roman double gateway, coeval with the Porta de' 
Borsari (p. 206), but of superior execution, bearing an inscription 
partially preserved. Behind it are remains of a still older arch. 

Near this is the Gothic church of S. Fermo Maggiore (PI. E, F, 
4), of the beginning of the 14th cent. ; interesting facade, enriched 
with brick and marble. On the left side of the facade is the sar- 
cophagus of Fracastoro, physician of Can Grande, with ancient Ver- 
onese frescoes. 

The Interior, usually entered by a side-door with a porch resembling 
a canopy, has no aisles. Part of it is modernised. Fine old roof in larch- 
wood. Above the main entrance is a fresco of the early Veronese school, 
the Crucifixion, in polychrome frame. To the left of the entrance is the 
monument of Brenzoni , with sculptures by the Florentine Rossi (1420) ; 
above are "Frescoes by Pisanello, Annunciation with two angels at the side. 
— On the right of the main entrance, a hermit, and damaged frescoes by 
Falconelto. — 1st altar on left, three saints by Torbido. — Chapel adjoining 
the side-entrance: "Altar-piece by Caroto (1525), Madonna, St. Anna, and 
the Child in clouds, with four saints below. — By the wall to the left of 
the high-altar is the monument of the physician Gir. della Torre, by Riccio 
(the bronze reliefs are now in the Louvre). — Chapel on left of high- 
altar, St. Anthony with four saints, by Liberate. — 3rd altar on right in 
the nave, Trinity, Madonna and Christ, Tobias and the angel and saints, 
by Torbido. 

The neighbouring Ponte delle Navi (PI. E, 4) affords a good 
survey of the choir and transept of S. Fermo. It was erected to replace 
a bridge destroyed by an inundation of the Adige in 1757. The 
water reached a still higher level on 17th Sept., 1882, as indicated 
by a mark on the first house in the Stradone S. Tommaso on the 
island. — The spacious church of S. Tommaso (PI. F, G, 3, 4), with- 
out aisles, and with open roof, contains an *Altar-piece by Girol. 
dai Libri, formerly attributed to Caroto: SS. Sebastian, Rochus, and 
Job (last altar on right). 

Beyond the Ponte delle Navi, on the right, at the beginning of 
the promenade, is the noble *Palazzo Pompei alia Vittoria (PI. F, 
5), erected by Sammicheli about 1530, presented by the family to 
the town in 1857, and now containing the Museo Civico (adm. in 
summer 9-4, in winter 9-3 ; 1 fr.). 

The Ground Floor contains natural history collections (fossils from 
Monte Bolca) and antiquities : Roman and Etruscan bronzes, marble sculp- 
tures and vases, coins, Roman silver-plate, and prehistoric antiquities from 
the lake-dwellings of the Lago di Garda. 

The Pinacoteca or picture-gallery, on the first floor, contains works 
chiefly of the Veronese school. In the first and second rooms is the Galleria 
Bernasconi, presented to the town by Dr. Bernasconi. 

I. Room : (right) 70. Tiepolo, Monastic saints ; 68. Bonifacio, Noah and 
his sons; 52. Ascribed to Titian,, Madonna and Child with St. John; 49. 
Moro (ascribed to Moretto), Tobias and the angel. On the opposite wall: 
34. School of Perugino, Madonna, Christ and St. John with two angels; 
"31. School of Paolo Veronese, Baptism of Christ. 

II. Room (right). Opposite the entrance. "79. Montagna (catalogued as 
by Br mono Ligozzi), Two holy bishops ; '77. Florentine School (early work 

Baedeker. Italy I. 8th Edit. 14 

210 Route 34. VERONA. Cemetery. 

of Giov. Bellini), Madonna and Christ; below it, 85. Cavazzola, Madonna, 
Christ, and John; 92. Caroto, same subject (early work); 94. Unknown 
(ascribed to Fra Bartolommeo), Portrait of a man ; "96. Adoration of the 
Magi, attributed to Raphael, a charming picture of the Umbrian School; 
95. School of Raphael (by Piazza), Madonna, SS. Elizabeth and John ; "87. 
Mantegna, Madonna and two saints; 97. Sir A. More (Ant. Mor), Portrait 
of a man ; 99. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna and Christ (1510) ; 119. Caroto, 
Madonna and Child; 114. Caroto, Holy Family; 115. Basaiti, St. Sebastian; 
153. Franc. Parmigiano, Holy Family ; 138. Girolamo dai Libri, Madonna and 
Child; 148. Bonsignori, Madonna and Child. 

III. Room: 182. Francesco Morone, Madonna and Child; 187, 188, 190, 
191. Legendary scenes, ascribed to Falconetto ; 180. Romanino, St. Jerome. 

IV. Room (on the other side of Room I.) : 263. Caroto, St. Catharine ; 
264. Girol. dai Libri, Baptism of Christ; 265. Morone, St. Catharine and 
the donor; 267. Girol. dai Libri, Madonna, SS. Sebastian and Hubert; 
272. Caroto, Adoration of the Child ; -240. Paolo Veronese, Portrait of 
Guarienti (1556), the only original of this master in the collection. 

V. Room. Above the entrance, "'293. Gir. dai Libri, Madonna and SS. 
Joseph, Jerome, and John the Baptist worshipping the Child, with richly 
detailed landscape. — On the entrance-wall are frames containing a choice 
and rich collection of miniatures from choir -books. Note those by 
Liberate and especially those by -Girol. dai Libri. Above, 304. Cavazzola, 
St. Bonaventura ; "296. Cavazzola, Christ and St. Thomas, Descent of the 
Holy Spirit and Ascension (in the background) ; 297. Caroto, Christ 
washing the disciples' feet, Madonna and David in the clouds ; Cavazzola, 
"299. Scourging of Christ, "302. Christ crowned with thorns ; 275. Fr. Mo- 
rone, Trinity with John and Mary; 276. Girol. dai Libri. Madonna and 
Child in clouds , worshipped by SS. Andrew and Peter ; "277. Cavazzola 
(large altar-piece) , Madonna with angels , saints , and donor (1522) , the 
master's last work; 278. Girol. dai Libri, Madonna with Joseph, Tobias 
and the angel (fine landscape). Above the door (no number), "Caroto, 
Three archangels and Tobias. 

VI. Room : "318, "319, "320. Cavazzola, Gethsemane, Descent from the 
Cross, and Bearing of the Cross (1517); to the left of the Cross in the 
middle picture is the artist's portrait. — 322. Falconetto, Augustus and the 
sibyl; above, 315. Liberate, Descent from the Cross. — 344. Jacopo Bellini, 
Crucifixion (fresco, retouched); 341. Pisanello (? more probably Stefano da 
Zevio), Madonna and Child in a rose-garden; "334. C. Crivelli, Madonna 
and Child; below, 335. Lucas van Leyden (copy), Crucifixion. 

VII. Room, entered from Room IV., unimportant. — VIII. Room: 
old engravings. — IX. Room : 386. Caroto, Madonna between two saints. 
In an adjoining room on the right, medallions by Pisanello. Back-wall: 
'Fresco by Cavazzola, Baptism of Christ, and medallions of the four evan- 
gelists. — X. Room , unimportant. — XI. Room : Crucifixion , attributed 
to Altichieri. — XII. Room: Frescoes (sawn out). Entrance-wall: Morone, 
Madonna and Child, with saints. Opposite, Marlino da Verona, Madonna 
enthroned and SS. Zeno, James, and Apollonia; below, Giolfino, Allegorical 
subjects, half-length figures. — The last four rooms unimportant. 

Outside the Porta Vittoria is the Cimitero (PI. F, 6), laid out 
on a grand scale , with its cypress avenue and handsome gateway 
adorned with groups in marble by Spazzi. In the interior are Doric 
colonnades, a lofty dome-church, and a number of fine monuments 
in marble. Adm. April to Sept. 9-5, Oct. to March 10-3. 

Opposite the cemetery is the iron Ponte Aleardi (toll 2 c), 
leading to the broad Via Pallone , by which we may regain the 
Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 206). The avenue on the Adige leads 
to the Railway Bridge, which affords a fine survey of the town and 
environs, and from which we may return to the Porta Nuova. 

Tomb of Juliet. VERONA. 34. Route. 211 

On the right bank of the Adige, within a garden (visitors ring at the 
red door, 2-3 soldi) in the Vicolo S. Francesco al Corso, a side-street of 
Via Cappuccini (PI. D, 6), is a suppressed Franciscan Monastery, where 
a partly -restored chapel contains a mediaeval sarcophagus called the 
Tomba di Giulietta, or 'Tomb of Juliet" (fee 25 c). The whole scene is 
prosaic and unattractive. Shakespeare's play of 'Romeo and Juliet' is 
founded on events which actually occurred at Verona. 'Escalus, Prince 
of Verona' was Bartolommeo della Scala (d. 1303). The house of Juliet's 
parents, see p. 208. 

To the E. of the Ponte delle Navi rises S. Faolo di Campo Marzo 
(PI. F, 5), which contains Madonnas with saints by Qirolamo dai 
Libri (3rd altar to the right), P. Veronese (right transept), and 
Bonsignori (to the left). Over the high-altar , Madonna between 
SS. Peter and Paul by O. Caroto. 

Farther to the N.E. is S. Nazzaro e Celso (PI. H, 4), in the 
Renaissance style, with traces of Gothic. 

In the right transept, John the Baptist, and SS. Benedict, Nazarus, 
and Celsus, by Bart. Montagna. In the Cappella di S. Biagio (transept) 
damaged frescoes by Falconetto (procession of Nereids in the dome), and 
an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, by Bonsignori (1519); at the side, 
frescoes by Bart. Montagna (history of St. Blaise). A Pieta and St. Blaise 
with St. Juliana, in the sacristy, are by the same artist. 

To the N. of this church is the *Giardino Giusti (PI. G, H, 3 ; 
ring at a gate on the right in the court; fee 50 a), containing a 
few Roman antiquities and numerous cypresses, some of them 
400-500 years old and 120 ft. in height, and commanding a beau- 
tiful view of Verona and the distant Apennines. 

Near this , opposite the upper end of the island in the Adige 
(p. 209), is *S. Maria in Organo (PI. G, 3), a very ancient church, 
altered by Sammicheli in 1481, with unfinished facade of 1592. 

Third altar on left, Madonna and Child, with SS. Martin, Augustine, 
and two angels, by Morone (1503) ; 4th altar on left, Madonna with saints, 
by Bavoldo (1533). Chapel on right of choir: Ascension, a fresco by 
Giolfino ; a carved walnut Candelabrum by Fra Giovanni da Verona, who 
belonged to the monastery of this church. *Choik-Stalls with intarsia 
(views of the town above , ornamentation below) , of 1499 , by the same 
master. The seats in front of the high-altar are embellished with land- 
scapes by Gavazzola and Brusasorci. In the 5th chapel to the right , St. 
Francisca Bomana by Guercino. In the chapel to the right , above the 
steps , frescoes by Cavazzola (St. Michael, and St. Raphael with Tobias). 
— The Sacristy contains, on the right, intarsias by Fra Giovanni, injured 
by water; the ceiling and friezes, with portraits of monks and popes, are 
by Francesco Morone ; *Madonna del Limone, by Girol. dai Libri. 

The ancient little church of S. Giovanni in Valle (PI. G, H, 2), 
a flat-roofed basilica, borne by columns with very early capitals, 
has a fresco over the entrance by Stefano da Zevio, and two early- 
Christian sarcophagi in the crypt. 

Feom Vekona to Cologna, tramway in 3>/2 hrs., passing through the 
village of S. Michele , with the round church of Madonna di Campagna, 
planned by Sammicheli, near which rises the pinnacled castle of Montario, 
formerly the property of the Scaligers. Then S. Martino (p. 217), Galdiero 
(p. 217), S. Bonifacio (p. 218), Lonigo (p. 218), and the little town of 
Cologna Veneta, with 7800 inhab., who are busily engaged in the culture 
of silk, hemp, and vines. 



35. From Verona to Mantua and Modena. 

63 M. Railway in 21/4-31/2 trs. (fares 11 fr. 55, 8 fr. 10, 5 fr. 20 c. ; express 
12 fr. 70, 8 fr. 95 c.) ; to Mantua (25 M.) in l-li/ 2 I", (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 25, 
2 fr. 10 c. ; express 5 fr. 10, 3 fr. 60 c). — This will continue to be the ex- 
press route to Florence and Rome until the new direct line between Dosso- 
buono (see below) and Bologna is completed. 

Verona, see p. 201. The line traverses a rich plain, dotted with 
trees. Near Mantua are fields of rice. — 6'/ 2 M. Dossobuono. 

Dossobuono is the junction of a new direct line to Bologna, still un- 
finished, and of the Vekona and Rovigo Railway (62 ] /a M., in 3'/2hrs.). 
Stations unimportant. — 33'/2 M. Legnago, a town of 14,100 inhab., fort- 
ified by the Austrians after 1815 to defend the passage of the Adige, is 
also a station on the Mantua and Monselice line (p. 216). — 621/2 M. Rovigo, 
see p. 306. 

11 M. Villa franca , with a mediaeval castle, where the pre- 
liminaries of a peace between France and Austria were concluded 
on 11th July, 1859, after the battle of Solferino. About 5 M. to 
the N.W. lies Custozza , where the Italians were defeated by the 
Austrians in 1848 and 1866. A monument to the fallen was erected 
here in 1879, after a design by Franco. 

14i/ 2 M - Mozzecane; 18 M. Roverbella; 23 M. S. Antonio. 

The train now passes the Citadel of Mantua, where Andreas 
Hofer, the Tyrolese patriot, was shot by the French on 20th Feb., 
1810. The citadel and the town are connected by the Argine Mu- 
lino (a bridge constructed in 1257), which divides the lakes formed 
here by the Mincio into the Lago Superiore (W.) and the Lago di 
Mezzo (E.). 

25 M. Mantua. Station to the W. of the town (PI. A, 3, 4). 

Mantua. — Hotels. Ckoce Verde or Fenice, R. 2-3, A. 1, L. 3 /t, 
omn. l'/2 fr. ; Aquila d'OKO ; Agnello d'Oko, all in the Via Sogliari (PI. 
C, 4) and unpretending. — Travellers should avoid spending a night at 
Mantua in summer, as the mosquitoes are troublesome. — A stay of 4-6 hrs. 
is enough to give an idea of this interesting town. The traveller should 
engage a cab at the station for 1 hr., drive to the (12 min.) Palazzo del 
Te, which may be seen in ■/;> hr., and then to S. Andrea or the Cathedral. 

Cafes: Vecchio, del Veneziano, both near the church of S. Andrea. 

Cab per drive 75c, first hr. 1 fr. 50c, each following V2 hr. 50c. 

Mantua , Ital. Mantova , a very ancient town founded by the 
Etruscans, with 28,000 inhab. (3000 Jews), is a provincial capital 
and a strongly fortified place, bounded on the N.W. by the Lago 
Superiore, on the N.E. by the Lago di Mezzo, on the E. by the Lago 
Inferiore, and on the S. and S.W. by marshy land, which in case 
of a siege can be laid under water. 

Mantua is mentioned in ancient times as the home of Virgil, who was 
born at the ancient Andes (supposed to have occupied the site of the present 
village of Pietole, 3 M. to the S.E., where a monument was erected to 
him in 1848), but it was not a place of importance till the middle ages. 
In the conflicts of the Hohenstaufen period the town embraced the cause 
of the Guelphs. In 1328 the citizens elected Luigi, Lord of Gonzaga, as 
'Capitano del Popolo 1 , and to his dynasty the town owed its prosperity. 
The Gonzagas fought successfully against Milan and Venice, and extended 
their territory, while they were liberal patrons of art and science. Gio- 
vanni Francesco II. (1407-44), the first marquis, invited the learned Vit- 

MANTUA. 35. Route. 213 

torino da Fellre to Mantua, and through him made his court a renowned 
centre of culture and education. The beautiful and accomplished Isabella 
d'Fsle (1474-1539), sister of Alphonso , Duke of Ferrara , and mother of 
Eleonora of Urbino, was the wife of Giovanni Francesco III. (1481-1519). 
She carried on a lively correspondence with the most eminent men of her 
time, and with judicious taste collected valuable books, pictures, and 
antiquities. In 1530 Federigo II. (d. 1540) was raised to the rank of duke 
by Charles V., and in 1536 he was invested with the marquisate ofMonte- 
ferrato ; a monument of his reign is the Palazzo del Te (p. 216). In 1627, 
when Charles de Nevers, a member of a French collateral line, ascended 
the throne, the Mantuan war of succession broke out, and Emperor Fer- 
dinand II. declared the fief forfeited. On 18th July, 1£30, Mantua was 
stormed and sacked by the Austrians. Although the emperor, hard pressed 
by the Swedes , was obliged to conclude peace in 1631 , the town never 
recovered from this blow. Carlo IV., the last duke, taking the French 
side in the Spanish war of succession , was declared an outlaw in 1703 ; 
Monteferrato was awarded to Piedmont, and Mantua to Austria, of whose 
supremacy in Italy it became the chief support. After a long and obstinate 
defence by General Wurmser, the fortress capitulated to the French on 2nd 
February, 1797. By the Peace of Villafranca the Austrians retained Mantua, 
although deprived of the rest of Lombardy, but they were compelled to 
cede it to Italy in 1866. 

Mantua witnnsaed the labours of two great Renaissance Painters. 
Andrea Mantegna, born at Padua in 1431, entered the service of Lodo- 
vico Gonzaga in 1460. The chief work of his earlier period is preserved 
in the church of the Eremitani at Padua. In vigour of conception and 
in the fidelity of his characters he rivals his best contemporaries, while 
he surpasses them in accuracy of perspective and in his refined taste for 
beauty of landscape. He died at Mantua in 1506. When Raphael's pupils 
were dispersed after his death, Giulio Romano (1492-1546), the greatest of 
them, settled at Mantua, where he attained so high a reputation as an ar- 
chitect and painter, that Mantua has been called the 'town of Giulio Ro- 
mano'. After the example of Raphael's work in the Farnesina, he com- 
posed mythological decorative paintings , which , though far inferior to 
their prototype, attract by the richness of the motives and sensuous mag- 
nificence of composition, and are important owing to the influence they 
exercised on later art. Primaticcio, and Niccolb dell' Abbate, pupils of 
Giulio Romano who were educated here, were afterwards summoned to 
Fontainebleau, and thus formed a link between the French and the Italian 
Renaissance. Giulio Romano's works must also have influenced the style 
of Rubens, who spent several years at Mantua. 

The traffic of the town is chiefly confined to the arcades of the 
Via Sogliari (PI. C, 4), continued westwards by the Corso di Porta 
Pradella, now Vitt. Emanuele, and to the Piazza dblle Erbe (PI. 
D, 4), to the E. of the former street. In this piazza, where a Statue 
of Dante was erected in 1871, are situated the principal churches. 

*S, Andrea (PI. a; C, D, 3, 4), a church of imposing pro- 
portions, was begun in 1472 from designs by the Florentine Leo 
Batt. Alberti, but afterwards much altered, while the dome was not 
added till 1782. The white marble facade, with its spacious portico, 
is classic in style ; adjoining it is a square tower of red brick, with 
an elegant octagonal superstructure and a Gothic spire. 

The Interior, 110 yds. in length, is covered with massive barrel 
vaulting, the panels partly painted. To the left of the entrance: Lor. 
Costa, Madonna and saints (1525). The 1st chapel on the left contains the 
tomb of the painter Andrea Mantegna (d. 1506), with his 'Bust in bronze 
by Sperandio; also two paintings by Mantegna, (right) "Holy Family with 
Elizabeth, Zacharias, and the infant John, (left) "Baptism of Christ, the 
only pictures in Mantua by this master, unfortunately damaged. The fres- 

214 Route 35. MANTUA. From Verona 

coes and the Pieta are by his pupils. — 2nd Chap, on left: 'Altar-piece, 
Madonna and saints, by Lorenzo Costa (1525). — 1st Chap, on right : Arri- 
vabene, St. Anthony admonishing the tyrant Ezzelino (painted in 1846). At 
the sides, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, from Dante, by B. Pagni (1570). 
— 3. Cappella S. Longino, on the left: Sarcophagus with the inscription: 
'Longini ejus, qui latus Christi percussit, ossa\ On the right is the sarco- 
phagus of Gregorius of Nazianzus. The frescoes, designed by Giulio Romano, 
represent the Crucifixion ; below is Longinus ; on the opposite side the 
finding of the sacred blood, of which the saint is said to have brought 
some drops hither. — The Right Transept contains the monument of Bishop 
Andreasi (d. 1549), executed in 1551 by Clementi, a pupil of Michael Angelo. 
The swan is the heraldic emblem of Mantua. — Left Transept. Chapel 
on the left: (right) Monument of Pietro Strozzi (1529), with caryatides, 
designed by Giulio Romano (best seen from the middle of the nave). The 
other monument, with recumbent figure of Count Andreasi, was also de- 
signed by G. Romano. — Choir : Martyrdom of St. Andrew, a fresco by 
Anselmi, an imitator of Correggio, in the apse. In the corner to the left 
by the high-altar is the kneeling figure of Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga, founder 
of the church. The Crypt, beneath the high-altar, where the drops of the 
sacred blood were preserved, contains a marble crucifix and an interest- 
ing statue of the Madonna and Child carved in wood. 

A little farther on is the Piazza Sordello (PI. D, 3), in the 
centre of which rises a monument to the political martyrs of the 
year 1851. Here are situated the Cathedral, the Palazzo Vescovile 
(PL 12), and, on the right, the former palace of the Gonzagas. 

The Cathedral of S. Pietro (PI. e), with double aisles, domed 
transept, and two rows of domed chapels, has a baroque facade 
(1756) and an unfinished Romanesque tower. The interior, skil- 
fully remodelled from designs by Oiulio Romano, has a fine fret- 
ted ceiling. On the left of the entrance is an ancient Christian 
sarcophagus, and on the left of the passage leading to the Cappella 
dell' Incoronata is a bust of Ant. Capriano, 1587. In the Chapel of 
the Sacrament is an *Altar-piece on the right by Paolo Farinato of 
Verona, St. Martin of Tours ; also St. Margaret in prison, with an 
angel, by Felice Brusasorei. 

The N.E. angle of the piazza is occupied by the old ducal palace 
of the Gonzagas, now the *Corte Beale (PI. 5), and partly used as 
barracks. Begun in 1302 by Ouido Buonacolsi, it was afterwards 
altered and embellished with frescoes by Oiulio Romano by order 

of Federigo II. 

The custodian is to be found under the second large arched gateway 
to the left (fee 1 fr.). On the Upper Floor is a large saloon containing 
portraits of the Gonzagas by Bibbiena. Then the Stanze dell' Impera- 
trice, once hung with Raphael's tapestry (now at Vienna). The Dining- 
Room is adorned with allegorical figures of the rivers and lakes around 
Mantua; the windows look into a garden on the same level. The Sala 
dello Zodiaco has allegorical and mythological representations of the signs 
of the zodiac by Giulio Romano. Napoleon I. once slept in the next room. 
Then three Stanze dell' Imperatore, containing copies of the tapestry 
formerly here, painted by Canepi. The Picture Gallery contains nothing 
worthy of note ; to the left, by the door, a good bust of a Gonzaga by Ber- 
nini. The Ball Room (Sala degli Specchi) is embellished with frescoes 
by the pupils of Giulio Romano. — In another part of the palace is the 
charming Camerino (' Paradiso' ) of Isabella d^Este (p. 213); in an adjoining 
room her motto, 'nee spe nee melu\ We observe here particularly the in- 
tarsia, the beautiful reliefs on the marble-door, and the delicate ceiling- 

to Modena. MANTUA. 35. Route. 215 

decoration. We next pass through richly decorated rooms, some in sad 
disrepair: the Sala dei Giukamento del Peimo Capitano ; two rooms 
with wooden ceilings ; a small apartment with stucco-work by Primaticcio; 
the Sala di Teoja, with frescoes by Giulio Romano (much restored) ; the 
Sala dei Makmi, so called from the busts it once contained ; lastly a 
Loggia , with a view of the lake. The dwarfs' apartments are also 
worthy of a visit. 

On the N.E. side of the palace is the R. Teatro di Corte (PI. 13). 
The vaulted passage between the two leads to the Piazza della Fiera, 
in which rises the Castello di Corte (PI. E, 3), the old castle of 
the Gonzagas. 

Part of the castle is now used as Archives (open during office-hours 
only). Most of the frescoes by Andrea Mantegna (1474) which once adorned 
the rooms are obliterated, but those on two walls of the Camera degli 
Sposi (first floor) have been restored : the "Family of the Gonzagas with 
their court: on the left, Lodovico Gonzaga with his wife Barbara of 
Hohenzollern ; on the right, Lodovico meeting his son Cardinal Francesco 
near Rome. On the ceiling is an illusive painting of an apparent opening, 
at which Cupids and girls are listening. 

To the S. of the Corte Reale, and belonging to the same im- 
posing pile of buildings, is the church of S. Barbara (PI. c). Over 
the high- altar the Beheading of S. Barbara, by Dom. Brusasorci. 
By the same master are the angel musicians on the wall to the left 
and angels with torches on the right. The organ-wings and two 
pictures over side-altars were painted by Lor. Costa the Younger. 

In the vicinity to the N.W. is a vast space, planted with trees 
and bounded by the Lago di Mezzo on the N. (drill-ground), called 
the Piazza Virgiliana (PI. C, D, 2, 3), with a handsome arena, 
the Teatro Virgiliano (PI. 16), beyond which, from the parapet to- 
wards the Lago di Mezzo, a view of the Alps is obtained. 

The Accademia Virgiliana di Scienze e Belle Arti (PI. 1 ; D, 4) 
contains frescoes, sculptures, and casts of little value. Behind it is 
the Liceo (PI. 6 ; D, 4), with a Library (a room in the upper story 
of which contains, above the doors, portraits of the Gonzaga family, 
and a Trinity, by Rubens, cut into parts) and the Museum. 

The museum contains some very valuable antiques from Rome. By 
the entrance, '336. Bust of Euripides ; 2. Bust of a hero, erroneously call- 
ed Virgil; 3. Julia Domna; 5. Torso of Minerva; 12. Marcus Aurelius; 
13. Leda; 16. Sarcophagus with Medea in relief; 25. Faustina (given by 
Mantegna to Isabella d'Este); "26. Torso of Eros (Greek); 27. Antoninus 
Pius; 31. Greek tomb-relief, funeral supper and sacrifice; "36. Female 
torso; 38. Domitian; 37. Hadrian; "43. Satyr and Nymph (Greek); 46. 
Matidia; 58. Fragment of a Greek altar; 56. Sarcophagus relief, destruc- 
tion of Troy; 60, 62. Tiberius; 64. Livia(?); "69. Sarcophagus reliefs: 
marriage, sacrifices, and barbarians before an emperor. In the middle: 
"198. Torso of Venus , on an altar with Bacchic figures ; 176. Sleeping 
Cupid (modern). — In the adjoining room , on the right , the so-called 
'seat of Virgil' and inscriptions. We now return to the hall. Window- 
wall, 148. Greek tomb-relief. Side-wall, 161. Attic tomb-relief; "158, 164. 
Bacchic reliefs; 174. Relief with attributes of Jupiter; 172. Lid of sarco- 
phagus ; 171. Sarcophagus relief, Endymion ; 180. Torso of a warrior (Greek) ; 
"182. Alcibiades; 187. Sarcophagus relief, vintage; 186. Fight between 
Romans and Gauls ; 188, 190. Roman portrait-busts ; 192. Marcus Aurelius 
as a boy wearing the cap of the Salii ; "201. Torso of Venus ; 219. Flute- 
playing Satyr ; 269, 276. Greek tomb-reliefs. — In the centre, "210. Archaic 
Apollo ; below, reliefs of Cupids ; 225. Attic sepulchral urn ; "237. Youthful 

216 Route 35. MANTUA. 

Hermes (portrait statue). — By the wall: 281. Head of Aphrodite; 287. 
Homer ; 309. Greek tomb-relief; 318. Sarcophagus relief, Venus and Adonis ; 
328. Muse as Caryatide ; 333. Lucius Verus. — The lower rooms of the 
Accademia contain sculptures, including interesting busts in terracotta, 
and a relief with two portraits from a chimney-piece. 

The neighbouring Museo Patrio contains prehistoric and mediae- 
val objects, with a few antiques. 

A short distance hence, beyond the Porta Pusterla, the S.W. 
gate, is the *Palazzo del Te (PI. B, 7 ; contracted from Tajetto), 
erected by Giulio Romano , and containing his great frescoes in 
comparatively small rooms. Antechamber, to the right of the en- 
trance, Sun and Moon. 1st Room to the left, the favourite Horses 
of Duke Frederick Qonzaga. 2nd Room : *Myth of Psyche and 
Bacchanalians (the latter restored, the upper paintings are in better 
preservation). Opposite the entrance, Polyphemus. 3rd Room : in 
the loweT ovals, Fishing, Market-place, Gladiatorial combats, etc. 
On the ceiling, mythological and symbolical subjects, and represent- 
ation of the zodiac. 4th Room : Fall of Phaethon and many smaller 
pictures ; also imitations of ancient busts ; then a fine open loggia, 
and several rooms with beautiful friezes in stucco (Triumphal pro- 
cession of Emp. Sigismund, and Children) by Primaticcio ; next 
the *Sala de' Qiganti, extolled by Vasari, with walls fantastically 
adapted to the painting, which was executed chiefly by Rinaldo 
Mantovano, but has been much restored (representing the Fall of 
the Giants, figures 14 ft. in height). Lastly several cabinets, with 
charming Raphaelite decoration , and an oblong bath-room with 
shell-ornamentation. On the other side of the garden is the Casino 
delta Orotta, with its exquisite little rooms and its grotto en- 
circling a small garden. 

Giulio Romano's House, and the Pal. della Giustizia built by 
him, with its colossal Hermae, are No. 14, Via Roma (PI. B, 5). 

From Mantua to Cremona, see pp. 182, 181. Tramways to Brescia (p. 186), 
Osliglia, Asola, and Viadana. 

From Mantoa to Monselice, 52>/2 M., railway in 2'/2-3'/4 hrs. (fares 
9 fr. 50, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 30 c). Stations Gazzo di Bigarella, Castel d'Ario, 
Bonferraro, Noguru, Sanguinelto. At (24 M.) Cerea we join the Verona 
and Rovigo line (p. 212) , which we follow to Legnago (p. 212). Then 
Boschi S. Anna, Bevilacqua. 

37>/2 M. Montagnana (Albergo delV Arena; Alb. Trenlino), a town of 
10,000 inhab., the well-preserved mediseval fortifications of which with 
its pinnacled walls and towers amply repay a visit. In the picturesque 
Piazza stands the Gothic Cathedral, with Renaissance door and choir, an 
altar-piece by P. Veronese , etc. The neighbouring Pal. del Mvniclpio is 
ascribed to Sammicheli and contains a painting by Buonconsiglio in the 
large hall. Near the Porta S. Zeno is the Pal. Pisani, containing a 
chapel with the tomb of the Venetian admiral Pisani. 

41 M. Salelta; 45 M. Ospedalello Evgmieo. 

47'/ 2 M. Este (Leone Bianco), the ancient Aleste, at the S. foot of the 
Euganean hills, contains the extensive, but now ruinous ancestral residence 
of the House of Este (p. 308), a spacious piazza surrounded with arcades; 
the Porta Vecchia with a clock-tower; the Museo Civico in the church of S. 
Francesco (containing several interesting Roman inscriptions); the Museo 
Evganeo Preistorico (with a valuable collection of antiquities) ; the Cathedral, 
of elliptical plan with a lofty choir (with a painting by Tiepolo); and the 



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church of S. Marlino, with a leaning tower. The Casa Benvenuti (visitors 

ring) commands a view of the Alps, and in clear weather of the Apennines. 

5272 M. Monselice, station on the Padua and Bologna line (p. 306). 

The train reaches the Po at (32M.) Borgoforte, the fortifications 
of which were blown up by the Austrians in 1866, and crosses the 
river by an iron bridge. 

34 M. Motteggiana. — 37 M. Suzzara. 

From Sdzzara to Parma, 27'/2M., railway in l'/2-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr., 
3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 50 c). The chief station is (7i/ 2 M.) Guastalla (Posta), a small 
town near the Po, with 3000 inhah., which in the 16th cent, gave its name 
to a principality of the Gonzagas, Dukes of Mantua, who became extinct 
in 1746. In the market-place is the bronze Statue of Ferdinand I. Gon- 
zaga (d. 1557 at Brussels), by Leone Leoni. From Guastalla to Reggio, see 
p. 296. — 27'/a M. Parma, see p. 296. 

42 M. Qonzaga-Reggiolo ; 46i/ 2 M. Rolo-Novi. — 54 M. Carpi 
{Leone (V Oro, in the market-place), a town of 5900 inhab., with 
an old Palace, which from the 14th cent, was the residence of the 
Pio family. Alberto Pio (1475-1531) , a pupil of Aldus Manutius 
and a patron of Ariosto , built the handsome Palace Court (in the 
chapel frescoes by Bernardino Loschi), and began the New Ca- 
thedral in the Piazza after plans by Baldassare Peruzzi. In the 
interior, to the left, a Christ by Begarelli, two statues by Prospero 
Clementi, and a pulpit of the 11th century. The Loggia on the 
other side of the Piazza, the Colonnades, and the fortifications also 
testify to the taste and energy of this prince, who was expelled by 
Charles V. in 1525. A street leads from the Loggia to the Fran- 
ciscan church of S. Nicola, founded in 1493. Behind the palace is 
the early-Romanesque Old Cathedral (Chiesa sagra), of which the 
choir and tower alone remain. The ancient portal has been inserted 
in the facade designed by Peruzzi. 

58 M. Soliera. — 63 M. Modena (p. 302). 

36. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza. 

72 M. Railway in 2 3 / 4 4 hrs. (fares 13 fr., 9 fr. 10, 6 fr. 50 c. ; express 
14 fr. 30, 10 fr. 5 c). Finest views generally to the left. 

Verona (Porta Vescovo) , see p. 201. The line, which runs 
parallel with the Cologna-Veneta tramway (p. 211) as far as Lonigo 
(p. 218), leaving S. Michele (p. 211) on the left, traverses an ex- 
tremely fertile district, planted with vines, mulberries, and maize, 
and intersected with irrigation-trenches. — 4 M. 5. Martino, with 
the handsome Villa Musella, amidst cypresses; 6 l /-2 M. Vago-Zevio. 

The mineral springs of (7 l /-2 M.) Caldiero, which attract visitors, 
were known to the Romans. A branch of the tramway mentioned 
above runs hence to Tregnago, whence we may visit the Tredici 
Comuni, once a German 'enclave' on Italian soil. The chief village 
is Oiazza. Numerous fossils; a rocky defile (Ponte di Veja); basaltic 
cliffs at Vestena. 

We next pass Soave, once belonging to the Scaligers, on the slope 

218 Route 36. VICENZA From Verona 

to the left , presenting a good picture of a mediaeval fortified 

1272 M. S. Bonifacio. On a hill to the N. is Monteforte. Arcole, 
3'/2 M. to the S., was the scene of the battles of 15th-17th Nov., 
1796, between the Austrians under Alvinczy and the French under 
Bonaparte, Masse"na, Augereau, and Lannes. — 16 M. Lonigo ; the 
village lies 4y 2 M. to the S.E., at the W. base of the volcanic and 
wooded Monti Berici. — 20 M. Montebello. Beautiful view towards 
the mountains. The handsome chateau belongs to Count Arrighi. 
To the left, on the hill, the ruined castle of Montecchio (p. 221); 
then (25 M.) Tavernelle (steam-tram to Valdagno and to Arzignano, 
see p. 221): 

30 M. Vicenza. — Hotels. *Roma, Corso Principe TJmberto, near the 
Porta Castello, E. 2, A. V2, L- 3 A> omn - l fa fr - ; Tke Garofani, well spoken 
of; Gran Pakigi, good cuisine; both in the Contrada delle Due Ruote, a 
side-street of the Corso ; Quatteo Pellegrini, Corso Principe Umberto. 

Gaffe Roma and Gaffe Nazionale , in the Corso ; Garibaldi, Piazza de' 
Signori. Bruggefi Birreria, with garden, Contrada Piancoli, by the Ponte 
S. Michele. 

Gab from station to town 75 c. ; first hr. l'/2, each additional hr. l'/ 4 fr. 

Trdmway from the Campo Marzio , facing the station , through the 
Corso TJmberto to the Porta di Padova (PI. F, 3). 

Vicenza, the ancient Vicetia, capital of a province, with 27,700 
(with suburbs 40,000) inhab., lies at the N. base of the Monti 
Berici (see above) , on both sides of the Bacchiglione , at its con- 
fluence with the Betrone. Although closely built, the town 
possesses many interesting palaces , to which half-a-day may pro- 
fitably be devoted. 

Vicenza, like most of the larger towns of N. Italy, boasted in the 15th 
cent, of a School of Painting, which, though it was influenced by Man- 
tegna, and never produced masters of the highest rank, yielded results of 
considerable importance. The earliest master of note was Giovanni 
Speranza, who, however, was soon surpassed by Bartolommeo Montagna 
(who flourished here in 1484-1523). The gallery and the churches (Cathe- 
dral , S. Corona , S. Lorenzo) of Vicenza contain works by the latter, 
and he is represented at Padua and Verona also. His compositions are 
strongly realistic , and he shows a predilection for muscular figures , and 
for colouring of a rich brownish tint. His drapery is ungraceful, but, 
like that of Durer, boldly defined. His son, Benedetto Monlagna, was 
unimportant, but his contemporary Giovanni Buonconsiglio (d. 1530), a fol- 
lower of Antonello da Messina , has produced some pleasing works. In 
the 16th cent. Vicenza lost its importance as a school of painting, but 
attained a high reputation in the province of Akchitectuke, having given 
birth to Andrea JPalladio (1518-60) , the last great architect of the Re- 
naissance, the chief sphere of whose operations was his native town. By 
his study of the antique in Rome he was enabled to effect a revival of 
what may be termed the ancient language of forms, and he made it his 
endeavour to exhibit in his buildings the organic connection between the 
different members. The chief characteristic of his school consists in a 
studious adherence to impressive simplicity of form, and a very sparing 
indulgence in the lavish enrichments in which the early- Renaissance 
was too apt to revel. His finest churches are at Venice, but his most 
numerous palaces are at Vicenza, to which they impart a uniform and 
handsome appearance. 

We enter the town by the W. gate, Porta del Castello (PI. C, 4), 

to Venice. VICENZA. 36. Route. 219 

near which rises a monument to Garibaldi by Ferrari, erected 
in 1887. On the left is the Palazzo Muzan; to the right, in the 
S.W. angle of the Piazza Castello, is the Casa del Diavolo (Pal. 
Giulio - Porto) , a large unfinished palace by Palladio , with two 
stories united by a row of Corinthian columns with a rich cornice. 
We follow the long Corso Umberto. On the left the new church 
of S. Filippo Neri (PL 16). — A short cross-street opposite, on the 
right, leads to the Duomo (PI. 10; D, 4), consisting of a broad and 
low nave with wide vaulted arches, aisles converted into chapels, 
a choir much raised and covered with a dome , and a crypt below 
it. To the right in the piazza is the Vescovado, or episcopal palace, 
the court of which to the right contains fine arcades. The piazza 
is embellished with a Statue of Victor Emmanuel , by Benvenuti, 
erected in 1880. 

We may proceed hence direct by the Via Garibaldi , or we may 
continue to follow the Corso (where No. 2140 on the right, Pal. 
Trissino, now Porto, by Scamozzi, 1588, deserves notice), and go 
through the Contrada del Monte , to the right (opposite which is 
the Contrada Porto with numerous palaces), to the handsome Piazza 
de' Signori, with two columns of the Venetian period. Here rises 
the *Basilica Palladiana (PI. 40 ; D, 3, 4), with its grand colonnades 
in two stories , the lower Doric, the upper Ionic, surrounding the 
Palazzo della Bagione (town-hall), an earlier building in the pointed 
style. These colonnades, begun in 1549, are one of Palladio's 
earliest works. On the first floor is a large hall with a finely vaulted 
wooden roof (not always open). The slender red tower is 265 ft. 
in height. Adjacent is the Tribunate. — Opposite the Basilica is 
the Palazzo Prefettizio , formerly del Capitanio (PI. 47), also by 
Palladio (1571), adjoining which is the Monte di Pieth (1533 and 
1620). — By the Basilica rises a Statue of Palladio in marble, by 
Gajassi, 1859. 

We return to the Corso, in which, to the left, is the Pal. Schio, 
Gothic, with Renaissance portal. — On the left, at the E. end of 
the Corso , is the Casa di Palladio (PL 8 ; E, 3 ; with facade once 
painted). We next reach , on the j right , in the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele, the — 

*Museo Civico(Pl. 39; E,3), established in the Pal. Chierecati, 
one of Palladio's finest edifices, seriously injured in 1848, but 
restored in 1855 (open daily 11-2 free; 9-11 and 2-4, 1/2- 1 ft-)- 

Ground Floor: Roman antiquities from an ancient theatre. — The 
Upper Floor contains the Pinacoteca. Ante-chamber : 1. Tiepolo, Madonna ; 
2. Jac. da Ponte, Senators before the Madonna ; no number, Strozzi, Christ 
with Simon the Pharisee. The cabinets contain ancient terracottas and 
bronzes, mediaeval coins, etc. — Room I. : (right) 17. Cigaroli, Madonna 
and Child worshipped by saints ; 6. Van Dyck , Holy Child asleep, with a 
knight and St. Rosa. — Room II. : 12. Paolo Veronese., Madonna and two 
saints (injured). — Room III. : to the right, 22. Umbrian School, Marriage; 
of the Virgin ; 35. Marco Palmezzano (attributed to Parmigiano) , Pieta 
"18. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna and two saints (1489, tempera); beside 
it, on the left, 17. Antonello da Messina, Christ scourged; 12. Andrea 

220 Route 36. VIOENZA. From Verona 

Bussato, St. Anthony; 10. Byzantine (attributed to St. Luke by an inscrip- 
tion), Madonna and Child; 3. Old Dutch School, Crucifixion, with saints 
and monks; 28. Paolo da Venezia, Altar-piece (1333). — Room IV. con- 
tains the chief works of the Vicenza School : Montagna, "2. Madonna and 
four saints, with predella, 3. Adoration of the Child, both early works, 
in tempera ; 5, 6. Montagna, Madonnas ; 8. Montagna, Presentation in the 
Temple; 17. Afontagna, Madonna between SS. Onuphrius and John the 
Baptist; <, 22. Buonconsiglio , Pieta, very impressive; 23. Speranza, SS. 
Jerome and Thomas worshipping the Virgin ; 24. Fogolino , Adoration of 
the Magi. — V. Room. Portraits. — The following rooms contain engravings ; 
in the last but one, fine glass from Murano; in the last, drawings and 
manuscripts of Palladio. — On the other side of the ante-room are rooms 
with inferior pictures. — The Natural History Collection contains valuable 
fossils: a fish, a palm, a crocodile, etc., most of them found near Vi- 

In the vicinity is the *Teatro Olimpico (PI. 51; E, 3 ; custodian to 
the left, behind the theatre, Leva degli Angeli, No. 987 ; fee J / 2 fr-)> 
designed by Palladio, completed in 1584, after his death, and 
inaugurated by the performance of the '(Edipus Tyrannus' of 
Sophocles. Palladio adhered generally to the precepts of Vitruvius 
as to the construction of ancient theatres , but the building is far 
from being a mere imitation. The perspective of the stage is 
curiously deceptive. The orchestra in front of it is 5 ft. below the 
seats of the audience. 

Returning to the Oorso , we follow the first cross-street on the 
right to S. Corona (PI. 12; E, 3), a Gothic church in brick with 
a plain Lombardic facade. Entrance-wall : a fresco by Speranza, 
Madonna and donor ; 2nd altar on left, Five Saints by Bart. Mon- 
tagna, beside it Angels by Speranza ; 3rd altar on left, St. Antonio 
giving alms, by L. Bassano ; 4th altar, a Madonna of the 14th cent, 
with angels by Fogolino ; 5th altar, *Baptism of Christ by 0. Bellini, 
in a fine frame, a late work. 

A street opposite, a little to the right, leads to S. Stefano 
(PI. 29; D, 3); in the left transept, Palma Vecchio , *Madonna 
with SS. Lucia and George, ' t an admirable example of his middle 

Opposite, at the corner to the left, stands the Pal. Thiene 
(PI. 48; D, 3), the front designed by Palladio, the back part 
(Banca Popolare), facing the Via Porta, being an early-Renaissance 
structure. Opposite to it rises the imposing Palazzo Porto-Bar- 
baeano (PI. 34), by Palladio (1570), and a little farther on, to 
the right, is the Gothic Pal. Porto- Colleoni (PL 45), with hand- 
some portico. Retracing our steps to the Corso, we turn to the right 
into the Contrada S. Lorenzo , in which stands the Pal. Val- 
marano (PL 49; D, 3), by Palladio. At the end of this street is 
the fine Gothic church of S. Lorenzo (PL 19); containing the tomb 
of Bart. Montagna (p. 218), who painted the altar-piece on the 
3rd altar to the right: SS. Lorenzo and Vincenzo. Near the end of 
the Corso, on the left, is Pal. Loschi, which contains a Bearing of 
the Cross by Oiorgione. — On the way back to the station we ob- 

to Venice. VICENZA. 36. Route. 221 

serve on the right the Romanesque tower of the old church of SS. 
Felice e Fortunato. 

The route to the pilgrimage-church of Madonna del Monte on 
Monte Berico is either through the Porta S. Giuseppe (before 
passing through which we observe the *Ponte S. Michele , PL D, 
E, 4, crossing the Retrone , by Palladio); or to the right from the 
railway - station , past Villa Karolyi (PL D, E, 5) and across the 
railway, to the arcade leading to the church. This passage, which 
rests on 180 pillars, and is 715 yds. long, was sharply contested 
in 1848 by Italian irregular troops , who had fortified the hill with 
its villas, and the Austrians. To the left, beyond a bend in the 
arcade, a view is obtained of Palladio's Villa Rotonda. The church 
of Madonna del Monte (PL 24; D, 6, 7) is in the form of a Greek 
cross with a dome. The present left transept was the original 
church (1428) ; over the altar to the right of the high-altar: Bart. 
Montagna, Mourning over the body of Christ (1500). The old 
refectory of the monastery (shown by the sacristan) contains the 
Banquet of Gregory the Great by P. Veronese (1572), torn to pieces 
in 1848, but restored with the aid of the copy in the Pinacoteca. 
Behind the church is a monument to those who fell here in 1848 ; 
to the right of it is II Oenio delV Insurrezione , a statue dedicated 
to them by the municipio of Vicenza. Fine view (tolerable tavern). 

At the E. base of Monte Berico (visible from the road thither), 
l^M from the town, is the famous, but now dilapidated *Rotonda, 
or Villa Rotonda Palladiana (PL G, 7) of the Marchesi Capra , a 
square building with Ionic colonnades surmounted with pediments. 
In the centre is a circular domed-hall. Admission by the door of 
the farm, to the right of the main entrance (knock ; fee *■/% fr.). — 
The Villa Valmarana (PL F, 6) contains frescoes by Tiepolo (fee 
Va fr.). 

The Cimetero (PL F, 1) contains the grave of Palladio (d. 1580). 

Fkom Vicenza to Recoaro : steam-tramway from the Campo Marzio 
(p. 218) by the road to Tavemelle (p. 218), and on past Montecchio (Alb. 
Rosa d'Oro), with 5900 inhab. and the imposing Villa Cordellina (frescoes 
by Tiepolo ; to the right), commanded by two ruined castles, and S. Vitale, 
whence a branch-line goes to Arzignano (IIV2 M., in I1/4 hr.). Then past 
less important stations to (19 ] /2M., in 2'/2 hrs.) Valdagno (870 ft.; Alpi), a 
small town with 7500 inhabitants. — Hilly road thence (7 M. ; carr. in 
2'/4 hrs.) to the chalybeate Baths of Recoaro (Giorgetti, Reale Stabilimento, 
at the springs; JSuropa, Treltenero, Tre Corone, Tre Garofani, &e., in the 
village), visited annually by 7-8000 persons. Beautiful excursions. The 
Vicentine section of the Italian Alpine Club has published a 'Guida 
Alpina di Recoaro 1 and has established a station for guides here. 

A Railway (20 M., in 1 hr. ; fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 50 c.) runs 
from Vicenza to the N. by (8 M.) Dueville and (14 M.) Thiene (Alb. della 
Luna), with a chateau containing frescoes by P. Veronese, to Schio (665 ft. ; 
ffdtel Ballarin alia Croce d'Oro, R. l'/2 fr. ; Stella d'Oro), a town with 
11,000 inhab. and extensive wool-factories. The largest of these belongs to 
Sign. A. Rossi, who has founded a workmen's colony like that at Mul- 
honse, rebuilt the church of »S. Antonio Ablate, and erected the statue of 
a Weaver (by Mateverde). The cathedral of S. Pietro is of the 18th 
century. The cemetery is worthy of a visit. Schio is a good starting-point 

222 Route 37. PADUA. 

for excursions. — From Schio a tramway runs N. through the valley of 
the Astico in I1/4 hr. to (12 M.) Arsiero; another to the W. to (3 M.) Torre, 
whence a good road ascends the valley of the Leogra to the Passo del Pian 
delta Fugazza, the boundary between Italy and Tyrol, and then descends 
the valley of the Leno to Roveredo (25 M. from Torre ; p. 49). 
From Vicenza to Treoiso, see p. 229. 

Between Vicenza and Padua are (34^2 M.) Lerino and (40 M.) 
Poiana Maggiore. To the S. the distant Monti Euganei (p. 305). 

49 M. Padua, see below. 

To the left, as the train proceeds, are seen the distant Tyrdlese 
Alps. At (52 M.) Ponte di Brenta it crosses the Brenta. — 58'/2 M. 
Dolo, with a lofty, slender campanile, and the 'Villa Nazionale', 
once that of the Venetian family Pisani. A tramway runs past the 
numerous villas on the Brenta to Fusina (p. 233). — Near (61 M.) 
Marano an arm of the Brenta is crossed. 

From (66 M.) Mestre the line to Trieste by Udine diverges to the 
N. (R. 40); another to Portogruaro (to be prolonged to Gemona, 
p. 54); and a short line to (3 3 /4 M.) Malcontenta. Venice, rising from 
the sea, now comes into view. The train passes Fort Malghera on the 
left, and reaches the Bridge (222 arches of 30 ft. span ; length 
2'/ 3 M.), by which the train crosses the Lagune in 8 minutes. 

711/2 M. Venice, see p. 231. 

37. Padua. 

Hotels. Hotel Fanti Stella d'Oko (PI. a; F, 3), Piazza Garibaldi, well 
spoken of; Ceoce d'Obo (PI. b; F, 4), Piazza Cavour, also well spoken 
of. — Also several modest inns, some of them without cuisine ('hotel 
garni 1 , 'locanda') : Aquila Neka (PI. c ; F, 3), Piazza Cavour, opposite Caffe 
Pedrocchi ; Pakadiso, adjoining the Hotel Fanti; Due Ckoci Bianche, oppo- 
site S. Antonio; Albeego del Sole d'Oko, Via S. Matteo 1150, B. of Via 
S. Fermo (PI. F, 3); Spekanza, near the station. 

Cafes. 'Pedrocchi (PI. 28; E, F, 3, 4), opposite the University, an 
imposing edifice with marble halls and columns ; "Vittoria, Piazza Unita 
d'ltalia; Gaggian, Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (newspapers). — Restaurants. 
Gasparotto, in the Via S. Canziano (second side-street to the S. of Caffe 
Pedrocchi, and near the Piazza delle Erbe); Stati Uniti, Via Maggiore 702. 

Cabs. '■Broughams' with one horse: to or from the station 1 fr., lug- 
gage 40 c, 1 hr. l'/z fr., each additional hour 1 fr. ; drive in the town 
50 c, at night 25 c. more. Omnibuses from the hotels meet each train. 

Tramway from the station through the principal streets to S. Croce. 

Sights. Walk from the station (PL H, 4), which lies 7 min. outside the 
town, straight through the Porta Codalunga (PI. G, H, 3) ; then to the left 
past the church of / Carmini (p. 227; "Scuola adjacent) to the Ponte Mo- 
lino and the Strada Maggiore ; through the latter to the Piazza delV 
Unita d' Italia (p. 227), and to the left to the Piazza dei Frulti; through 
the Sala delta Ragione (p. 228) to the Piazza delle Erbe (p. 228), with the 
Cafi Pedrocchi on the left; turn to the right to the Strada di S. Lorenzo, 
and (where there is a direction 'al Santo') again to the right into the 
Selciato di S. Antonio leading to the "Santo (p. 224; Scuola, 8. Giorgio, 
Museo Civico); then back to the Cate Pedrocchi, pass it, and cross the 
Piazza Cavour and Piazza Garibaldi to the right to the "Eremitani (p. 225) 
and the "Madonna dell' 'Arena (p. 226). 

Padua, Ital. Padova, Lat. Patavium, the capital of a province, 
with 47,300 inhab. (with suburbs 72,200), lies on the Bacchiglione, 

<j firajJi- .AnitaJt. voa 

8. Antonio. PADUA. 37. Route. 223 

which flows through it in several branches. Its tortuous streets are 
generally flanked with low and narrow 'Portici' or arcades, hut the 
chief thoroughfares have recently been widened by the removal of 
the portici on one side. Some of the numerous bridges over the 
different arms of the river date from the Roman period. Padua has 
the reputation of being the cheapest town in N. Italy. 

Padua traces its origin to Antenor, the mythical King of Troy, brother 
of Priam, and under Augustus was the wealthiest town in Upper Italy. 
All the ancient monuments were afterwards destroyed during the immi- 
gration of the barbarian hordes. In the middle ages the town sided with 
the Guelphs, and in 1318 appointed Jacopo da Carrara to the Signoria. 
The princes of this family were much harrassed by the Scalas of Verona 
and the republic of Venice, and at length succumbed in 1405, when Padua 
was annexed to Venetia. The University, founded by Bishop Giordano in 
1222, and extended by Emp. Frederick II. in 1238, rendered Padua a very 
famous seat of learning throughout the middle ages. 

In the History of Art Padua is also an important place, its reputa- 
tion as the chief seat of Italian learning having attracted many artists 
The Florentine masters Giotto, Donatello, F. Lippi, and Uccelli found abun- 
dant occupation here. The school of art founded here by Squarcione in 
the first half of the 15th cent, exhibits a peculiar doctrinaire character. 
Squarcione, though not a professional artist, made a valuable collection of 
works of art during his travels, and employed young artists to make draw- 
ings from these models. The greatest Paduan master was Andrea Man- 
tegna (p. 213), and the school materially influenced that of Venice. The 
austere style peculiar to the Paduan pictures is perhaps due to the doc- 
trinaire training of the artists and to their predilection for richness of 
decoration, for which Squarcione's collection doubtless supplied abundant 

*S. Antonio (PI. 1 ; D, 4), the Basilica of St. Anthony of Padua 
(d. 1231 ; a contemporary of St. Francis of Assisf), commonly called 
'II Santo', was begun by Niccolb Pisano in 1231 ; the principal part 
was completed in 1307, and the remainder in 1475 (when the 
domes were raised). The church was restored in 1749 after a Are. 
This huge and ungainly structure with its seven domes is 126 yds. 
long, 60 yds. across the transepts, 336 yds. in circumference, and 
123 ft. high in the centre. 

In the lunette over the Portal: SS. Bernardino and Antonio holding 
the monogram of Christ, a fresco by Mantegna (1452). 

The Interior is white-washed. The nave and aisles are borne by 
twelve pillars ; the semicircular choir has eight clustered columns , an 
ambulatory, and a series of eight chapels. — On the right and left near 
the entrance are two Binitiers, with statuettes of John the Baptist and 
Christ, by Tiz. Aspelti (15th cent.). 

Eight Aisle. By the 1st pillar a -Madonna in Trono with SS. Peter, 
Paul, Bernard, and Anthony, an altar-piece by Antonio Boselli of Bergamo. 
— 1st Chapel : Altar with bronze reliefs below by Donatello, representing 
the miracles of St. Anthony; on the left the sarcophagus of General Gatta- 
melata (p. 225), and on the right, that of his son. 

Right Transept. 'Cappella S. Felice, erected in 1372, restored in 1773, 
with a fine altar of 1503 , and "Frescoes by Altichieri and Jac. Avanzi 
(1376), founders of the Verona School. Behind the altar a Crucifixion, in 
three parts. In the lunettes above and on the side-walls, scenes from the 
legend of St. James. 

Left Transept. "Cappella del Santo, with four columns in front, and 
two elegant corner-pillars with reliefs by Matteo and Tommaso Gauro; 
between the arches are the Evangelists. Walls embellished with nine 
"Beliefs of the 16th cent., Scenes from the life of St. Anthony : (beginning 

224 Route 37. PADUA. S. Antonio. 

to the left of the altar) 1. Ordination of St. Anthony, by Antonio Minelli 
(1512) ; 2. Murder of a woman, afterwards resuscitated by the saint , by 
Giovanni Dentone; 3. Resuscitation of a youth, by Girolamo Campagna; 
4. A suicide surrounded by women, by Sansovino; 5. Resuscitation of a 
child, begun by Minelli, completed by A. Sansovino (1528); 6, 7. Tullio 
Lombardo (1525), Discovery of a stone in the corpse of a miser instead of 
a heart, and Cure of a broken leg; 8. Miracle with a glass, begun by Gian 
Maria da Padova, finished by Paolo Stella (1529); *9. St. Anthony causes 
a child to bear witness in favour of its mother, by Antonio Lombardo (1505 ; 
beautiful, but somewhat cold). The bones of the saint repose beneath the 
altar, which is adorned with many votive tablets. Two magnificent silver 
candelabra, borne by angels in marble. Beautiful white and golden orna- 
mention on the vaulting by Tiziano Minio. — On the N. side of the choir 
is the Cappella del B. Luca Belludi, a pupil of St. Anthony, with frescoes 
from the history of St. Philip and St. James the Less, by Giov. and-4n(. Pado- 
vano in 1382 (or by Giusto Padovano of Florence), and freely restored in 1786. 

Left Aisle. Adjoining the Cap. del Santo is the monument of the Ve- 
netian Admiral Caterino Cornaro (d. 1674), with two figures as supporters, 
two prisoners in fetters, and his life-size statue by Giusto le Curt; ,! Mon- 
ument of Antonio Boselli (d. 1466), in architectural style. 

Choir : Twelve reliefs in bronze, from the Old Testament, ten by 
Vellano, a pupil of Donatello, end of 15th cent.; two (*David before the 
Ark, "Judith and Holofernes) by Andrea Riccio (1507). The full-length por- 
trait of St. Anthony, by the exit on the left, is said to be the best like- 
ness. The 'Reliefs on the altar and the symbols of the four Evangelists 
on the right and left are by Donatello. By the altar is a bronze -Candela- 
brum, ll'/2 ft. high, by Andrea Riccio, with a variety of Christian and 
heathen representations (1507). The "Crucifix in bronze, with the Virgin 
and the tutelary saints of Padua, is by Donatello; the marble work is 
attributed to Girol. Campagna. Above the door at the back of the ambu- 
latory is a terracotta relief of the Entombment, by Donatello. 

Nave. By the 2nd pillar on the left, -Monument of Aless. Contarini (d. 
1553), Venetian general, with six slaves as supporters. By the opposite 
pillar (2nd on right), the simple and chaste monument of Cardinal Bembo 
(d. 1547) ; by the 4th pillar on the left, monument of the Venetian ad- 
miral Hieron. Michael (d. 1557). The Sackistt contains mosaics in wood 
by the brothers Canossa (15th cent.). 

The Cloisters , entered from the S. aisle, with their wide and lofty 
pointed arches, contain many ancient tombstones. 

The Sanctuary (adm. 6fr.), added to the church in 1690, contains a 
collection of admirable "Goldsmith's Work of the 15th and 16th cent., in- 
cluding the marshal's baton of Gattamelata, a reliquary with the tongue 
of St. Anthony, a Gothic censer, and a credence plate. 

The *Scuola del Santo (PI. 25; D, 4), adjoining the church, 
the hall of the brotherhood of St. Anthony, is adorned with seventeen 
frescoes from the life of the saint, like those in the Capp. del Santo 
(p. 223). Several of them are by Titian (1511), who had settled in 
Padua probably in consequence of the depressed state of Venice 
after the war with the League of Cambrai. Written catalogue. Best 
light in the afternoon ; fee 50 c. 

By the entrance, to the right: "I. Titian, St. Anthony giving speech 
to an infant to enable it to prove its mother's innocence; II. & III. by 
pupils of Titian ; IV. by an unknown early Paduan master ; V. by a pupil 
of Titian; '"VI. by Montagna (according to Frizzoni); VII &, IX. by Girol. 
del Santo; VIII. & X. by Filippo da Verona; "XI. Titian, Jealous husband, 
who has slain his wife; in the background St. Anthony promises her resus- 
citation to the penitent ; "XII. Titian, A youth, who has struck his mother 
in anger, punishes himself by cutting off his own foot, while the mother 
calls upon St. Anthony; XIII. & XIV. disfigured; XV. painted in 1775; 
XVI. by Campagnola. 

Museo Civico. PADUA. 37. Route. 225 

The adjacent Cappella S. Giorgio contains twenty-one admir- 
able frescoes of 1377 by Jacopo Avanzi and Altichieri, discovered 
in 1837 by E. Forster. 

To the right, below, Legend of St. Lucia; above, Legend of St. Ca- 
tharine ; to the left, above and below, Legend of St. George. Altar-wall : 
Crucifixion, Coronation of the Virgin. Wall of the door : Flight into Egypt, 
Adoration of the Magi, Nativity. Afternoon-light best. 

In front of the church rises the equestrian *Statue of Erasmo 
da Narni, surnamed Qattamelata, general of the army of the Re- 
public of Venice in 1438-41, by Donatello (1443), the first great 
specimen of bronze-casting of the modern Italian period. 

To the right of the Santo is the Museo Civico (PI. 49 ; D, 4), re- 
modelled in 1881 by Boito, with a fine facade and staircase, con- 
taining the civic Library, Archives, and Pinacoteca (fee). 

In the Cloisters are columns, friezes, and other remains of a Roman 
temple, excavated near the Cafe" Pedrocchi (see p. 222); also numerous Ro- 
man tombstones, the "Monument of the Volumnii, mediaeval coats-of-arms, 
memorial stones, etc. 

Upper Floor. Sala Emo-Capodilista: numerous pictures, but few im- 
portant. Right of the entrance, 403. Girol. da Santa Croce, Madonna in clouds ; 
left of the entrance, 12. Girol. da Santa Croce, Holy Family with God in 
glory; "36. Fr. Morone, Madonna and Child; 50. Bonifacio. Adoration of the 
Child; 86. School of Pa I ma Tecchio (forged signature), Madonna and Child, 
with donors ; 91. Vincenzo da Treviso, Madonna with saints, and worshipping 
priests; 116. School of Lotto, Madonna, SS. John the Baptist and Catha- 
rine, and donor"; '139. Marco Basaiti, Madonna worshipping the Child, 
between SS. Peter and George; 146. Boccaccino, Madonna and saints; 159. 
Bonifacio, Madonna and four saints; 169. Attributed to Titian, Christ meeting 
his mother; 187. Francesco delta Croce (attributed to Bona to Veneziano), 
Betrothal of St. Catharine ; "204. Boccaccino, St. Agatha. — Adjoining Room : 
pastels, water-colours, drawings, ohjects in wood and marble, etc. — 
Passage to Large Hall: 1. Ant. Bonazza, Pieta, in Carrara marble. — 
Large Hall : 132. Flemish tapestry representing a procession of knights ; 
142. Dom. Campagnola, Decapitation of John the Baptist (fresco). — 160, 
170. Zaitl (pupil of Zuccarelli), Landscapes; 149. Campagnola, Baptism of 
a saint before the Madonna. — III. Hall: "287. Garofalo, Holy Family ; 
294. Torbido, Half-length portrait of a youth with a wreath ; 297. Tiepolo, 
St. Patrick , Bishop of Ireland ; 300. Galeazzo Campi (attributed to Boc- 
caccino), Madonna; ""209. Romanino, Madonna (large altar-piece); 220. P. 
Veronese, Martyrdom; 226. Luca Longhi, St. Justina; 231. Romanino, Ma- 
donna and Child, with two saints (1521); 239. Luca Longhi, Presentation 
in the Temple; 244. Petrus Paulus Sassoferrato, Madonna between SS. Se- 
bastian and Peter (1497). — Bottacin Collection : miniatures and draw- 
ings; articles once belonging to Emp. Maximilian of Mexico. — Cabinet 
op Coins : a complete and valuable collection of coins and medals of Pa- 
dua. — Library : books relating to Padua. — Archives : original docu- 
ments concerning the canonisation of SS. Anthony and Francis ; a 'Raccolta 
Dantesca', a Raccolta Petrarchesca', etc. 

In the Via del Santo, No. 3950 (E. of S. Antonio), in a neglected 
garden, stands the dilapidated Palazzo Oiustiniani, built by Falco- 
netto in 1524, with interesting frescoes and stucco-work. 

*Eremitani (PI. 12; F, 4), an Augustinian church of the middle 
of the 13th cent. , judiciously restored in 1880, a long building 
with painted vaulting of wood, contains frescoes by Andrea Man- 
tegna and his contemporaries of the school of Squarcione, which are 
among the most important examples of Northern Italian art. 

Baedeker. Italv I. 8th Edit. 15 

226 Route 37 PADUA. Madonna delV Arena. 

On the right and left are two old monuments of Princes of Carrara, 
the ancient lords of Padua, in a style peculiar to this town. By the en- 
trance-wall are plastic decorations with statues, and a fresco of 1512. In 
the centre of the left wall is the tomb of Count Benavidus (d. 1582), by 
the Florentine B. Amanali. — The walls of the Choir are covered with 
indifferent frescoes by Guariento (beginning of 15th cent.), Scenes from the 
history of the Augustinian Order. 

The 'Cappella S. Jacopo e Ckistoforo, adjoining the right transept, 
is embellished with celebrated frescoes, now damaged, yet still very at- 
tractive , with ornamentation showing the indebtedness of the School of 
Squarcione to its study of the antique. The Evangelists on the ceiling are 
the poorest, and probably the earliest part of the work. The four upper 
sections on the wall on the right are also by inferior artists; the St. Chris- 
topher with the Infant Christ is by Bono of Ferrara; the two highest 
scenes, representing St. James as a worker of miracles, and St. James be- 
fore the king, are by an unknown master (Zoppo ?) ; the adoration of the 
giant saint (central section on the right) is by Ansuino da Forli. The 
paintings on the wall and vaulting of the recesses of the choir, are by Nic- 
colb Pizzolo, an able Padnan, who died young. By far the most important 
are the 'Pictures with which Andrea Mantegna completed the cycle in the 
second half of the 15th century. The left wall presents to us the life of 
St. James from his call to his execution. The lower scenes exhibit greater 
ability and maturity than the upper, so that we can almost trace the 
master's progress step by step. The Execution and Burial of St. Christo- 
pher, the lowest pictures on the right wall, subsequently added by Man- 
tegna, are sadly injured. — The large terracotta altar-relief of the Ma- 
donna and saints is by Giov. da Pisa, a pupil of Donatello (p. 223). 

Chapel on right of high- altar: Coronation of Mary, School of Giotto. 

The Sackistt (entrance from the choir, to the left) contains an altar- 
piece by Guido Reni (covered), John the Baptist, and a Pieta by Canova, 
on the monument of a Prince of Orange who died at Padua in 1799. 

On the N. side of the Piazza in front of the church is the 
entrance (a pinnacled iron gate ; if closed, ring; adm. 9-4, 1 fr. ; 
holidays 9-2, 20 o. ; on high festivals, free) to the *Madonna dell' 
Arena (Annunuata, PI. 2; G, 4), situated in an oval garden which 
shows the outlines of an ancient amphitheatre. The chapel, oblong 
in form, was erected by the Paduan Scrovegno in 1303. Its walls 
and vaulting are completely covered with a series of **Frescoes by 
Giotto, most of them well preserved (restored by Botti). The period 
of their execution is determined by the fact that Dante and Giotto 
met at Padua in 1306. Morning-light best. 

These frescoes represent the History of the Virgin and Christ, from 
the apocryphal Proto-Evangelium and the New Testament, and end, accord- 
ing to ancient custom, with the Last Judgment painted on the entrance- 
wall. The lower part of this last work, much injured, was probably exe- 
cuted chiefly by Giotto's pupils , but the master-hand is revealed in the 
youthful Christ at the top , surrounded by apostles , angels , and saints. 
The paintings on the side-walls are arranged in four rows, one above 
another. The Uppermost Row (beginning to the right of the choir-arch) 
relates the history of the Virgin from the rejection of Joachim's sacrifice 
to Mary's bridal procession. The Birth of the Virgin and the Presentation 
of the Virgin in the Temple show scrupulous fidelity to nature. The Sec- 
ond Row begins with the Annunciation (choir-arch), and depicts the youth 
of Christ and his ministry up to the driving of the money-changers out 
of the Temple. The finest scenes are the Adoration of the Magi, the Flight 
into Egypt, and the Entry into Jerusalem. — The grandest flight of Giotto's 
imagination is seen in some of the paintings in the Third Row, mainly 
devoted to the Passion. The representation of Christ's sorrows as begin- 
ning with the Corruption of Judas (to the left of the choir-wall) is a fine 

Cathedral. PADUA. 37. Route. 227 

dramatic touch. In the Crucifixion Giotto has not only surpassed his 
predecessors in the nobility of his conception of the Sufferer, but has 
added a most effective and pathetic feature in the cherubs, who show 
every degree of sympathy and sorrow. The gem of the series , however, 
is the Pieta, or Christ wept over by the Virgin and his friends, its tone 
of composition being in admirable keeping with its tragic content. — The 
Lowest Kow consists of allegorical figures of the Virtues and Vices in 
grisaille , and leads up to the Last Judgment , the Vices standing on the 
side of Hell, the Virtues on that of Paradise. The Christ enthroned with 
angels, above the choir-arch, shows that Giotto was as much at home in 
the domain of placid gracefulness as in that of emotion and passion. — 
The Feescoes in the Choir (Coronation of the Virgin) are by a later 
hand , and of little importance. (Photographs from the originals sold by 
Naya of Venice, p. 234.) — Behind the altar is the monument of the 
founder of the church, by Giovanni Pisano, 1321. 

Near the Porta Codalunga , in the vicinity , is the church of 
I Carmini (PI. 6; G, 3), with dome and large choir, six chapels 
on each side, and unfinished facade. — In the adjacent open space 
rises a monument to Petrarch, erected hy the town on 18th June, 
1874, the 500th anniversary of his death. 

On the right is the Scuola del Carmine (PI. 24 ; G, 3 ; now a 
baptistery; sacristan in the cloisters), with sadly-damaged frescoes 
from the lives of Christ and SS. Joachim, Anna, and Mary. 

Left of the altar: attributed to Titian, Meeting of Joachim and Anna, 
executed before the frescoes in the Scuola del Santo (p. 224); Girolamo da 
Santa Croce, Birth of Mary, Presentation in the Temple, Purification, and 
Sposalizio; on the end-wall, Horn. Campagnola, Birth of Christ and Adora- 
tion of the Magi ; the others by inferior masters. Altar-piece , Madonna 
and Child in an attitude of benediction, by Palma Vecchio. 

The Palazzo Oiustiniani, Via Pensio, contains a private gallery, 
the best pictures of which have been recently sold. 

The Cathedral (PI. 11; E, 2), with a plain facade, was built by 
Righetto and Delia Valle about 1550, from a plan by Michael An- 
gelo altered by the architects. The Baptistery (PI. 3; E, 2), ad- 
joining it on the N., an elegant brick structure of the 12th cent., is 
adorned with frescoes of 1380 ; the sacristy contains miniatures of 
the 12-15th centuries. — In the adjacent Episcopal Palace is a 
hall with portraits of the archbishops, painted in fresco by Mon- 
tagnana, including a portrait of Petrarch. The vestibule and the 
Library of the Cathedral Chapter each contain an interesting 
painting by Semitecolo of Venice (1367). 

In the Piazza dbll' Unita d'lTALiA (formerly P. de' Signori ; 
PI. E, 3) rises the Loggia del Consiglio, by Biagio Ferrarese, a fine 
early-Renaissance work, consisting of an open arcade above a broad 
flight of steps , and containing a statue of Victor Emmanuel II. 
by Tabacchi. In front of it stands an ancient Column with the Lion 
of St. Mark. At the end of the piazza is the Pal. del Capitano, -with 
a clock-tower , once the seat of the Venetian governor , now the 
University Library ; portal by Falconetto. 

Opposite are two streets leading to the Piazza dei Frutti 
and the Piazza dellb Erbe. On the E. side of the latter is the 
Palazzo del Municipio (PI. 39 ; E, 3), of the 16th cent., and on the 


228 Route 37. PADUA. 

W. side the modem Palazzo delle Debite. Between the Piazza delle 
Erbe and the Piazza dei Frutti rises the Palazzo della Ragione 
(PI. 37; E, 3; entrance by the iron gate, Via del Municipio 1), 
briefly called IlSalone, a 'Juris Basilica' as the inscription records, 
erected in 1172-1219. It is celebrated for its great Hall with 
vaulted wooden ceiling , formed by the removal of two partitions 
after a fire in 1420, and perhaps the largest in Europe, 91 yds. in 
length, 30 yds. in breadth, and 78 ft. in height. 

At the entrance (by the Municipio) are two colossal Egyptian statues 
of Neith, brought to Padua by the Italian Egyptologist Belzoni. The Great 
Hall contains a wooden model of Donalello's horse in the monument of 
Gattamelata (copied from the ancient horses of St. Mark's at Venice, p. 240). 
Behind the horse is the tombstone of T. Livius Halys, a freedman of the 
family of the historian Livy, who is believed to have been born at Abano 
(p. 305). The walls are adorned with 300 frescoes, painted after 1420 by 
Giov. Miretto and others (much retouched) , representing the influence of 
the constellations and the seasons on mankind (custodian >/2 fr.). — In the 
loggia towards the Piazza dei Frutti, and in that facing the Piazza delle 
Erbe, both added in 1306, are Roman antiquities, chiefly inscriptions. 

The University (PI. 47; E, 4; about 1200 students) occupies a 
building called l Il Bb\ from a tavern with the sign of the ox which 
once existed in the vicinity. In the handsome colonnades in the 
court, erected in 1552 by Jac. Sansovino, are numerous inscriptions 
and armorial bearings of distinguished 'cives academic?. 

In the Via delle Torricelle (PI. D, 3), near a small bridge over 
the Bacchiglione , is a round marble tablet in the wall , marking 
the spot where Ezzelino doffed his helmet and kissed the town-gate 
on capturing Padua in 1237. — This street leads S. to the — 

*Prato della Valle (PI. C, 3, 4) , now Piazza Vittorio Ema- 
nuele II., originally a grassy dale, now a promenade adorned with 
a double series of 82 statues of illustrious men connected with Pa- 
dua. In the inner row to the left, No. 76. Steph. Bathori, 75. John 
Sobieski ; in the outer row Tasso, Ariosto, Petrarch, Galileo, Gusta- 
vus Adolphus , Livy, Morosini, etc. A few only possess artistic 
value , such as those of Poleni and Capello by Canova. This spa- 
cious Piazza presents a busy scene at the time of the fair (fiera), 
which begins on the festival of St. Anthony (13th June) and lasts 
for three days. — On the "W. side of the Prato is the Loggia Amu- 
lea (PI. 40), a modern Gothic structure, used by the judges at the 
horse-races held on the Prato annually on 12th June. Below are 
marble Statues of Dante and Giotto, by Vincenzo Vela. 

"A Dante poeta massimo di patria concordia propugnatore festeggiando 
Italia il 6 centenario dal suo natale Padova gloriosa di sua dimora p. 1865"; 
and "A Giotto per lo studio del vero rinovatore della pittura amico di 
Dante lodato nel sacro poema Padova da suoi affreschi Hlustrata p. 1865". 

Dante's House is No. 3359, Ponte S. Lorenzo. In front of it is 
a mediaeval sarcophagus , said to contain the bones of the Trojan 
Anterior, who, according to Virgil, was the founder of Padua. 

To the S.E. of the Prato is *S. Giustina (PI. 16 ; C, 4 ; 132yds. 
1 ong), a church of imposing proportions, completed in i532 by Afo- 

CASTELFRANCO. .38. Route. 229 

rone. The bare facade of brick is approached by a handsome flight 
of twelve steps. The interior consists of nave and aisles , flanked 
with rows of chapels. The aisles are roofed with barrel vaulting, 
the nave with three flat domes. The transept and choir terminate 
in semicircular recesses and are surmounted by four lofty cupolas. 

The church is paved with coloured marble. In the left transept is the 
sarcophagus of St. Luke, in the right transept that of St. Matthew. Over 
the high-altar, which contains the tomb of St. Justina, is the "Martyrdom 
of St. Jnstina, by Paolo. Veronese. Beautifully carved "Choir-stalls from 
drawings of Campagnola (1560), in 50 sections, New Testament subjects 
above, and Old Testament below. In the chapel on the right of the choir, 
a Pieta, a large group in marble by Parodi (17th cent.). The old choir, 
the only remnant of the original church (entrance by door on the right of 
high-altar) also possesses fine carved stalls with intarsia-work. 

The neighbouring Botanic Garden (PI. 32; C, 4) was founded 
by the Republic of Venice in 1545 at the suggestion of Prof. Bona- 
fede, and is the oldest in Europe. It contains a Vitex agnus castus 
planted in 1550 ; a superb palm (Chamaerops, Palma di Ooethe), 
planted about 1580, once visited and described by Goethe, and en- 
closed within a building of its own since 1876 ; also a huge hollow 
plane-tree , planted in 1680 ; a grove of exotic trees planted in 
1760, including a hickory (Carya) 117 ft. high; and a hothouse 
with a splendid Araucaria excelsa, planted in 1829. 

From Padua to Bassano, see p. 230; to Bologna, see R. 44. — Branch- 
line from Padua to Conselve and (17'/2 M.) Bagnoli. 

38. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to 

From Vicenza to Tkeviso, 37'/i M., railway in 2'A hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 
50, 4 fr., 2 fr. 40 c. 

Vicenza, see p. 218. — 8 M. S. Pietro in Oil; 10 M. Carmi- 
gnano, beyond which the Brenta is crossed; 12!/2 M. Fontaniva. 

14 M. Cittadella, with 9000 inhab., junction of the Padua and 
Bassano railway (p. 230). The town, with its walls, towers, and 
moat, was founded in 1220 for protection against the Trevisans, 
who had built Castelfranco in 1216. The Cathedral contains a Last 
Supper by Jacopo Bassano. — 18 M. 8. Martino di Lupari. 

22 M. Castelfranco (Alb. della Spada; Alb. §■ Tratt. al Va- 
pore ; Caffh del Oenio), a pleasant country-town , in the centre of 
which rise the towers and walls of its old castle , was the birth- 
place of the painter Giorgio Barbarella, surnamed II Oiorgione 
(about 1477-1511), a marble statue of whom by Benvenuti adorns 
the piazza. Behind the high-altar of the Cathedral is a *Madonna 
with SS. Francis and Liberalis by that master; in the sacristy are 
frescoes of Justice, Prudence, Time, Fame, and four Cupids, by 
P. Veronese, an early work brought from the Villa Soranza. 

From Castelfranco (or better from Cornuda, p. 284) a visit may be 
paid to the Villa Giacomelli, near Maser, which may be reached by car- 
riage in l 3 /4 hr. A small detour may be made by Fanzolo and the Villa 
Erno, with frescoes by P. Veronese and Batt. Zelotti. — The -Villa Giaco- 

230 Route 38. BASSANO. 

melli (formerly Manin), often called Villa Maser, erected by Palladia 
(1565-80), is celebrated for its frescoes by P. Veronese, executed in 1566-68 
for the Venetian patrician Marcantonio Barbaro , and ranking among the 
master's best works. They consist of mythological representations and 
scenes from social life, grandly conceived, while some of the illusive figures 
so common in the later period of art are introduced. Thus, by the en- 
trance, a girl and a page, who through a half-opened door apparently 
watch the persons entering. In the dining-room , upon its fantastically- 
painted architecture , are seated Ceres with her train and Cupids. The 
ceiling of the great hall is decorated with the Councils of the Gods and 
the Feast of the Gods on Mount Olympus. Those who wish to obtain a 
good idea of a patrician abode of the luxurious 16th cent, should not omit 
this excursion. The chapel attached to the villa contains stucco-work by 
Al. Vittoria. 

25 l / 2 M. Albaredo ,- 30 M. Istrana ; 33 M. Paese ; 37i/ 2 M. Tre- 

viso, see p. 283. 

From Padua to Bassano, 30 M. , railway in l 3 /<-2 hrs. ; fares 4 fr. 20, 
3 fr. 15, 1 fr. 95 c. 

Padua, see p. 222. The train crosses the Brenta. 3 M. Vigo- 
darzere; 7M. Campodarsego ; 9 M. 8. Giorgio delle Pertichc; 12 M. 
Camposampiero (branch-line to Montebelluna, p. 284); 16 M. Villa 
del Conte. 

201/2 M. Cittadella, see p. 229. — 25 M. Rossano ; 26 M. Rosa. 

30 M. Bassano (*S. Antonio ; Mondo) , a charmingly-situated 
town of 13,600 inhab., with old ivy-clad walls. The houses of the 
long market-place show traces of the early facade-painting so com- 
mon in the towns of the Venetian Terra Ferma (comp. p. 284). 

Near the market is the Civic Museum (10-1, in autumn 10-3; 
at other times, fee), containing a number of works by the DaPonte 
family, surnamed Bassano from their birthplace. 

Room I.: Francesco Bassano (father of Jacopo), Madonna with SS. Peter 
and Paul (1509); Jacopo Bassano (1510-92; the most eminent of this group 
of artists, who all paint in his manner), Nativity of Christ, and St. Val- 
entine baptising a dumb girl ; Leandro Bassano (d. 1623 ; son of Jacopo), 
Portrait of the Podesta Capello. — Room II : Voogd, Landscape, once the 
property of Canova. — Room III. : The original models for Canovd's Venus 
and Hebe, and casts of Canova's works. — An adjoining room contains 
a collection of memorials of that master and drawings by eminent artists. 

The Cathedral, on the N. side of the town, beyond the Piazza 
del Terraglio, contains paintings by Jacopo Bassano: right, As- 
sumption of the Virgin , with portraits of Charles V. , the Doge of 
Venice, the Pope, etc.; left of the high-altar, Adoration of the 
Child; right, Martyrdom of Stephen. — ■ The old palace of Ezzelino, 
the cruel Ghibelline leader, is now partly occupied by the arciprete 
(dean). The promenades encircling the town command beautiful 
views of the Alps and their spurs , and of the brawling Brenta, 
spanned by a picturesque timber bridge. 

The Villa Rezzonica , IV2 M. from the town, contains a bas- 
relief by Canova (Death of Socrates) and other works of art. In 
the suburb Borgo Leone is the Villa Parolini, with a beautiful park. 

Bonaparte defeated the Austrians under Wxirmser at Bassano on 8th 
Sept. 1796, four days after the battle ofltoveredo, having marched hither 
from Trent in two duvs. The cnvprprl limho. \*~:,i~*> over the Brenta 

V E N E Z I A 

Hotels. VENICE. 39. Route. 231 

occupies the place of one blown up by the French on that occasion. — 
In 1809 Napoleon erected the district of Bassano into a duchy and con- 
ferred it upon Maret, his secretary of state. 

Possagno , Canova's birthplace, beautifully situated at the base of 
Monte Grappa, 12'/2 M. to the N.E. of Bassano, is reached by a good road 
passing Romano, the birthplace of Ezzelino , and Crespano. The domed 
church, in the style of the Pantheon, designed by Canova, contains his tomb, 
an altar-piece painted by him, and a fine bronze relief of the Entombment. 
The church and the bridge at Crespano (see above), which crosses the 
river by a single arch 118 ft. in span, were built with funds bequeathed 
by Canova for the purpose. The Palazzo, as his house is called, contains 
models and casts of his works. 

From Bassano to Trent, see p. 49. 

39. Venice. 

Arrival. The Railway Station (Cafe) is on the N.W. side of the town, 
at the end of the Canal Grande (PI. B, C, 2 ; the town-office is by the Poute 
della Guerra; comp. Introd. xvii). — Gondolas (p. 232; with one rower 1, 
with two rowers 2 fr. ; each heavy box 15 c.) and 'omnibus-boats' (not 
recommended; to the Piazzetta 25, each box 15, fee 5c.) are always in 
waiting. Steam-launches, which, however, only take lighter articles of 
luggage, are also at hand. — Gondola tariff for those who arrive by sea, 
see p. 232. 

Hotels (table-d'hote usually at 5 or 6 p.m.). *Europa (PI. b ; G, 6), in 
the Pal. Giustiniani, on the Grand Canal, opposite the Dogana di Mare and 
near the Piazza of St. Mark; "Grand Hotel Royal (Danieli; PI. a, H 5), 
in the old Pal. Dandolo, E. of the Palace of the Doges, with the depen- 
dance Beaurivage , on the Riva degli Schiavoni , suitable for some stay ; 
'Grand Hotel (PI. o; F, 6), in the old Pal.Ferro, opposite S. Maria della 
Salute : all of the first rank, with high charges, 1J. 5, lunch 4 fr. ; "Hotel 
Britannia (PI. c ; G, 6), in the Pal. Zucchelli, opposite S. Maria della Salute, 
D. 5, B. l 3 / 4 , A. 1, L. 3/4, pension 10-12 fr. , well managed. — "Grand 
Hotel d'Italie (PI. h; G, 6), S. Moise, Via Ventidue Marzo, with its S. side 
facing the canal, patronized by Germans, R. from 2'/2, L. 3 /<i A. 3 /t, D. 5, 
B. l'/2, pens. 9 fr. ; "Luna (PI. f; G, 6), opposite the royal garden, close to 
the S.W. side of the Piazza of St. Mark, R. 2y 2 fr., A. 70, L. 60 c, B. l'/«, 
D. 4, pens. 9 fr. — Bellevue (PI. d • G, H, 5), Piazza of St. Mark, R. 2-3, 
L. Si A. 1, D. 4, pens. 8-9 fr., commended; S. Marco (PI. e; G, 5), in the 
ancient Procuratie, Piazza of St. Mark ; "Hotel d'Angleterre, Riva degli 
Schiavoni, R. from 2, pens, from 7 fr. ; s Citta di Monaco (PI. 1; G, 6), 
Canal Grande, not far from the Piazza of St. Mark, R., L., & A. 3'/2, B. 
l'/«, D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr. ; Victoria (PI. g; G, 5). — Good second-class 
hotels, in the Italian style , with trattorie : Albergo Orientale & Cap- 
pello Nero, near the Piazza of St. Mark, Procuratie Vecchie; Vapore 
(PI. i; G, 5), in the Merceria, commended; S. Gallo (PI. k; G, 5); Ca- 
valletto, all near the Piazza S. Marco; La Calcina, Fondamenta della 
Zattere 782, opposite the Giudecca, convenient for visitors to the Academy 
and frequented by artists. 

Pensions (even for a short stay). Hotel Milan & Pension Anglaise, 
Canal Grande, R. from 2'/2, pens. 7-9 fr. (English spoken) ; Aurora (PI. p ; 
I, 5), Riva degli Schiavoni, R. 2-3 fr., B. 70 c, lunch iy 4 , D. 3, A. >/ 2 , 
pens. 7 fr. ; "Pens. Bril-Da-Ru, S. Gregorio-Traghetto, Canal Grande, from 
6fr.; "Pens. Suisse & Roma, S. Moise, Canal Grande; Casa Kirsch, Riva 
degli Schiavoni, R. 1V2-2, with pens. 5-7 fr., well spoken of. 

Private Apartments, easily obtained, are dearest on the Grand Canal 
and the Riva degli Schiavoni. The Fondamenta delle Zattere is quiet and 
pleasant, though somewhat remote from the Piazza of St. Mark. Also in 
the Calle del Ridolto, close to S. Marco, R. 1-2 fr. per day, 30-50 fr. per 
month. The following are recommended: Signora Pacchessi, Calle S. Gallo 
1073; Frau Grundel, Palazzo Swift, Canal Grande (S. Maria del Giglio 
2467); Casa Fumagalli, Calle del Ridotto. It is usual to pay for one month 

232 Route 39. VENICE. Boats. 

in advance, before which the tenant should take care that every necessary 
arrangement is made, Hutto compreso'. 

Travellers are cautioned against sleeping with open windows on account 
of the gnats (most troublesome from middle of July to end of Oct.). Mos- 
quito-curtains (zanzarieri) and the pastilles Cfldibus contro le zanzare 1 ) 
sold by the chemists afford protection. 

Restaurants ( Trattorie). Caffe Quadri, first floor, in the Piazza S. 
Marco; ' Bauer-Griinwald , Via Ventidue Marzo, by the Gr. H6t. d'ltalie 
(see above), much frequented; "Restaurant on the Lido (see p. 233); others, 
where beer is sold , see below. In the Italian style : "Alb. Orientate <£• 
Cappello Nero (p. 231); Gitta di Firenze, good wine, Calle del Eidotto, op- 
posite the Europa; S. Moise , near the Hotel d'ltalie; "Cavalletto , at the 
back of the Hotel S. Marco; La Calcina, see above; "Vapore, see above, 
and others. — Cyprus and other wines are sold by Giacomuzzi, Calle Val- 
laressa, near the S.W. corner of the Piazza of St. Mark, and others. 

Beer. Bauer-Griinwald (see above) ; Birreria Dreher, behind the N.W. 
corner of the Piazza S. Marco, with restaurant; Birreria J'ichorr, Campo 
S. Angelo, and at many of the cafes. 

Cafes. In the Piazza of St. Mark, S. side: "Florian, the best known 
cafe in Venice, good ices, numerous newspapers; "Caffe Svizzero, news- 
papers. N. side : Degli Specchi; "Quadri, recommended for breakfast. After 
sunset hundreds of chairs and small tables are placed in front of these 
cafe's for the use of customers. — The flower-girls are often importunate. — 
The cafes on the Riva degli Schiavoni, also much frequented, are some- 
what cheaper; the Giardino Reale and the Cafe' Oriental are well spoken of. 

The Gondola and Barca take the place of cabs at Venice. Their chief 
station is by the Molo in front of the Piazzeita (p. 244; PI. H, 6). The light, 
old Venetian Gondolas, with a low black cabin (felze) and black leather 
seat, hold 4 persons. They are painted black in conformity with a law 
passed in the 15th century. The Barca is a larger craft, open at the 
sides, covered with coloured material, and carrying six or more persons. 
The heavy indented iron prow (ferro) , resembling a halberd , is partly 
intended to counterbalance the weight of the rower, and partly as a mea- 
sure of the height of the bridges, which cannot be passed unless the ferro, 
the highest part of the craft, clears them. The rower himself is hailed 
as '■Poppe', from the poppa on which he stands. 

'■Cavar il felze" means 'to uncover the cabin'. The shouts of the gon- 
doliers on turning a corner are peculiar, e.g. tela eh (boat ahead!), premi 
(pass to the right!), slai (pass to the left!), etc. 

The Tariff must be shown on demand. Gondola for 1-4, or a barca 
for 1-6 persons, with one rower (barcajuolo) , for the first hour 1 fr. , by 
night 1 fr. 30 c, for each additional hour by day 50 c. ; whole day (10 hrs.) 
5 fr. — To or from the station, see p. 231. From the steamers to the 
Piazzetta (two rowers required) 40 c, each box 15 c. For short distances 
a bargain should be made. For a second rower double the ordinary fare is 
charged. One, however, suffices for trips in the town ('basta uno"), unless 
greater speed than usual is desired. For longer distances, however, such 
as to the Lido, two rowers are advisable, and in this case a bargain may 
be made with the gondolier for a second. — The islands of Murano, S. 
Lazzaro, and Lido are included in the tariff. — For longer distances the 
charge per hour and per gondolier is 10 c. more. For public festivities a 
bargain must be made. Loiterers who assist passengers to disembark ex- 
pect a few centimes. The traveller should select a boat without minding 
the importunities of the boatmen, whereupon the owner will soon present 
himself. If the gondola is hired by the hour, which is best for sight- 
seeing, the passenger shows his watch, saying ^air ora 1 . In addition to 
the fare a small fee is always expected (for half-day '/2-1 fr.). The gon- 
doliers are generally respectable and trustworthy, but if any difficulty 
arises it is best to apply to a policeman (Guardia municipale). 

Ferries ( Traghetti) across the Grand Canal (5 c, after dusk 10c, comp. 
Plan); from the Fondamenta delle Zattere to the Uiudecca, 15 c. ; from 
the Molo (Piaazettal to the Giudecca 20. to II Keden ture cHJ, to the Punta 

Guides. VENICE. .39. Route. 233 

della Salute 15, to S. Giorgio Maggiore 15 c; from the Molo to the Giar- 
dini Pubblici (evening included) 50 c. 

Steam-launches. Since 1883 a service of small steamboats (Vaporelli, 
also called Tramway) ply from 7 a. m. till dusk on the Canal Grande, and 
E. to the Giardini Pubblici. They start every 12 min. (1st Nov. to 31st 
March every 1 jt hr.), fare 10 c. for each stage or for the whole distance 
(Sun. and festivals 15 c). Stations (comp. the Plan) : 1. Giardini Pubblici 
(PI. L, 7); — 2. Veneta Marina (PI. K, 6) for Via Garibaldi and the Ar- 
senal; — 3. S. Zaeearia (PI. H, 5), on the Riva degli Schiavoni; — 4. S. 
Marco (PI. G, 6), by the Calle Valeressa, near the S.W. corner of the Pi- 
azza of St. Mark ; — 5. Accademia (PI. B, 6), for the picture-gallery of the 
Academy; — 6. S. Toma (PI. E, 5), for the church of the Frari; — 7. S. 
Angelo (PI. F, 5); — 8. Carbon <£ Hialto (PI. G, 4), for the church of S. 
Salvatore and the Rialto Bridge; — 9. Ca d'Oro (PI. F, 3), for the Pal. 
Giovanelli and Madonna dell' Orto; — 10. Museo Civico (PI. F, 3); — 11. 
S. Qeremia (PI. E, 3); — 12. Ferrovia (PI. C, D, 3), for the railway-sta- 
tion ; — 13. S. Chiara (PI. C, 4), for the Giardino Papadopoli. — A steamer 
also starts every l'/2 hr. from station Rialto No. 8 for Mestre (p. 222), fare 
40 c. ; another plies to Fusina (p. 222) from the Riva degli Schiavoni or 
the Fondamenta delle Zattere 

Guides (unnecessary for most travellers, comp. p. 235), other than those 
attached to the hotels (who are as a rule preferable), are generally to be 
found in the Piazza of St. Mark. They wear a silver badge with a num- 
ber. The fee for a day (9-6) is 5 fr., with about 10 fr. more for gondola- 
fares and gratuities. Parties are frequently formed by the guides , who 
undertake to conduct them to all the sights at a charge of 4 fr. each per- 
son , which includes gondola-fares and fees , but , as the number is un- 
limited , the members of the party lose their independence. A party of 
2-6 persons will find it far preferable to have a guide at their own disposal 
(fee about 20 fr. per day, including everything). 

Consulates. American Consul, H. A. Johnson, Esq., Campo S. Polo 2177; 
British, E. de Zuccato, Esq., Traghetto S. Felice, Grand Canal; French, 
S. Maria del Carmine, Calle Giustinian 3229; German, S. Benedetto, Cam- 
piello della Chiesa 3949 ; also others for all the principal European states. 

Money-changer: Gael. Fiorentini, Bocca di Piazza 1239, opposite the 
Telegraph Office. 

Baths of every kind (also for swimming : galleggiante) at the entrance 
to the Grand Canal, but muddy except at high tide. The excellent "Lido 
Sea-baths are much pleasanter (season from May to Nov. ; temperature of 
the water 70-80° Fahr.). In summer a steamboat plies every hour (in the 
height of the season every half-hour, except between 12 and 2) between 
the Riva degli Schiavoni (near the Ponte della Paglia ; PI. H, 6), and the 
Lido in 12 min. (Tickets must be taken before embarking, 20 c; there and 
back, including bath, l'/s fr.). From the landing-place (Ca/i) to the baths 
a walk of 10 min. (tramway 10 c). Bath 1 fr. (ladies to the left, gentle- 
men to the right); less to subscribers; for taking care of valuables 10c. 
— Connected with the baths are chalets for lodging visitors (R. 5 fr. ; also 
pension) and a "Cafi-Restaurant (adm. 25 c), where a band plays on sum- 
mer afternoons. There is also an open-air theatre, for which tickets may 
be taken on board the steamer. — Warm Baths at most of the hotels 
(fresh water); also in the Stabilimento Idroterapico, Pal. Orseolo, S. Gallo 
1092 (PI. G, 5), and at Chilariii's (salt-water), near S. Maria della Salute, 
l'/2-2fr. — Libux d'Aisance (10 c.) near Piazza S.Marco, N. side, and 
Campo S. Bartolommeo, by the Ponte Rialto. 

Post Office (Uffizio della Posta; PI. G, 4,5), to the N. of the Piazza 
of St. Mark (beyond the Merceria hands at the street-corners point out the 
'Via alia Posta') ; open from 8 a.m. till 9 p.m. — Telegraph Office (PI- G, 
6), to the W. of the Piazza of St. Mark. 

Theatres. La Fenice (PI. F, 5, 6), the largest in Venice, holding 3000 
spectators, is rarely used. Most of the following are open throughout the year : 
Goldoni (PI. G, 5), prettily fitted up, Rossini (PI. F, 5), and Malibran (PI. G, 4 ; 
popular). In winter Marionette Theatre, Via Ventidue Marzo (6-9 p.m.). 
The box-nffice for all the. theatres is at No. 112, under the Procuratie. 

234 Route 39. VENICE. Shops. 

Bookseller. Miinster , with lending-library , Piazza of St. Mark , S.W. 
corner. — Reading Rooms in the Pal. Querini (PI. H, 4, 5; p. 267), with 
library, open 3-11 (Sun. and holidays 11-11), adm. free , on application to 
the librarian. Also Ateneo Venelo, Campo S. Fantin (PI. F, 5), with period- 
icals and library (adm. 25 c). 

Photographs: JVaya, in the Piazza of St. Mark, views of all sizes; 
from the smallest at about 50 c. to the large and expensive size (28 by 
36 inches), copies from drawings 75 c, from original pictures 2'/ 2 fr.; Ponti 
(optician) ; G. B. Brusa (architectural pieces); Salviati, etc. 

Bankers. Blumenthal <fr Co., S. Benedetto, Calle del Traghetto 3945 ; 
Fischer <ۥ Rechsteiner, Ponte delle Ballotte 4700; Levi Jacob d- Sons, S. Maria 
Formosa, Calle Casselleria 5314; Papadopoli Brothers, S. Silvestro, Calle 
Malvasia 1364 ; Treves <b Co., S. Maria del Giglio, Corte Barozzi 2156. 

Shops. (The recommendations and even the attendance of guides or 
boatmen increase the prices ; comp. Introd. v.) The best are in the Piazza 
of St. Mark, in the Mercerla (p. 263), and in the Frezzaria, entered from 
the Piazza of St. Mark, to the W. of the church. The Venetian glass, 
wood-carving, lace, jewellery, mosaics, etc., are excellent of their kind. 

The Venetian Glass Industry is described at p. 282. The chief manu- 
factories, all at Murano (p. 281), with shops and offices in Venice, are 
those of the Compagnia de' Vetri e Musaici di Venezia e Murano (manager 
G. Castellani), Campo S. Vio 731, on the Canal Grande; Dr. A. Salviati, S. 
Maria del Giglio, on the Canal Grande, with two shops in the Piazza S. 
Marco; and the Society Musiva, Palazzo Bernardo (p. 260), for mosaics 
only. — Among many smaller manufactories may be mentioned those of 
Decio Podio, Campo S. Moist 1464; Forlani, Ponte dei Dai S. Marco; 
Tommasi, Gesolmini, & Co., Pal. Barbarigo, S. Polo, on the Canal Grande; 
Dr. Nap. Candiani, Pal. Tron, Canal Grande. 

Sculptors (in wood): Besarel, S. Barnaba, Canal Grande; V. Cadorin, 
S. Sebastiano ; F. Toso, S. Barnaba; Girardi & Capon, S. Giobbe 923, Can- 
naregio (in connection with the Industrial Home for Destitute Boys; see 
below). — Xace: M. Jesurum <t Co., with interesting exhibition of ancient 
and modern lace. — Antiquities and Objects of Art : Guggenheim, in the 
old Pal. Balbi (p. 259; entrance in the Campo S. Toma), a great depot of 
old and new Venetian furniture, bronzes, pictures by old masters, and other 
works of art; Antonio Mercato, Pal. Delia Vida, opposite the Pal. Pesaro, 
on the Canal Grande; V. Favenza, Calle dei Cerchieri 1263, Canal Grande, 
near S. Barnaba; Ricchetti, Pal. Garzoni, S. Samuele 3146; and many others. 

Painters. Italian: P. Fragiacomo , Pal. Brusa, S. Pantaleone 3825 A; 
G. Giardi, S. Barnaba, Ponte dei Prigni; N. Bordignon, Fondamenta del 
Soccorso, Carmine 25S5; Milesi, F. Ognissanti 1458; L. Nono, Zattere 1486; 
A. <£• S. Rota, Ponte Lungo 929, Zattere; L. Lancerotto, Calle Gambara, 
near the Academy of Arts; and others. German: Prof. Blaas, Accademia; 
v. Ilahnen, S. Eremite 1335, S. Trovaso; L. Passini, F. Carmine 3462; 
C. Reichard, F. Carmine 3462; Ruben, Campiello delle Mosche 82, S. Pan- 
taleone; A. Wolf, Pal. Brusa, S. Pantaleone 3825 A. 

Permanent Exhibition of Art of the Societd Protettrice di Belle Arti, 
Pal. Rota, next to the Academy. 

English Church, Campo S. Vio 731; services at 8.30, 10.30 and 3.30. 
Rev. K. Jameson, Pal. Dolgorouki, Zattere. — Scottish Presbyterian Church, 
Piazza S. Marco, Sottoportico del Cavalletto. — Episcopal Methodist Church, 
Campo Manin 4233. — Baptist Church, S. Maria Mater Domini 2122. — 
Kalian Protestant Church, Campo S. Margherita. — Waldensian Church, 
S. Maria Formosa, Pal. Cavagnis. — Sailors' Institute, Fondamenta Minotto 
156, at the back of the Church of Tolentini; missionary, John Whitehead. 
— Industrial Home for Destitute Boys, S. Giobbe 923, Cannaregio; secretary, 
Mrs. Hammond (articles in carved wood, see above). 

The Climate of Venice is tempered by the sea and the Lagune. The 
mean temperature of the year is 57'/2 Fahr. ; that of January , the coldest 
month, 37°, of February 41°; March 48°; April 56°; May 65°; June, July, 
and August 72-77°; September 69°; October 59°; November 481/2° ; December 
40". The air is very humid, and often favourable ti> catarrhal affections, 

Plan of Visit. VENICE. .39. Route. 235 

but rheumatism is prevalent. Its perfect immunity from dust is one of 
the chief advantages of Venice, and nervous patients will find another 
in its noiseless highways. The water-works completed in 1883 supply good 
drinking water from the Brenta. Invalids who intend wintering in Venice 
should choose rooms with a southern aspect. — Chemists : Pisanello, Campo 
S. Polo; C. (In I Negro, Via Ventidue Marzo, Ponte delle Ostreghe; Zam- 
pironi, near S. Moise, W. of the Piazza of St. Mark; Galvani, Campo S. 
Stefano. — Physicians: Dr. Keppler, S. Polo, Palazzo Barbarigo della 
Terrazza 2765 B. (2 p. m.); Dr. Kurz, Calle Fiubera 951, near the Mer- 
ceria; Prof. Barker (English oculist, from Oct. to May only); Dr. Mas- 
saria, S. Moise, Campiello Teatro 2243 ; Dr. de Angelo, Merceria del Capi- 
tello (speaks English); etc. — An International Clinical Institute (Poliam- 
bulanza Internazionale) , like those at London and Berlin, has been insti- 
tuted in the Campo S. Maria Formosa 5249, under the management of ten 

Plan of Visit. For a short stay of 3-4 days the following plan is 

Afternoon or Evening of arrival. Preliminary Voyage from the Piazzetta 
through the Orand Canal (p. 258) to its extremity (near the railway-station 
is the church Degli Scalzi, see p. 262, which should be visited now on 
account of its remoteness); then under the iron bridge to the Canal di 
Mestre, to the left of which is the Jews' quarter (the Ghetto, inhabited 
by the lowest classes) ; back hence by the Grand Canal to the Ponte Rialto, 
where we land; lastly walk through the Merceria to the Piazza of St. 
Mark : an expedition of 2-2'/2 hrs. in all. 

1st Day. ""S. Marco (p. 240) ; '"Palace of the Doges (p. 244) ; "S. Giorgio 
Maggiore (p. 280; ascend campanile); "Redentore (p. 281); "S. Sebastiano (p.277). 

2nd Day. S. Maria della Salute (p. 279) ; ""Accademia delle Belle Arti 
(p. 251); ~S. Stefano (p. 278); "Scuola di S. Rocco (p. 276); "Frari (p. 274). 

3rd Day. S. Salvatore (p. 263); Pal. Vendramin (p. 262); Museo Correr 
(p. 272) ; Pal. Giovanelli (p. 264) ; "S. Maria deir Orto (p. 265) ; Gesuiti (p. 265). 

4th Day. "S. Zaccaria (p. 266); S. Maria Formosa (p. 267); "S. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo (p. 267); <S. Francesco della Vigna (p. 269); Royal Palace 
(p. 240); Arsenal (p. 270; open till 3 p.m.); Giardini Pubblici (view , p. 271). 

Lastly ascend the Campanile of S. Marco (p. 243). 

Those who stay longer may visit the Lido (sea-baths, p. 281), Murano 
and Torcello (pp. 281, 282 ; 5 hrs. there and back), Malamocco and Chioggia 
(p. 283). 

Admission is generally obtained to the Churches from 6 a.m. till 12 
or 1 o'clock, after which apply to the sacristan (nonzolo, 50 c). At the 
Frari , Salute , S. Giovanni e Paolo , and S. Sebastiano visitors knock at 
the door ; at the other churches one of the officious loungers may be sent 
for the sacristan (5 c). During the fortnight before Easter the altar-pieces 
are not shewn. 

""Academy (p. 251): week-days 10-3, 1 fr., on Sundays and holidays, 
10-2, gratis; closed on Christmas Day and Easter Sunday. 

'Arsenal (p. 270) : week-days, 9-3 ; foreigners admitted only by special 
permission of the Italian Government at Rome, obtained through their 

'"Palace of the Doges (p. 244): week-days, 10-3, 1 fr. 20 c, including 
the Pozzi; Sun. and holidays, 10-2, gratis. Guide quite unnecessary; in- 
formation may be obtained from the custodians. 

Museo Civico Correr (p. 272) : daily, 9-3, 1 fr. ; Sun. and holidays, 10-2 
free. The Museum is a steamboat-station (p. 262). 

The Private Palaces ("Vendramin, Giovanelli, Papadopoli, Rezzonico, 
Pesaro) are generally shown between 9 and 4, in some cases by written 
permission only (pp. 262, 264, 260). Fee to attendant 1 fr., to porter 25-50 c. 

The gondoliers name the palaces and churches as they pass. Interest- 
ing walks may also be taken with the aid of the plan. Some of the chief 
routes, e. g. from the Piazza of St. Mark to the station and the post-office, 
are indicated by notices on the street-corners. 

During the Carnival no city in Italy, Rome excepted, presents so gay 

236 Route 3.9. VENICE. History. 

and lively a scene as Venice. The Piazza S. Marco is then the centre of 
attraction. Balls take place in the Eidotto and in some of the theatres. 

History. For the early history of Venice, see p. 200. The foundation 
of the Eastern supremacy of Venice was laid by Doge Enrico Dandolo 
(1192-1205), who conquered Constantinople in 1204. In consequence of this 
Venice gained possession of numerous places on the coasts of the Adriatic 
and the Levant, from Durazzo to Trebisond, and of most of the Greek 
islands, including Candia. During the conquest and administration of 
these new territories there arose a class of nobles, who declared themselves 
hereditary in 1297 and excluded the rest of the people from all share in 
the government. The supreme authority lay with the Great Council (.Con- 
siglio Maggiore), which consisted of all members of the Nobili above twenty. 
The executive was vested in a Doge , or Duke , and six counsellors, with 
whom was associated the Council of the Pregadi. The Pregadi were after- 
wards united with the higher officials to form the Senate. The duty of 
the Avvogadori di Comune was to see that the public officials governed 
constitutionally. After the conspiracy of 1310 the sovereignty was vested 
in the Council of Ten ( Consiglio dei Died), which controlled every depart- 
ment of government, and from which the Inquisition was developed in 
the 16th century. 

With her rival Genoa the Republic came repeatedly into violent 
conflict, losing many of her conquests in the East, but the Genoese were 
at length totally defeated by Doge Andrea Dandolo in 1352. His successor 
Marino Falieri plotted for the overthrow of the aristocracy, but his scheme 
was discovered, and he was beheaded on 17th April, 1355. During the 
regime of Andrea Contarini (1367-82) Padua, Verona, Genoa, Hungary, and 
Naples formed an alliance against Venice. In 1379 the Genoese captured 
Chioggia, but were surrounded in the Lagune and compelled to surrender, 
24th June, 1380. Peace was concluded in 1381. In 1386 Antonio Venter 
(1382-1400) occupied the island of Corfu , and afterwards Durazzo, Argos, 
etc. Under Michele Steno (1400-14) the Venetian general Malatesta con- 
quered Vicenza, Belluno, Feltre, Verona, and Padua (1405); in 1408 the 
Republic gained possession of Lepanto and Patras, and in 1409 of Guastalla, 
Casalmaggiore, and Brescello. In 1421 Tommaso Mocenigo waged war suc- 
cessfully against Hungary. In 1416 the Venetian fleet under Loredan defeated 
the Turkish at Gallipoli, and in 1421 subdued all the towns of the Dal- 
matian coast , so that Venice now held the entire coast from the estuary 
of the Po to the island of Corfu. 

Mocenigo's successor was Francesco Foscari (1423-57). In 1426 Brescia 
fell into the hands of the Venetian general Carmagnola ; but in 1431 fortune 
turned against him, he was arraigned for treason, and in 1432 executed. 
In 1449 the Venetians took Crema, but were unable to prevent the elevation 
of Sforza to the dukedom of Milan (1450). A sad ending awaited the long 
and glorious career of Foscari. Suspected by the Council of Ten, and 
weakened by contentions with the Loredani and other private feuds, he 
was deposed in 1457 and died a few days afterwards. — Under Cristo/oro 
Moro (1462-71) the Turks conquered the Morea, where a few fortresses 
only were retained by Venice. In 1483 the Republic acquired Zante, and 
in 1489 Cyprus also, which was ceded by Catharine Cornaro, wife of King 
James of Cyprus. 

The 15th cent, witnessed the zenith of the glory of Venice. It was the 
focus of the commerce of Europe, numbered 200,000 inhab., and was univer- 
sally respected and admired. Its annual exports were valued at 10 million 
ducats , 4 millions being clear profit. It possessed 300 sea-going vessels 
with 8000 sailors , 3000 smaller craft with 17,000 men , and a fleet of 45 
galleys carrying 11,000 men, who maintained the naval supremacy of the 
Republic. But in the middle of the 15th cent, an event of evil omen 
occurred: Constantinople was captured by the Turks in 1453, and the 
supremacy of Venice in the East was thus undermined. The crowning 
Wow, however, was the discovery of the new sea-routes to India at the 
close of the century, by which its commerce was diverted to the Portuguese. 

History, VENICE. 39. Route. 237 

Yet 'the arts, which had meanwhile been silently developing, shed a 
glorious sunset over the waning glory of the mighty Republic'. 

The opening of the 16th cent, brought new losses. In 1503 Venice 
signed a humiliating peace with Bajazet II., to whom she ceded the whole 
of the Morea. The League of Cambrai, formed by the Pope, the Emperor, 
and the kings of France and Aragon against Venice in 1508, and the victory 
of the French at Agnadello in 1509 occasioned serious losses to the Republic. 
The wars between Emp. Charles V. and Francis I. of France (1521-30) were 
also prejudicial to Venice, but her power was most seriously impaired by 
her continuous struggle against the Osmans. In 1540 she lost Kauplia, the 
islands of Chios , Paros , and others , and in 1571 Cyprus also , notwith- 
standing its brave defence by Bragadino. In the naval battle of Lepanto 
(1st Oct. 1571) the Venetian fleet distinguished itself greatly. In 1659 the 
island of Candia was conquered by the Turks. The Venetians however, 
under Francesco Morosini and Kbnigsmarck, were victorious in the Morea 
in 1681, and conquered Coron, Patras, Corinth, etc. ; in 1696 and 1698 they 
again defeated the Turkish fleets, and by the Peace of Carlowitz in 1709 
they regained the Morea ; but in 1715 the Turks reconquered the peninsula, 
and in 1718 were confirmed in their possession by the Peace of Passarowitz. 

From this period Venice ceases to occupy a prominent position in 
history. She retained her N. Italian possessions only, remained neutral 
in every war, and continued to decline in power. On the outbreak of the 
French Revolution Venice at first stoutly opposed the new principles; on 
the victorious advance of the French she endeavoured to preserve her 
neutrality , and repeatedly rejected Bonaparte's proposals of alliance. 
Irritated by this opposition, he broke off his negotiations and took possession 
of the city on 16th May, 1797. The last doge was Lodovico Manin (1788-97). 
By the Peace of Campo Formio (1797) Venetia was assigned to Austria, by 
that of Pressburg (1805) to the kingdom of Italy, and in 1814 to Austria. 
At length in 1848 Venice declared herself a Republic under the presidency 
of Daniele Manin ; but after a siege of 15 months it was taken by Radetzky 
in Aug. 1849. Lastly, the war of 1866 led to the union of Venetia with the 
kingdom of Italy. 

In the History of Art Venice has shown herself as independent of 
the mainland as in situation and political history. The surprise of the 
traveller who beholds Venice for the first time , even after having seen 
the rest, of Italy, will also be felt by those who study her art. The earliest 
monuments of Venice at once betray the fact that her greatness was 
founded on her Oriental commerce. The church of St. Mark is in the 
Byzantine style , the oldest mosaics bear a Byzantine impress , and the 
same type is observable in other branches of art. The Palazzi Farsetti, 
Loredan, and Zorzi, and the Fondaco dei Turchi are Romanesque. Even 
during the period of Gothic Art the Venetians differed in their style from 
the rest of Italy, although several architects from the mainland (including 
perhaps Niccolb Pisano) appear to have aided in building their churches. 
Their palaces, which, as generally in Upper Italy, are the chief Gothic 
buildings, possess a still more marked individuality, and foremost among 
them is that of the Doges. They possess a large entrance colonnade ; a 
loggia (portego) on the upper floor with windows close together in the 
middle; wings chiefly used for painting; and everywhere a wealth of de- 
coration and colour. Such are the Ca d'Oro and the Palazzo Foscari. 
Still more zealously did the Venetians cultivate the Renaissance Archi- 
tecture, naturalised at the end of the 15th century. In point of size the 
early-Renaissance buildings in Venice bear no comparison with those of 
Tuscany, but they are more richly decorated, and retain the articulation 
peculiar to the earliest period. At a later period Venetian architecture 
may justly boast of holding out against the rococo style longer than Central 
Italy. Chief among Venetian architects were several of the Lombardi family, 
Jacopo Sansovino of Florence (1477-1570), Antonio da Ponte, and lastly Andrea 
Palladio of Vicenza (1518-80) , who inaugurated a new era , especially in 
church-architecture , by limiting the facade to a single range of massive 
columns. Palladio's chief successors were Scamozzi and Longhena. 

In the province of Sculpture the creator of the statuary on the Palace 

238 Route 39. VENICE. History. 

of the Doges (perhaps Fit. Calendario) was the most famous of the middle 
ages. From the middle of the 15th cent, onwards the growing taste for 
monumental tombs gave abundant employment to the sculptors, and led to 
the execution of those magnificent monuments which still fill the churches 
of Venice. The names of the Bregni or Rizzi, of the Lombardi (probably 
not natives), and of Alessandro Leopardo are the most important. At a 
later period Jacopo Sansovino, sculptor and architect, was the leading 
master. His works, though often designed for pictorial effect, are more 
pleasing than those of Michael Angelo's school. His pupils were Girolamo 
Campagna and Alessandro Vittoria (d. 1608). 

Venetian Painting did not begin to attract universal attention till 
the beginning of the 16th century. In the 14th cent, it was far inferior 
to that of other Italian schools, and though Giotto was engaged in the 
neighbouring town of Padua, it remained unaffected by his influence. In 
1419 Gentile da Fabriano and Pisanello were invited to Venice to decorate 
the doges' palace. In the 15th cent, the most noted masters were Giovanni 
(also named Alamannus), Antonio , and Bartolommeo Vivarini , known as 
the Muranesi. An event of great importance, about 1473, was the visit 
of Antonello da Messina, who introduced painting in oils, the best method 
for giving scope to the Venetian love of colour. The Paduan style, as 
developed by Squarcione, was afterwards more or less zealously adopted 
by the Venetian masters Carlo Crivelli, Jacopo Bellini, father-in-law of Man- 
tegna, and others. Of pure Venetian type must be mentioned Giovanni 
Bellini (1426-1516; a son of Jacopo, like Gentile, 1421-1507), who may be 
regarded, both in composition